In Jainism, a tīrtha is used to refer both to pilgrimage sites as well as to the four sections of the sangha. A tirtha provides the inspiration to enable one to cross over from worldly engagement to the side of moksha. Jain tirthas are located throughout India. A tirtha has a number of temples as well as residences for the pilgrims and wandering monks and scholars. Tirtha sites include: Siddhakshetras or site of moksha liberation of an arihant or Tirthankaras like Ashtapada Hill, Girnar, Palitana, Mangi-Tungi and Champapuri Atishayakshetras where divine events have occurred like Mahavirji, Kundalpur, Aharji etc. Puranakshetras associated with lives of great men like Ayodhya, Vidisha and Rajgir Gyanakshetra: associated with famous acharyas or centers of learning like Mohankheda and Ladnu Geographically, the tirthas are divided into six quarters: North India: Hastinapur and Ashtapada South India: Shravanabelagola, Moodabidri, Anantnath Swami Temple, Gummileru Eastern India: Shikharji, Champapuri, Pundravardhana Western India: Palitana, Mount Abu, Shankheshwar, Mahudi Central India: Vidisha, Sonagiri, Muktagiri Overseas: Siddhachalam, Nava Ashtapada, Siddhayatan Jain temple Vividha Tirtha Kalpa Tirtha jainuniversity.org, Jain Tirtha all over India http://www.jainteerth.com http://tirth.jinvani.com http://www.jainpilgrimages.com http://www.jaintirths.com http://www.siddhayatan.org First Hindu-Jain Tirth in North America http://www.jainheritagecentres.com Shri Nageshwar Parshwanath Jain Tirth Darshan on jainreligion.in
Padmaprabha known as Padmaprabhu, was the sixth Jain Tirthankara of the present age. According to Jain beliefs, he became a siddha - a liberated soul which has destroyed all of its karma. In the Jain tradition, it is believed that Padmaprabha was born to King Shridhar and Queen Susimadevi in the Ikshvaku dynasty at Kausambi, in today's Uttar Pradesh, India. Padmaprabha means ‘bright as a red lotus’ in Sanskrit, it is said in Śvetāmbara sources that his mother had a fancy for a couch of red lotuses – padma – while he was in her womb. His birth date was the twelfth day of the Kartik krishna month of the Indian calendar. On the eleventh day of the dark half of the month of Margashirsh, Bhagwan Padmaprabha, along with other 308 saints was liberated and attained moksha on Sammet Shikhar. Maharaja Aparajit ruled over Susima town located in Dhatki realm in Purvavideh region in Vatsa country, he was a religious person. He got detached after listening to the discourse of an Arihant and took diksha from Acharya Pihitashrava.
As a result of long spiritual practices, he earned Tirthankar-nama-gotra-karma. Completing his age, he reincarnated as a god in the Graiveyak realm. From the realm of gods, the being, Aparajit descended into the womb of queen Susima, wife of the king of Kaushambi. One day, queen Susima had a desire to sleep on a bed made up of lotus flowers; as this was a desire of a pregnant mother, the gods made arrangements for its fulfillment. On Krishna Dwadashi of the month of Kartik, the queen gave birth to a son; the new born had a soft pink glow like lotus flowers. The king named him as "Padmaprabha". In due course, the prince was married; when his father left for spiritual practices, Padmaprabh ascended the throne. After a long and successful reign, when through his threefold knowledge he knew that the right moment has come, he became an ascetic. After six months of spiritual practices, on the full moon day of the month of Chaitra he attained omniscience under a banyan tree. Propagating right religion for a long time, Bhagavan Padmaprabh wandered around and at last arrived at Sammetshikhar.
He attained Nirvana on the eleventh day of the dark half of the month of Margshirsh. Padmaprabha is associated with Red Lotus emblem, Chatrabha tree, Manovega & Mangupta Yaksha and Syama Achyuta Yakshi. Padampura Jain Temple, Rajasthan Mahudi Jain Temple, Gujarat Padampura God in Jainism Arihant Jainism and non-creationism Johnson, Helen M. Padmaprabhacaritra, Baroda Oriental Institute Krishna, Nanditha.
Parikrama or Pradakshina refers to circumambulation of sacred places to imbibe their energy in Sikh, Jain or Buddhist context, the path along which this is performed. Parikrama means "the path surrounding something" in Sanskrit, is known as Pradakshina, representing circumambulation. Both words are used in the context of religious deities in a temple, sacred rivers, sacred hills and a close cluster of temples, "doing a parikrama" as a symbol of prayer is an integral part of Hindu worship. In Hinduism and other Indian religions, the Parikrama inside temples or sacred sites is traditionally clockwise. Most Hindu temple structures include various Pradakshina paths. Pradakshina paths are defined. As: Circumbulatory or pathway around the shrine of the temples by keeping time is a common form of prayer in India, it includes Shetrunjaya, Girnar. This pathway made of stone around the shrine is called Pradakshina path. There could be one surrounding the main deity, other paths could be broader being concentric to the main path.
However, it is not uncommon to find non-concentric parikrama paths in a single temple structure. At times the outermost parikrama path covers the whole village/town/city, thereby implying that the length of the path can stretch. Parikrama is done around Tulsi plant and Peepal tree. Parikrama of Agni or Agni Pradakshina is a part of the Hindu marriage ceremony; some of the Parikramas are Narmada River, Govardhan hill, Vraj Mandala, Dwadash Madhav parikrama Tirthraj Prayag, Girnar, Chitrakoot hill, Varanasi and Mathura-Vrindavan yugalabandi in Kartik..... Parikrama is done after the completion of traditional worship and after paying homage to the deity. Parikrama is supposed to be done with a meditative mood; the pathway made of granite stone around the shrine is called the Pradakshina path. Pradakshina around the sacred fire is a part of the Hindu marriage ceremony. Parikrama is practiced in Buddhism and Sikhism. In Buddhism circumambulation or pradakhshina has been an important ritual since early times.
Sacred structures such as stupa or images have a pradakhshina path around them. The chaitya is a distinct ancient type of building that only survives in Indian rock-cut architecture, a hall with a stupa at the far end, always built with a rounded apse-like end, to allow pradakhshina. A mandapa, added in the front transforms the original stupa into the stupa shrine — as a sacred entity which requires a circumambulatory path around it for the purpose of worship; the whole structure is planned in such a way that it becomes the centre of the mandala and symbolically represents Mount Meru. Buddhist faithful may perform pradakhshina by prostrating themselves at every step, thus prolonging the process; the most extreme pradakhshina is that of the sacred Mount Kailash in Tibet, a mountain trek some 52 km long, at altitudes between 15,000 ft and 18,200 ft. This may be undertaken by Hindus and Jains, some pilgrims progress by prostration, taking some weeks. Like Parikrama in Hinduism, Muslims perform circumambulation around Kaaba during their Hajj which they call tawaf.
The circumambulation during Hajj is done in a counterclockwise manner. Hindu and Buddhist traditions, in contrast, circumambulate sacred site clockwise; the only exception is during paying last respects to a dead body during a cremation or event marking a funeral, where the traditional circumambulation in Indian religions is counter-clockwise. A legend related to goddess Parvati and her two sons illustrates the importance of Pradakshina or Parikrama, it is said that the goddess asked her two sons to circumambulate the universe to gain worldly knowledge. While her first son Kartikeyan spent decades to go round the world on his peacock, his second son Ganesha walked a full circle around his mother and justified his action by stating that the World was contained within the figure of the mother; this legend justifies the importance that Hindus attach to the practice of Parikrama, the importance of motherhood in Hindu psychology. Another version of the same story replaces the figure of Parvati with Shiva himself.
In Shiva temples, the devotees start the Pradakshina as usual from the front and go clockwise till they reach the gomukhi from the Sanctum Sanctorum. As usual the clockwise perambulation is maintained outside of the Bali stones; the drainage outlet for the ritual ablution offered on the Shiva Linga with water, curd, coconut water, ashes etc. is not to be crossed. So the worshippers have to return in anti-clockwise direction till they reach the other side of the drainage outlet to complete the circle. During this anti-clockwise perambulation, the devotee should tread a path inside of the Bali stones; the Bali stones are always to be kept the right side of the devotees. After reaching the drainage oulet, they have to return to the front in the clockwise direction keeping the path outside the Bali stones, thus one Pradakshina is completed. In the temple city of Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh, Panchkosi Parikrama is performed over a two-day period. Devotees first take a holy dip in the Saryu River and do a Parikrama of 15 km along the periphery of the city.
It is said that over two hundred thousand devotees including around 50 thousand sadhus from Prayag, Haridwar and Kashi participate in the parikrama, full security arrangements are made for the religious occasion. Lili Parikrama or Girnar Parikrama is a seven-day festival held at Mount Girnar in Junagadh district of Gujarat, India; the pilgrimage involves a climb of 10,000 steps to reach the top to the sac
Giridih is headquarters of the Giridih district of Jharkhand state, India. The literal meaning of Giridih is the land of hills and hillocks – giri, a Hindi word, means hills and dih, another word of the local dialect, indicates land of. Before 1972, Giridih was part of Hazaribagh district. Giridih is a centre of the prestigious Indian Statistical Institute. Giridih is one of the six Data Processing Centres of Data Processing Division of National Sample Survey Office. Giridh district was a part of Kharagdiha estate till the late 18th century. During the British Raj Giridih became a part of Jungle Terry. After Kol Uprising in 1831, the parganas of Ramgarh, Kharagdiha and Kunda became parts of the South-West Frontier Agency and were formed into a division named Hazaribag as the administrative headquarters. Giridih district was created on 6 December 1972 by carving some parts of Hazaribagh district. In 1999 part of it became Bokaro district, it is a part of the Red Corridor. Land of Giridih is rich in coal, once Giridih was boomed by mica industry which exported to Japan.
There are many big mines of coal found in Giridih. Giridih is located at 24.18°N 86.3°E / 24.18. It has an average elevation of 289 metres. Śrī Sammeta Shikharji known as the Parasnath Hills, located in Giridih is the highest mountain peak in Jharkhand. It is a conical granite peak located 4,477 feet above the sea level. Giridih District is geographically divided into two natural divisions, which are the central plateau and lower plateau; the central plateau touches the western portion of the district near Bagodar block. The lower plateaus have an average height of 1300 feet. In the north and north-west, the lower plateaus form level tablelands until they reach the ghats when they drop to about 700 feet; the district has vast forests. Sal tree is the most predominant trees here. Among other common trees are bamboo, Mahua, kusum, Asian pear and bhelwa. Giridih district is divided into two main water heads -- Usri rivers. Giridih is rich in mineral resources and has several large coal fields with one of the best qualities of metallurgical coal in India.
Mica is found in abundance near the blocks Gawan. Mica is of importance not only to India and other countries as well; the climate of Giridih is dry. It is pleasant during winter season between March. Summer season starting April, is hot, with May being hottest when temperature rises up to 47C. High temperature is accompanied by high humidity levels, specially during June when premonsoon rain falls, it rains maximum during July and August, rainy season continues up to mid October. Nageshwar Prasad Sinha was the first MP from Giridih, when the town declared as separate district from Hazaribagh. Ravindra Kumar Pandey from the Bharatiya Janata Party won the Indian general election, 2014 from Giridih and is the present Member of Parliament. Giridih city forms the Giridih. Sri Nirbhay Shahabadiis the current MLA of Giridih Giridih is connected by Road and Rail link. Giridih Station is connected to Madhupur Junction located 38 km to the east by a single broad gauge railway line. There is a single passenger train which runs five times a day between the two stations and takes about an hour to reach Giridih.
Parasnath Station, on the Howrah-Delhi grand chord line, is 48 km from Giridih towards the west. The Giridih station is under the administration of the Asansol division of the Eastern Railway zone of Indian Railways. There is a direct train service from Giridih to Kolkata and Patna Railway line between Koderma and Giridih is about to be completed, presently train is ferrying twice between Koderma and Kowar. In few years to come it will reach Giridih Cit One new rail line is proposed between Giridih and Parasnath which will cater to the needs of locals and Jain Tourists coming to Madhuban, Parasnath; the NH 19 /Grand Trunk Road passes through Giridih district but away from the city. Giridih has a bus terminus in the center of the town; the bus stand is divided into platforms for private buses. A Government Bus terminus is just adjacent to the main bus terminus. There are regular bus services from the city to other parts in the district. Bus service to Dhanbad, Hazaribagh, Asansol, Kolkata, Patna and Jamshedpur is available.
Private cars and taxi facilities are available in the city. Other transport is trekkers, autos and mini buses. By air, there is a landing airstrip known as Boro aerodrom at the district headquarters of Giridih. Giridih is well connected to some of the popular airports of Bihar and West Bengal and they are: Birsa Munda Airport, Ranchi 155 kilometres Gaya Airport 169 kilometres Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport, Patna 223 kilometres Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport, Kolkata 309 kilometres As of 2011 India census, Giridih had a population of 143,529, it is the 8th largest city of jharkhand. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Giridih has an average literacy rate of 69%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. In Giridih, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age; the language spoken is known as Khortha.( This town used to bustle with economic activity in the period from the 1960s to 1980s when the mineral mica processing and export community reaped tremendous gains through exports to the USSR.
However, since the decline of the USSR and its split into twelve CIS countries, the industry has slo
Kunthunath was the seventeenth Tirthankara, sixth Chakravartin and twelfth Kamadeva of the present half time cycle, Avasarpini. According to Jain beliefs, he became a siddha, a liberated soul which has destroyed all of its karma. Kunthunatha was born to King Sura and Queen Sridevi at Hastinapur in the Ikshvaku dynasty on the fourteenth day of the Vaishakh Krishna month of the Indian calendar. Kunthu means heap of Jewels. According to the Jain belief, he was born in 27,695,000 BC, Like all other Chakravartin, he conquered all the lands and went to write his name on the foothills of mountains. Seeing the names of other Chakravartin there, he saw his ambitions dwarfed, he renounced his throne and became an ascetic for penance. At an age of 95,000 years he liberated his soul and attained Moksha on Mount Shikharji. Prachin Bada Mandir, Uttar Pradesh Ganigitti Jain temple, Hampi Kunthunath Temple at Jaisalmer Fort in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan God in Jainism Arihant Jainism and non-creationism Johnson, Helen M. Kunthusvsmicaritra, Baroda Oriental Institute von Glasenapp, Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1376-6 Tukol, T.
K. Compendium of Jainism, Dharwad: University of Karnataka Forlong, Major-General J. G. R. Short Studies in the Science of Comparative Religions, 15 Piccadilly, London: B. Quaritch, Not in Copyright Tandon, Om Prakash, Jaina Shrines in India, New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, ISBN 81-230-1013-3
Vasupujya Swami was the twelfth tirthankara in Jainism of the avasarpini. According to Jain beliefs, he became a siddha, a liberated soul which has destroyed all of its karma. Vasupujya was born to Queen Jaya Devi at Champapuri in the Ikshvaku dynasty, his birth date was the fourteenth day of the Falgun Krishna month of the Indian calendar. He never remained a celibate, he attained Kevala Jnana within one month of Tapsya and Moksha at Champapuri, of North Bengal in India on the fourteenth day of the bright half of the month of Ashadh. Vasupujya Swami was the 12th tirthankara in Jainism of the Avasarpini. According to Jain beliefs, he became a siddha, a liberated soul which has destroyed all of its karma. Vasupujya was born to Queen Jaya Devi at Champapuri in the Ikshvaku dynasty, his birth date was the fourteenth day of the Falgun Krishna month of the Indian calendar. He never remained a celibate, he attained Kevala Jnana within one month of Tapsya and Moksha at Champapuri, of in India on the fourteenth day of the bright half of the month of Ashadh.
The second Vasudeva, was his devotee. He and his brother Baldeva Shrivijay conquered Prativasudeva Tark and brought his oppressive rule to an end. Shrivijay joined the ascetic order of Lord Vasupujya. Jain temple, Kerala Champapur The tallest statue of Vasupujya, 31 feet in height, was inaugurated at Nathnagar Temple, Bhagalpur, Bihar in 2014; the statue was constructed and donated by Smt Sona Devi Sethi Charitable Trust, based at Phulchand Sethi complex Dimapur. God in Jainism Arihant Jainism and non-creationism Johnson, Helen M. Vasupujyacaritra, Baroda Oriental Institute Tukol, T. K. Compendium of Jainism, Dharwad: University of Karnataka Jain, Arun Kumar, Faith & Philosophy of Jainism, Gyan Publishing House, ISBN 9788178357232, retrieved 2017-10-08 Tandon, Om Prakash, Jaina Shrines in India, New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, ISBN 81-230-1013-3