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Shimon Peres

Shimon Peres was an Israeli politician who served as the ninth President of Israel, the Prime Minister of Israel, the Interim Prime Minister, in the 1970s to the 1990s. He was a member of twelve cabinets and represented five political parties in a political career spanning 70 years. Peres was elected to the Knesset in November 1959 and except for a three-month-long hiatus in early 2006, was in office continuously until he was elected President in 2007. At the time of his retirement in 2014, he was the world's oldest head of state and was considered the last link to Israel's founding generation. From a young age, he was renowned for his oratorical brilliance, was chosen as a protégé by David Ben-Gurion, Israel's founding father, he began his political career in the late 1940s, holding several diplomatic and military positions during and directly after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. His first high-level government position was as Deputy Director-General of Defense in 1952 which he attained at the age of 28, Director-General from 1953 until 1959.

In 1956, he took part in the historic negotiations on the Protocol of Sèvres described by British Prime Minister Anthony Eden as the "highest form of statesmanship". In 1963, he held negotiations with U. S. President John F. Kennedy, which resulted in the sale of Hawk anti-aircraft missiles to Israel, the first sale of U. S. military equipment to Israel. Peres represented Mapai, the Alignment and Kadima in the Knesset, led Alignment and Labor. Peres first succeeded Yitzhak Rabin as Acting Prime Minister during 1977, before becoming Prime Minister from 1984 to 1986; as Foreign Minister under Prime Minister Rabin, Peres engineered the 1994 Israel–Jordan peace treaty, won the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize together with Rabin and Yasser Arafat for the Oslo Accords peace talks with the Palestinian leadership. In 1996, he founded the Peres Center for Peace, which has the aim of "promot lasting peace and advancement in the Middle East by fostering tolerance and technological development and well-being." After suffering a stroke, Peres died on 28 September 2016 near Tel Aviv.

Peres was a polyglot, speaking Polish, English, Russian and Hebrew, although he never lost his Polish accent when speaking in Hebrew. In his private life, he was a poet and songwriter, writing stanzas during cabinet meetings, with some of his poems being recorded as songs in albums; as a result of his deep literary interests, he could quote from Hebrew prophets, French literature, Chinese philosophy with equal ease. Shimon Peres was born Szymon Perski, on 1 August 1923, in Wiszniew, Poland, to Yitzhak and Sara Perski; the family spoke Hebrew and Russian at home, Peres learned Polish at school. He learned to speak English and French, his father was a wealthy timber merchant branching out into other commodities. Peres had Gershon, he was related to the American film star Lauren Bacall, they were described as first cousins, but Peres said, "In 1952 or 1953, I came to New York... Lauren Bacall called me, said that she wanted to meet, we did. We sat and talked about where our families came from, discovered that we were from the same family... but I'm not sure what our relation is...

It was she who said that she was my cousin. Peres told Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson that he had been born as a result of a blessing his parents had received from a chassidic rebbe and that he was proud of it. Peres' grandfather, Rabbi Zvi Meltzer, a grandson of Rabbi Chaim Volozhin, had a great impact on his life. In an interview, Peres said: "As a child, I grew up in my grandfather's home. … I was educated by him. ... My grandfather taught, it was not as easy. My home was not an observant one. My parents were not Orthodox but I was Haredi. At one point, I heard my parents listening to the radio on the Sabbath and I smashed it." When he was a child, Peres was taken by his father to Radun to receive a blessing from Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan. As a child, Peres would say, "I did not dream of becoming president of Israel. My dream as a boy was to be a shepherd or a poet of stars." He inherited his love of French literature from his maternal grandfather. In 1932, Peres' father settled in Tel Aviv; the family followed him in 1934.

He attended Balfour Elementary School and High School, Geula Gymnasium in Tel Aviv. At 15, he lived on Kibbutz Geva for several years. Peres was one of the founders of Kibbutz Alumot. In 1941, he was elected Secretary of HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed, a Labor Zionist youth movement, in 1944 returned to Alumot, where he had an agricultural training and worked as a farmer and a shepherd. At age 20, he was elected to the HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed national secretariat, where he was only one of two Mapai party supporters, out of the 12 members. Three years he took over the movement and won a majority; the head of Mapai, David Ben-Gurion, Berl Katznelson began to take an interest in him, appointed him to Mapai's secretariat. In 1944, Peres led an illicit expedition into the Negev a closed military zone requiring a permit to enter; the expedition, consisting of a group of teenagers, along with a Palmach scout, a zoologist, an archaeologist, had been funded by Ben-Gurion and planned by Palmach head Yitzhak Sadeh, as part of a plan for future Jewish settlement of the area so as to include it in the Jew

Shinsen Station

Shinsen Station is a railway station on the Keio Inokashira Line in Shibuya, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Keio Corporation. Shinsen Station is served by the 12.7 km Keio Inokashira Line from Shibuya in Tokyo to Kichijōji. Located between Shibuya and Komaba-Tōdaimae, it is 0.5 km from the Shibuya terminus. Only all-stations "Local" services stop at this station; the station has two opposing side platforms at ground level on either side of the two tracks, which are side by side. The station building is built above the tracks. Although it is considered to be an above-ground station, most of the station is within a tunnel so it is somewhat like an underground station; the effective length of the platform was once only enough to accommodate three 18 m long train cars. As a result, the doors on two cars of trains coming from Kichijoji would not open; the ticket gate and station building on the Shibuya end of the station was simple, in contrast to the current station, which includes a store and entrance on the Shōtō side.

When the Keio 1000 series trains were introduced, which had 20-meter cars, the platform was extended by construction into the tunnel, starting on September 28, 1995, all doors on trains stopping at the station could open. During the period when the doors would not open, on the inside of the tunnel outside the unopening doors was written the words, "The doors here do not open". Along with the construction in 1995 of the tunnel, construction to renovate the station as a whole was begun and on December 2, 1996, the current station was opened. There are elevators between the ticket gates; the toilet is located on the upper level by the ticket gates. It includes a multi-purpose toilet, intended to as part of the station’s scheme of universal design; the station was selected for the "100 Stations of Kantō" feature by the former Ministry of Transport, now part of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Tourism. The station opened on August 1, 1933. From February 22, 2013, station numbering was introduced on Keio lines, with Shinsen Station becoming "IN02".

In fiscal 2011, the station was used by an average of 9,871 passengers daily. The passenger figures for previous years are as shown below. While rents are high in Shinsen, due to the close proximity to Shibuya, cheaper options are to be found nearer the Dogenzaka side of the station, predominantly made up of apartments for single occupants; this area was well known for its love hotels, though in recent years the area has been redeveloped due to a string of trendy new restaurants and izakayas. Shinsen is host to a burgeoning artistic community with galleries and studios. Shinsen Station information

Du Shi

Du Shi was a Chinese inventor, mechanical engineer and politician of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Du Shi is credited with being the first to apply hydraulic power to operate bellows in metallurgy, his invention was used to operate piston-bellows of the blast furnace and cupola furnace in order to forge cast iron, known in China since the 6th century BC. He worked as a censorial officer and administrator of several places during the reign of Emperor Guangwu of Han, he led a brief military campaign in which he eliminated a small bandit army under Yang Yi. Although the year of his birth is uncertain, it is known that Du Shi was born in Henei, Henan province. Du Shi became an Officer of Merit in his local commandery before receiving an appointment in 23 as a government clerk under Gengshi Emperor, following the revolt against the Xin Dynasty usurper Wang Mang. However, Du soon after swore his allegiance to Emperor Guangwu of Han, considered the true founder of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Under Emperor Guangwu, Du Shi was appointed as an officer in the Censorate and was in charge of monitoring affairs and upholding law and order within the new capital at Luoyang.

When the undisciplined troops of the military officer Xiao Guang ran rampant in the capital city and terrorized its inhabitants without any perceivable action on Xiao's part to prevent it, Du Shi had him arrested. Du had Xiao summarily executed without explicit consent from the throne, sending in a report of the event only after the execution. Guangwu was not displeased with this, as he called him into court to grant him an insignia which justified his actions. Shortly after this event, the bandit leader Yang Yi caused a major disturbance in Hedong Commandery, which Du Shi was sent to quell; when word of the arrival of Du Shi's forces in the region, Yang Yi planned to flee across the Yellow River. However, Du Shi anticipated this, sending a raiding party to burn the boats Yang Yi intended to use for his escape. After conscripting troops from Hedong Commandery, Du Shi led a surprise ambush with a cavalry unit that dispersed Yang's bandits and annihilated them. For three years, Du served as a county magistrate in Henan province where his administration gained wide acclaim from provincial authorities.

Afterwards, Du distinguished himself as a Commandant in Runan. In 31 he was appointed as an administrator over Nanyang. While serving there, he had an array of dykes and canals built for land reclamation and growth of local agriculture, it is here that he developed a water-powered reciprocator for bellows in smelting cast iron, a machine which saved an enormous amount of physical labor. It is recorded that the locals were so fond of him that they referred to him as "Mother Du" and compared him to noteworthy figures of history, such as Shao Xinchen of the Western Han era. Du Shi was by all means a local administrator, yet he made recommendations to the imperial court on policy issues, he recommended. This was a means for imperial authorities to check possible official corruption in the forgery of mobilization of troops for war. Du nominated several minor officials he deemed worthy as candidates for higher posts in the capital, including Fu Zhang. In a memorial of 37, he urged the court to consider Fu as the next Imperial Secretary.

Du Shi's reputation was somewhat stymied in 38 when he was accused of having one of his retainers sent to kill a man out of vengeance for his brother. In that same year, Du died. Despite Du's long-standing official career, the Director of Retainers Bao Yong reported that no proper funeral ceremony could be arranged for Du, since Du was nearly broke when he died. However, the Emperor had an imperial edict made which granted Du a proper funeral ceremony at his commandery residence in the capital, along with silk to pay for the expenditures; the engineer and statesman Du Shi is mentioned in the Book of Later Han as follows: Donald B. Wagner writes that there is no remaining physical evidence of the bellows which Du Shi used, so modern scholars are still unable to determine whether or not they were made of leather or giant wooden fans as described in the 14th century; the historical text Sanguo Zhi records the use of both human labor and horse-power to operate metallurgic bellows of a blast furnace before water-power was applied.

It records that the engineer and Prefect of Luoling Han Ji reinvented a similar water-powered bellows that Du Shi had earlier pioneered. Two decades after this, it is recorded that another design for water-powered bellows was created by Du Yu. In the 5th-century text of the Wu Chang Ji, its author Pi Ling wrote that a planned, artificial lake had been constructed in the Yuanjia reign period for the sole purpose of powering water wheels aiding the smelting and casting processes of the Chinese iron industry; the 5th-century text Shui Jing Zhu mentions the use of rushing river water to power waterwheels, as does the Tang Dynasty geography text of the Yuanhe Jun Xian Tu Chi, written in 814 AD. Although Du Shi is the first historical figure to apply water power to metallurgic bellows, the oldest extant Chinese illustration depicting such a device in operation can be seen in a picture of the Nong Shu, printed by 1313 AD during the Yuan Dynasty of China; the text was written by Wang Zhen, who explained the methods used for a water-powered blast-furnace: Antipater of Thessalonica List of Chinese people Trip hammer de Crespigny, Rafe