A yorishiro in Shinto terminology is an object capable of attracting spirits called kami, thus giving them a physical space to occupy during religious ceremonies. Yorishiro are used during ceremonies to call the kami for worship; the word itself means approach substitute. Once a yorishiro houses a kami, it is called a shintai. Ropes called shimenawa decorated with paper streamers called shide surround yorishiro to make their sacredness manifest. Persons can play the same role as a yorishiro, in that case are called yorimashi or kamigakari. To many they are the natural residence of kami in the case of Japan. Yorishiro and their history are intimately connected with the birth of Shinto shrines. Early Japanese did not have the notion of anthropomorphic deities, felt the presence of spirits in nature and its phenomena. Mountains, rain, wind and sometimes animals were thought to be charged with spiritual power, the material manifestations of this power were worshiped as kami, entities closer in their essence to Polynesian mana.
Village councils sought the advice of kami and developed the yorishiro, tools that attracted kami acting like a lightning rod. Yorishiro were conceived to attract the kami and give them a physical space to occupy to make them accessible to human beings for ceremonies, still their purpose today. Village council sessions were held in a quiet spot in the mountains or in a forest near a great tree, rock or other natural object that served as a yorishiro; these sacred places and their yorishiro evolved into the shrines of today. The first buildings at shrines were just huts built to house some yorishiro. A trace of this origin can be found in the term hokura meaning "deity storehouse", which evolved into hokora, one of the earliest words for a shrine. Most of the sacred objects we find today in shrines were yorishiro, only became kami themselves by association; the most common yorishiro are swords, ritual staffs decorated with paper streamers called gohei, comma-shaped jewels called magatama, large rocks (iwasaka or iwakura, sacred trees.
Kami dwell in unusually shaped rocks or trees, or in caves and earth mounds. Yorishiro can be persons, in that case they are called yorimashi; because of Shinto's nature, yorishiro are natural objects like trees. In ancient Japanese texts the words 神社 and 社 were sometimes read as yashiro, but sometimes read as mori, reflecting the fact that the earliest shrines were sacred groves or forests where kami were present. Many shrines still have on their grounds one of the original great yorishiro, a great tree surrounded by a sacred rope called shimenawa. Now such trees have become divine by association, no longer represent a kami. Shinto altars called himorogi are just square areas demarcated with sakaki at the corners supporting sacred border ropes. A branch of sakaki at the center is erected as a yorishiro. Rock sects are common. An iwakura is a rock formation where a kami is invited to descend, is therefore holy ground. With time, through a process of association, the iwakura itself can come to be considered divine.
Archeological research in Japan confirms these sects to be ancient. In shrines today stones considered to be related to the shrine's kami are used to make food offerings to the kami. An iwasaka is a stone mound erected as a yorishiro to call a kami for worship; the concepts of iwasaka and iwakura are so close that some suggest the two words are in fact synonymous. Yorishiro are, most numerous in people's homes. During the New Year's holidays people decorate their entrances with kadomatsu, which are the yorishiro of the new year's kami. Kamifuda, pieces of paper representing the kami, are hung above the door. There are kami who dwell in the well; the kamado-gami lives in the oven, its function is to protect the house from fires. Other common yorishiro are the small altar called kamidana and the butsudan, an altar for the dead.. In shops one sees clay cats with a raised paw called maneki-neko or rake-like bamboo objects called kumade supposed to attract good business. Himorogi Shintai Anito Balete tree Nakamaki, Hirochika.
"The "Separate" Coexistence of Kami and Hotoke - A Look at Yorishiro". Retrieved 2008-10-22. Okada, Yoshiyuki. "Yorishiro". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2008-07-18. Sugiyama, Shigetsugu. "Iwakura". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2008-07-18. Sugiyama, Shigetsugu. "Iwasaka". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2008-07-18. Sugiyama, Shigetsugu. "Himorogi". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 2008-07-18. Tamura, Yoshiro. Japanese Buddhism - A Cultural History. Tokyo: Kosei Publishing Company. P. 21. ISBN 4-333-01684-3
Saekki is a rope made of woven straw. It was an important household item used in pre-modern agricultural Korea. Grey stoneware from the Proto–Three Kingdoms era demonstrates evidence of saekki. Ceramic sculptures of jipsin from Silla indicates the usage of saekki in this period. During the Joseon era, sakgye was one of the gonggye that had monopolistic rights for supplying government requirements. An early 19th century book, Mangi yoram, records the use of saekki as binding ropes for fabrics and papers to be delivered to Qing China as tribute. During the Japanese forced occupation, a large amount of saekki along with gamani were looted for military use by the Imperial Japanese Army. Saekki was used until the 1960s. In the 1970s, the use of saekki waned with the spread of plastic and synthetic fiber ropes. Saekki has faced a resurgence at the end of the 20th century due to growing interest in traditional handicraft in recent decades. Saekki was used to make common items such as jipsin, gamani and goppi.
It was used as geumjul to ward off malignant influences in Korean folk religion. Shimenawa
Hemp, or industrial hemp found in the northern hemisphere, is a strain of the Cannabis sativa plant species, grown for the industrial uses of its derived products. It is one of the fastest growing plants and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago, it can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, clothing, biodegradable plastics, insulation, biofuel and animal feed. Although cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp both derive from the species Cannabis sativa and contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol, they are distinct strains with unique phytochemical compositions and uses. Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabidiol, which decreases or eliminates its psychoactive effects; the legality of industrial hemp varies between countries. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and permit only hemp, bred with an low THC content; the etymology is uncertain but there appears to be no common Proto-Indo-European source for the various forms of the word.
It appears to have been borrowed into Latin, separately into Slavic and from there into Baltic and Germanic languages. Following Grimm's law, the "k" would have changed to "h" with the first Germanic sound shift, after which it may have been adapted into the Old English form, hænep. However, this theory assumes that hemp was not spread among different societies until after it was being used as a psychoactive drug, which Adams and Mallory believe to be unlikely based on archaeological evidence. Barber however, argued that the spread of the name "kannabis" was due to its more recent drug use, starting from the south, around Iran, whereas non-THC varieties of hemp are older and prehistoric. Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, the name for a source of oil and medicine in the 1st millennium BC. Cognates of hemp in other Germanic languages include Dutch hennep and Norwegian hamp, German Hanf, Swedish hampa. Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products including rope, clothing, food, bioplastics and biofuel.
The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are blended with other fibers, such as flax, cotton or silk, as well as virgin and recycled polyester, to make woven fabrics for apparel and furnishings. The inner two fibers of the plant are more woody and have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter; when oxidized, hemp oil from the seeds becomes solid and can be used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird feed mix as well. A survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the European Union was used in animal and bird feed. Hemp seeds can be sprouted or made into dried sprout powder. Hemp seeds can be made into a liquid and used for baking or for beverages such as hemp milk and tisanes. Hemp oil is high in unsaturated fatty acids; the leaves of the hemp plant, while not as nutritional as the seeds, are edible and can be consumed raw as leafy vegetables in salads, pressed to make juice.
In 2011, the U. S. imported $11.5 million worth of hemp products driven by growth in the demand for hemp seed and hemp oil for use as ingredients in foods such as granola. In the UK, the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs treats hemp as a purely non-food crop, but with proper licensing and proof of less than 0.2% THC concentration, hemp seeds can be imported for sowing or for sale as a food or food ingredient. In the U. S. imported hemp can be used in food products and, as of 2000, was sold in health food stores or through mail order. A 100-gram portion of hulled hemp seeds supplies 586 calories, they contain 5% water, 5% carbohydrates, 49% total fat, 31% protein. Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value of protein per 100-gram serving. Hemp seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber, B vitamins, the dietary minerals manganese, magnesium and iron. About 73% of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids.
Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk and soy. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores, which attempt to measure the degree to which a food for humans is a "complete protein", were 0.49–0.53 for whole hemp seed, 0.46–0.51 for hempseed meal, 0.63–0.66 for hulled hempseed. Hemp oil oxidizes and turns rancid within a short period of time. Both light and heat can degrade hemp oil. Hemp fiber has been used extensively throughout history, with production climaxing soon after being introduced to the New World. For centuries, items ranging from rope, to fabrics, to industrial materials were made from hemp fiber. Hemp was commonly used to make sail canvas; the word "canvas" is derived from the word cannabis. Pure hemp has a texture similar to linen; because of its versatility for use in a variety of products, today hemp is used in a number of consumer goods, including clothing, accessories, dog collars, ho
Groundbreaking known as cutting, sod-cutting, turning the first sod or a sod-turning ceremony, is a traditional ceremony in many cultures that celebrates the first day of construction for a building or other project. Such ceremonies are attended by dignitaries such as politicians and businessmen; the actual shovel used during the groundbreaking is a special ceremonial shovel, sometimes colored gold, meant to be saved for subsequent display and may be engraved. The term groundbreaking, when used as an adjective, may mean being or making something that has never been done, seen, or made before. Builders' rites Topping out Cornerstone Publicity stunt Ribbon cutting ceremony Media related to Ground-breaking ceremonies at Wikimedia Commons
Shide is a zigzag-shaped paper streamer seen attached to shimenawa or tamagushi, used in Shinto rituals. A popular ritual is using a haraegushi, or "lightning wand", named for the zig-zag shide paper that adorns the wand. A similar wand, used by miko for purification and blessing, is the gohei with two shide. A Shinto priest waves the haraegushi over a person, item, or newly bought property, such as a building or car; the wand is waved at a slow rhythmic pace, but with a little force so that the shide strips make a rustling noise on each pass of the wand. For new properties, a similar ritual known as jijin sai is performed with a haraegushi, an enclosed part of the land, sake, or ritually purified sake known as o-miki; the haraegushi has been used for centuries in Shinto ceremonies and has similarities in Ainu culture. In Ainu culture, a shaved willow branch called an inaw or inau resembles the Shinto haraegushi, is used in similar blessing rituals. Media related to Shide at Wikimedia Commons
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science. The term had pejorative connotations, with things labelled magical perceived as being primitive and Other; the concept has been adopted by scholars in the study of religion and the social sciences, who have proposed various different—and mutually exclusive—definitions of the term. The term magic derives from the Old Persian magu, a word that applied to a form of religious functionary about which little is known. During the late sixth and early fifth centuries BCE, this term was adopted into Ancient Greek, where it was used with negative connotations, to apply to religious rites that were regarded as fraudulent and dangerous; this meaning of the term was adopted by Latin in the first century BCE. Via Latin, the concept was incorporated into Christian theology during the first century CE, where magic was associated with demons and thus defined against religion.
This concept was pervasive throughout the Middle Ages, when Christian authors categorised a diverse range of practices—such as enchantment, incantations, divination and astrology—under the label magic. In early modern Europe, Italian humanists reinterpreted the term in a positive sense to create the idea of natural magic. Both negative and positive understandings of the term were retained in Western culture over the following centuries, with the former influencing early academic usages of the word. Since the nineteenth century, academics in various disciplines have employed the term magic but have defined it in different ways and used it in reference to different things. One approach, associated with the anthropologists Edward Tylor and James G. Frazer, uses the term to describe beliefs in hidden sympathies between objects that allow one to influence the other. Defined in this way, magic is portrayed as the opposite to science. An alternative approach, associated with the sociologists Marcel Mauss and Émile Durkheim, employs the term to describe private rites and ceremonies and contrasts it with religion, which it defines as a communal and organised activity.
Many scholars of religion have rejected the utility of the term magic, arguing that it is arbitrary and ethnocentric. Throughout Western history, there have been examples of individuals who engaged in practices that their societies called magic and who sometimes referred to themselves as magicians. Within modern occultism, there are many self-described magicians and people who practice ritual activities that they term magic. In this environment, the concept of magic has again changed being defined as a technique for bringing about changes in the physical world through the force of one's will; this definition was pioneered by the influential British occultist Aleister Crowley. The historian Owen Davies stated that the word magic was "beyond simple definition"; the historian Michael D. Bailey characterised magic as "a contested category and a fraught label". Scholars have engaged in extensive debates as to how to define magic, with such debates resulting in intense dispute. Throughout such debates, the scholarly community has failed to agree on a definition of magic, in a similar manner to how they have failed to agree on a definition of religion.
Among those throughout history who have described themselves as magicians, there has been no common understanding of what magic is. Concepts of magic serve to demarcate certain practices from other, otherwise similar practices in a given society. According to Bailey: "In many cultures and across various historical periods, categories of magic define and maintain the limits of and culturally acceptable actions in respect to numinous or occult entities or forces. More they serve to delineate arenas of appropriate belief." In this, he noted that "drawing these distinctions is an exercise in power". The scholar of religion Randall Styers noted that attempting to define magic represents "an act of demarcation" by which it is juxtaposed against "other social practices and modes of knowledge" such as "religion" and "science"; the historian Karen Louise Jolly described magic as "a category of exclusion, used to define an unacceptable way of thinking as either the opposite of religion or of science".
Within Western culture, the term "magic" has been linked to ideas of the Other and primitivism. In Styers' words, it has become "a powerful marker of cultural difference", it has been presented as the archetypally non-modern phenomenon. Among Western intellectuals in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, magic was seen as a defining feature of "primitive" mentalities and was attributed to marginal groups and periods; the concept and term "magic" developed in European society and thus using it when discussing non-Western cultures or pre-modern forms of Western society raises problems, as it may impose Western categories that are alien to them. While "magic" remains an emic term in the history of Western societies, it remains an etic term when applied to non-Western societies. During the twentieth century, many scholars focusing on Asian and African societies rejected the term "magic", as well as related concepts like "witchcraft", in favour of the more precise terms and concepts that existed within these specific societie
Kanjo Nawa is a Japanese custom of stretching Shimenawa, a variety of laid rope, with fetishes hung at the border of a village. Michi Kiri is just a similar custom; the term Kanjo Nawa refers to the rope itself. In rural area around Japan, there remains the custom of enshrining the items such as ropes of straw and grass and straw sandals at the border of the village intended to prevent the evil such as an epidemic from entering the village, or to drive out the evil; the custom called Kanjo Nawa can be found around Kinki Region in Wakasa, Fukui Prefecture, in the east and south of Shiga Prefecture, in Iga, Mie Prefecture, in the east mountainous region of Nara Prefecture, in Minami-Yamashiro of Kyoto Prefecture. Kanjo Nawa is known as Kanjo Tsuri. Kanjo Nawa in Asukaji, Kyoto In Asukaji, in every January, villagers create Shimenawa, stretched over Nunome-Gawa River, running through the village, in order to pray for prosperity and safety. One person per household is supposed to attend the event.
Tsukurimono, imitating farming equipment, daily-life instrument or sexual organs, is hung on Shimenawa. It was recognized as Intangible Folk Cultural Properties in 1998. Shimenawa Michi Kiri - Similar custom Kanjo Nawa - explanation by the local government of Kasagi Town