1.
Chinese name
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Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora overseas. Prior to the 20th century, educated Chinese also utilized a courtesy name or style name called zi by which they were known among those outside of their family and closest friends. From at least the time of the Shang dynasty, the Han Chinese observed a number of naming taboos regulating who may or may not use a given name. In general, using the given name connoted the speakers authority, peers and younger relatives were barred from speaking it. Owing to this, many historical Chinese figures – particularly emperors – used a half-dozen or more different names in different contexts and those possessing names identical to the emperors were frequently forced to change them. Although some terms in the ancient Chinese naming system, such as xìng and míng, are used today, they were used in different. Commoners possessed only a name, and the modern concept of a surname or family name did not yet exist at any level of society.3 billion citizens. In fact, just the top three – Wang, Li, and Zhang – cover more than 20% of the population. This homogeneity results from the majority of Han family names having only one character. Chinese surnames arose from two separate traditions, the xìng and the shì. The original xìng were clans of royalty at the Shang court, the shì did not originate from families, but denoted fiefs, states, and titles granted or recognized by the Shang court. Apart from the Jiang and Yao families, the original xìng have nearly disappeared, xìng is now used to describe the shì surnames which replaced them, while shì is used to refer to maiden names. The enormous modern clans sometimes share ancestral halls with one another, nonetheless, however tenuous these bonds sometimes are, it remains a minor taboo to marry someone with the same family name. In modern mainland China, it is the norm that a woman keeps her name unchanged. A child usually inherits his/her fathers surname, though the law explicitly states that a child may use either parents or the grandparents. It is also possible, though far less common, for a child to both parents surnames. In the older generations, it was common for a married woman to prepend her husbands surname to her own. This practice is now almost extinct in mainland China, though there are a few such as the name change of Gu Kailai, but survives in some Hong Kong, Macau
2.
Chinese surname
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Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Vietnam and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing or lineage names, and shi or clan names, Chinese family names are patrilineal, passed from father to children. Women do not normally change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong, traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous. The colloquial expressions laobaixing and bǎixìng are used in Chinese to mean ordinary folks, prior to the Warring States period, only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. Historically there was also a difference between clan names or xing and lineages names or shi, Xing were surnames held by the noble clans. They generally are composed of a nü radical which has taken by some as evidence they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. Another hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou, the female radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe. This combination seems to designate specifically a female and could mean lady of such or such clan, prior to the Qin Dynasty China was largely a fengjian society. In this way, a nobleman would hold a shi and a xing, after the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames gradually spread to the lower classes and the difference between xing and shi blurred. Many shi surnames survive to the present day, according to Kiang Kang-Hu, there are 18 sources from which Chinese surnames may be derived, while others suggested at least 24. The following are some of the sources, Xing, These were usually reserved for the central lineage of the royal family. Of these xings, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their form to modern days as frequently occurring surnames. Royal decree by the Emperor, such as Kuang, state name, Many nobles and commoners took the name of their state, either to show their continuing allegiance or as a matter of national and ethnic identity. These are some of the most common Chinese surnames, name of a fief or place of origin, Fiefdoms were often granted to collateral branches of the aristocracy and it was natural as part of the process of sub-surnaming for their names to be used. An example is Di, Marquis of Ouyangting, whose descendants took the surname Ouyang, there are some two hundred examples of this identified, often of two-character surnames, but few have survived to the present. Names of an ancestor, Like the previous example, this was also a common origin with close to 500 or 600 examples,200 of which are two-character surnames, often an ancestors courtesy name would be used. For example, Yuan Taotu took the character of his grandfathers courtesy name Boyuan as his surname. Sometimes titles granted to ancestors could also be taken as surnames, seniority within the family, In ancient usage, the characters of meng, zhong, shu and ji were used to denote the first, second, third and fourth eldest sons in a family
3.
Shantou
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Shantou has direct jurisdiction over six districts and one county, and the six urban districts of Shantou have a population of 5,330,764. With it and the cities of Jieyang and Chaozhou, the metropolitan region known as Chaoshan covers an area of 10,404 km2. Its built up area spread of 11 districts was home to 11,635,577 inhabitants at the 2010 census, however, it remains eastern Guangdongs economic centre, and is home to Shantou University, a member of the Project 211 group. Shantou was a village part of Tuojiang Du, Jieyang County during the Song Dynasty. It came to be Xialing during the Yuan Dynasty, in 1563, Shantou was a part of Chenghai County in Chao Prefecture. As early as 1574, Shantou had been called Sha Shan Ping, in the seventeenth century, a cannon platform called Shashantou Cannon was made here, and the placename later was shortened to Shantou. Locally it has referred to as Kialat. Connecting to Shantou across the Queshi Bridge is Queshi which had been known by the people through the 19th century as Kakchio. It was the site for the American and British Consulates. Today the area is a park but some of the structures are somewhat preserved from its earlier history. In 1860, Shantou was opened for foreigners and became a trading port according to Treaty of Tientsin and it became a city in 1919, and was separated from Chenghai in 1921. 1922 saw the devastating Swatow Typhoon, which killed 5,000 out of the 65,000 people then inhabiting the city, some nearby villages were totally destroyed. Several ships near the coast were totally wrecked, other ones were blown as far as two miles inland. The area around the city had around another 50,000 casualties, the total death toll was above 60,000, and may have been higher than 100,000. In the 1930s, as a hub and a merchandise distribution centre in Southeast China. A brief account of a visit to the city in English during this period is the English accountant Max Reltons A Man in the East, on June 21,1939, Japanese troops invaded Shantou. Japanese force occupied Shantou until 1945, with higher-level administrative authority, Shantou governed Chaozhou City and Jieyang City from 1983 to 1989. The highest peak in the administration is Mount Dajian on Nanao Island, at 587 m
4.
Guangdong
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Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the Peoples Republic of China. The provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous, the population increase since the census has been modest, the province at 2014 end had 107,240,000 people. Since 1989, Guangdong has topped the total GDP rankings among all divisions, with Jiangsu and Shandong second. According to state statistics, Guangdongs GDP in 2014 reached RMB6,779 billion, or US$1.104 trillion, since 2011, Guangdong has the highest GDP among all provinces of Mainland China. The province contributes approximately 12% of the PRCs national economic output, Guangdong also hosts the largest import and export fair in China called the Canton Fair in Guangdongs capital city Guangzhou. Guǎng means expanse or vast, and has associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD226. Guangdong and neighbouring Guangxi literally mean expanse east and expanse west, together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called Loeng gwong. During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Dōnglù and Guǎngnán Xīlù, one should note that Canton, though etymologically derived from Cantão, refers only to the provincial capital instead of the whole province, as documented by authoritative English dictionaries. The local people of the city of Guangzhou and their language are commonly referred to as Cantonese in English. Because of the prestige of Canton and its accent, Cantonese sensu lato can also be used for the phylogenetically related residents, Chinese administration and reliable historical records in the region began with the Qin dynasty. After establishing the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin expanded southwards and set up Nanhai Commandery at Panyu, the region was independent as Nanyue between the fall of Qin and the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. Under the Wu Kingdom of the Three Kingdoms period, Guangdong was made its own province, for example, internal strife in northern China following the rebellion of An Lushan resulted in a 75% increase in the population of Guangzhou prefecture between 740s–750s and 800s–810s. As more migrants arrived, the population was gradually assimilated to Han Chinese culture or displaced. Multiple women originating from the Persian Gulf lived in Guangzhous foreign quarter, together with Guangxi, Guangdong was made part of Lingnan Circuit, or Mountain-South Circuit, in 627 during the Tang dynasty. The Guangdong part of Lingnan Circuit was renamed Guangnan East Circuit guǎng nán dōng lù in 971 during the Song dynasty, Guangnan East is the source of Guangdong. As Mongols from the north engaged in their conquest of China in the 13th century, the Battle of Yamen 1279 in Guangdong marked the end of the Southern Song Dynasty. During the Mongol Yuan dynasty, large parts of current Guangdong belonged to Jiangxi and its present name, Guangdong Province was given in early Ming dynasty. Since the 16th century, Guangdong has had extensive links with the rest of the world
5.
United States
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Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
6.
Taiwan
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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbours include China to the west, Japan to the northeast, Taiwan is the most populous state that is not a member of the United Nations, and the one with the largest economy. The island of Taiwan, also known as Formosa, was inhabited by Taiwanese aborigines before the 17th century. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War. While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China was established on the mainland in 1912 after the fall of the Qing dynasty, following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, the ROC took control of Taiwan. However, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the ROCs loss of the mainland to the Communists, and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. As a founding member of the United Nations, the ROC continued to represent China at the United Nations until 1971, in the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization, creating a stable industrial economy. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship dominated by the Kuomintang to a multi-party democracy with universal suffrage, Taiwan is the 22nd-largest economy in the world, and its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy. It is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press, health care, public education, economic freedom, the PRC has consistently claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and asserted the ROC is no longer in legitimate existence. Under its One-China Policy the PRC refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognizes the ROC, the PRC has threatened the use of military force in response to any formal declaration of independence by Taiwan or if PRC leaders decide that peaceful unification is no longer possible. There are various names for the island of Taiwan in use today, the former name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted the main island of Taiwan and named it Ilha Formosa, which means beautiful island. The name Formosa eventually replaced all others in European literature and was in use in English in the early 20th century. This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar. The modern word Taiwan is derived from this usage, which is seen in forms in Chinese historical records. Use of the current Chinese name was formalized as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture, through its rapid development, the entire Formosan mainland eventually became known as Taiwan. The official name of the state is the Republic of China and it was a member of the United Nations representing China until 1971, when it lost its seat to the Peoples Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as Taiwan. In some contexts, especially ones from the ROC government
7.
Chinese University of Hong Kong
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The Chinese University of Hong Kong is a public research university in Shatin, Hong Kong formally established in 1963 by a charter granted by the Legislative Council of Hong Kong. Today, CUHK is organized into nine constituent colleges and eight academic faculties, the university operates in both English and Chinese, although classes in most colleges are taught in English. The university was formed in 1963 as a federation of three existing colleges, the first of these, New Asia College, was established in 1949 by anti-Communist Confucian scholars from Mainland China amid the revolution there. Among the founders were Chien Mu, Tang Junyi, and Tchang Pi-kai, curriculum focused particularly on Chinese heritage and social concerns. The early years of school were tumultuous, with the campus relocating several times between rented premises around Kowloon. Academics there were often self-exiled from the mainland and they struggled financially, with students sleeping on rooftops. Funds were gradually raised and the moved to a new campus in Kau Pui Lung, built with the support of the Ford Foundation. Chung Chi College was founded in 1951 by Protestant churches in Hong Kong to continue the education of mainland churches. The 63 students of its first year operating were taught in various church, the college moved to its present location in Ma Liu Shui in 1956. By 1962, a year before the founding of CUHK, Chung Chi had 531 students in 10 departments taught by a faculty of 40. United College was founded in 1956 with the merging of five colleges in Guangdong province, Canton Overseas, Kwang Hsia, Wah Kiu, Wen Hua. The first school president was Dr F. I, the original campus on Caine Road on Hong Kong Island accommodated over 600 students. These three colleges helped fill a void in the education options available to Hong Kong Chinese students. Before 1949, such students could attend a university in the mainland, in 1957, New Asia College, Chung Chi College, and United College came together to establish the Chinese Colleges Joint Council. In June 1959, the Hong Kong government expressed its intent to establish a new university with a medium of instruction of Chinese, the ordinance was enacted on 19 May 1960. The Chinese University Preparatory Committee was established in June 1961 to advise the government on possible sites for the new university, the following May, the Fulton Commission was formed to assess the suitability of the three government-funded Post-Secondary Colleges to become constituent colleges of the new university. The Fulton Commission report was tabled in the Legislative Council in June 1963, the school was officially inaugurated in a ceremony at City Hall on 17 October 1963, officiated by the founding chancellor, Sir Robert Brown Black. The next year Dr. Li Choh-ming was appointed the first Vice-Chancellor of the university, the university originally comprised the Faculty of Arts, Faculty of Science and Faculty of Social Science
8.
University of California, Berkeley
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The University of California, Berkeley, is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. In 1960s, UC Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. S, Department of Energy, and is home to many world-renowned research institutes and organizations including Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and Space Sciences Laboratory. Faculty member J. R. Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, Lawrence Livermore Lab also discovered or co-discovered six chemical elements. The Academic Ranking of World Universities also ranks the University of California, Berkeley, third in the world overall, in 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus. Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869, billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, with the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students and held its first classes. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, by the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard. Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958, by 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments. During World War II, following Glenn Seaborgs then-secret discovery of plutonium, UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, originally, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates, and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose. In 1917, Berkeleys ROTC program was established, and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle, both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from UC Berkeleys ROTC program, earning B. A. degrees in 1937 and 1938, in 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the first Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley. The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley in 1962, during the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed, ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay, in 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, Berkeley gained a reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement of 1964 and opposition to the Vietnam War. In the highly publicized Peoples Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land, then governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus a haven for communist sympathizers, protesters, and sex deviants. Modern students at Berkeley are less active, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives
9.
John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science
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Established by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company and first awarded in 1932, the medal has been awarded in specific fields since 1961. The recipient is awarded a $25,000 prize,2010 Andre Geim, for his experimental realization and investigation of graphene, the two-dimensional form of carbon. 2008 Thomas Eisner, for pathbreaking studies of the ways that organisms utilize chemistry to mediate ecological interactions. 2007 Joseph R. Ecker, for contributions in the areas of ethylene signal transduction,1997 Patrick V.1994 Marina Ratner, for her striking proof of the Raghunathan conjectures. 1984 Robert H. Burris, for his studies of the biochemistry of nitrogen fixation have enriched the agricultural sciences by deed
10.
Fields Medal
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The Fields Medal is sometimes viewed as the highest honor a mathematician can receive. The Fields Medal and the Abel Prize have often described as the mathematicians Nobel Prize. The Fields Medal differs from the Abel in view of the age restriction mentioned above, the prize comes with a monetary award, which since 2006 has been C$15,000. The colloquial name is in honour of Canadian mathematician John Charles Fields, Fields was instrumental in establishing the award, designing the medal itself, and funding the monetary component. The medal was first awarded in 1936 to Finnish mathematician Lars Ahlfors and American mathematician Jesse Douglas and its purpose is to give recognition and support to younger mathematical researchers who have made major contributions. The Fields Medal is often described as the Nobel Prize of Mathematics, however, in contrast to the Nobel Prize, the Fields Medal is awarded only every four years. The Fields Medal also has an age limit, a recipient must be under age 40 on 1 January of the year in which the medal is awarded and this is similar to restrictions applicable to the Clark Medal in economics. The monetary award is lower than the 8,000,000 Swedish kronor given with each Nobel prize as of 2014. Other major awards in mathematics, such as the Abel Prize, in 1954, Jean-Pierre Serre became the youngest winner of the Fields Medal, at 27. In 1966, Alexander Grothendieck boycotted the ICM, held in Moscow, léon Motchane, founder and director of the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques attended and accepted Grothendiecks Fields Medal on his behalf. In 1970, Sergei Novikov, because of restrictions placed on him by the Soviet government, was unable to travel to the congress in Nice to receive his medal. In 1978, Grigory Margulis, because of restrictions placed on him by the Soviet government, was unable to travel to the congress in Helsinki to receive his medal. In 1982, the congress was due to be held in Warsaw but had to be rescheduled to the next year, the awards were announced at the ninth General Assembly of the IMU earlier in the year and awarded at the 1983 Warsaw congress. In 1990, Edward Witten became the first physicist to win this award, in 1998, at the ICM, Andrew Wiles was presented by the chair of the Fields Medal Committee, Yuri I. Manin, with the first-ever IMU silver plaque in recognition of his proof of Fermats Last Theorem, don Zagier referred to the plaque as a quantized Fields Medal. Accounts of this award frequently make reference that at the time of the award Wiles was over the age limit for the Fields medal. Although Wiles was slightly over the age limit in 1994, he was thought to be a favorite to win the medal, however, in 2006, Grigori Perelman, who proved the Poincaré conjecture, refused his Fields Medal and did not attend the congress. In 2014, Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman as well as the first Iranian, Artur Avila the first South American and this is a list of the universities that have graduated Fields medalists
11.
Crafoord Prize
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The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, a Swedish industrialist, and his wife Anna-Greta Crafoord. According to the Academy, these disciplines are chosen so as to complement those for which the Nobel Prizes are awarded, only one award is given each year, according to a rotating scheme – astronomy and mathematics, then geosciences, then biosciences. A Crafoord Prize in polyarthritis is only awarded when a committee decides that substantial progress in the field has been made. The prize money, which as of 2015 is 6,000,000 kr, is intended to further research by the laureate. The inaugural laureates, Vladimir Arnold and Louis Nirenberg, were cited by the Academy for their work in the field of differential equations. The first woman to be awarded the prize was astronomer Andrea Ghez in 2012, a Nirenberg was born in Canada. B Grothendieck was born in Germany, but spent most of his life in France and was legally stateless, C Shing-Tung Yau was born in China. D Dziewonski was born in Poland, E Kontsevich was born in Russia. F Eliashberg was born in Russia, the Kyoto Prize Prizes named after people Official website
12.
National Medal of Science
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The twelve member presidential Committee on the National Medal of Science is responsible for selecting award recipients and is administered by the National Science Foundation. The National Medal of Science was established on August 25,1959, the medal was originally to honor scientists in the fields of the physical, biological, mathematical, or engineering sciences. The Committee on the National Medal of Science was established on August 23,1961, on January 7,1979, the American Association for the Advancement of Science passed a resolution proposing that the medal be expanded to include the social and behavioral sciences. In response, Senator Ted Kennedy introduced the Science and Technology Equal Opportunities Act into the Senate on March 7,1979, President Jimmy Carters signature enacted this change as Public Law 96-516 on December 12,1980. The first National Medal of Science was awarded on February 18,1963, the first woman to receive a National Medal of Science was Barbara McClintock, who was awarded for her work on plant genetics in 1970. Although Public Law 86-209 provides for 20 recipients of the medal per year, it is typical for approximately 8–15 accomplished scientists, there have been a number of years where no National Medals of Science were awarded. Those years include,1985,1984,1980,1978,1977,1972 and 1971, the awards ceremony is organized by the Office of Science and Technology Policy. It takes place at the White House and is presided by the sitting United States president, each year the National Science Foundation sends out a call to the scientific community for the nomination of new candidates for the National Medal of Science. Individuals are nominated by their peers with each nomination requiring three letters of support from individuals in science and technology, the nomination of a candidate is effective for three years, at the end of three years, the candidates peers are allowed to renominate the candidate. The Committee makes their recommendations to the President for the final awarding decision, the National Medal of Science depicts Man, surrounded by earth, sea, and sky, contemplating and struggling to understand Nature. The crystal in his hand represents the order and also suggests the basic unit of living things. The formula being outlined in the sand symbolizes scientific abstraction
13.
Mathematics
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Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times
14.
Harvard University
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Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregationalist and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, james Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College, Harvards $34.5 billion financial endowment is the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large, highly residential research university, the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the Universitys large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. Harvards alumni include eight U. S. presidents, several heads of state,62 living billionaires,359 Rhodes Scholars. To date, some 130 Nobel laureates,18 Fields Medalists, Harvard was formed in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it obtained British North Americas first known printing press, in 1639 it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard an alumnus of the University of Cambridge who had left the school £779 and his scholars library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650 and it offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational. The leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701, in 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman, which marked a turning of the college toward intellectual independence from Puritanism. When the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, in 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassizs approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans participation in the Divine Nature, agassizs perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the divine plan in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on an archetype for his evidence. Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, during the 20th century, Harvards international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the universitys scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new schools were begun and the undergraduate College expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. In the early 20th century, the student body was predominately old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, by the 1970s it was much more diversified
15.
Stanford University
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Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private research university in Stanford, California, adjacent to Palo Alto and between San Jose and San Francisco. Its 8, 180-acre campus is one of the largest in the United States, Stanford also has land and facilities elsewhere. The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Stanford was a former Governor of California and U. S. Senator, he made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students 125 years ago on October 1,1891, Stanford University struggled financially after Leland Stanfords death in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley. The university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country. There are three schools that have both undergraduate and graduate students and another four professional schools. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. Stanford faculty and alumni have founded a number of companies that produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue. It is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires,17 astronauts and it is also one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Sixty Nobel laureates and seven Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, alumni, Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child. The institution opened in 1891 on Stanfords previous Palo Alto farm, despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I, the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, which was established in 1962, in 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped. Besides the central campus described below, the university also operates at more remote locations, some elsewhere on the main campus. Stanfords main campus includes a place within unincorporated Santa Clara County. The campus also includes land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park, Woodside. The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, the United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP codes,94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail
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Stony Brook University
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The State University of New York at Stony Brook is a public sea-grant and space-grant research university located in Stony Brook, New York in the United States. It is part of the State University of New York system, the institution was founded in 1957 in Oyster Bay as State University College on Long Island, and would evolve into the present university after a move to Stony Brook in 1962. Since its establishment in Stony Brook, the university has expanded to more than 200 major buildings with a combined area of more than 11 million gross square feet across 1,454 acres of land. In 2001, SUNY Stony Brook was elected to the Association of American Universities, joining four private universities and it is also a member of the larger Universities Research Association for which its president Samuel Stanley is a council president. Stony Brook is the largest single-site employer on Long Island, more than 24,500 students are enrolled at the university, which has over 14,500 employees and over 2,400 faculty. Stony Brook has a number of athletics teams, the Stony Brook Seawolves are members of the America East Conference and the Colonial Athletic Association competing at the Division I level of the NCAA since 1994. The State University of New York at Stony Brook was established in Oyster Bay in 1957 as the State University College on Long Island, by the governor and state of New York. Established almost a decade after the creation of New York’s public higher education system, leonard K. Olson was appointed as the first dean of the institution and was instrumental in the recruitment of faculty staff and planning of the later Stony Brook campus. SUCOLI opened with an class of 148 students, on the grounds of the William Robertson Coe Planting Fields estate. These first students were admitted on a tuition-free basis,1961 was a year of firsts as thirty students were conferred degrees in the first commencement and the University was appointed its first president, John Francis Lee. Lee left later that year due to political and bureaucratic matters regarding the future of the University, more recently, it has adopted the short-form name Stony Brook University. In 1963, only three years after the release of the Heald Report, the Governor commissioned the “Education of Health Professions” report, the report outlined the need for expansion of the university system to prepare medical professionals for the future needs of the state. In 1965 the State University appointed John S. Toll, a renowned physicist from the University of Maryland as the president of Stony Brook. In 1966 the University set forth initial timetables for the development of the Health Science Center which would house the University’s health programs, despite the budgetary concerns and challenges from Albany the University released a formalized plan early in 1968 and funding for recruitment of faculty was provided. At the same time, residential housing was expanded to 3,000, the Stony Brook Union opened in 1970, and in 1971, but the University lagged significantly in undergraduate education, prioritizing graduate education and research over undergraduate studies and student life. By 1975, enrollment had reached 16,000 and expansion crossed over Nicolls Road with the construction of the Health Science Center which would be completed in 1980, in 1981 John Marburger was inaugurated as the third president of the University and would continue the expansion of the institution. By the late 1980s the administration affirmed the need to other areas of the institution which included undergraduate education, student and residential life. The University approved a decision to transition athletics to the Division I of the NCAA and followed with the construction of the Stony Brook Arena, the 1990s affirmed Stony Brook’s success at building a research university with a strong undergraduate education
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Institute for Advanced Study
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The IAS is perhaps best known as the academic home of Albert Einstein, John von Neumann and Kurt Gödel, after their immigration to the United States. Although it is close to and collaborates with Princeton University, Rutgers University, Flexners guiding principle in founding the Institute was the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. There are no programs or experimental facilities at the Institute. Research is never contracted or directed, it is left to each individual researcher to pursue their own goals and it is supported entirely by endowments, grants, and gifts, and is one of the eight American mathematics institutes funded by the National Science Foundation. It is the model for the eight members of the consortium Some Institutes for Advanced Study. The institute consists of four schools–Historical Studies, Mathematics, Natural Sciences, in 2016, the Institute has been in the news for a faculty housing project proposal. While the Institute owns the property on which it wants to build these houses, historians and archaeological evidence confirm the site witnessed Gen. George Washingtons arrival and charge on horseback across the battlefield during the January 3,1777 Battle of Princeton. The Institute was founded in 1930 by Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger, Flexner is generally regarded as one of the most important figures in the history of American medicine and played a major role in the reform of medical education. This led to an interest in education generally and as early as 1890 he had founded a school which had no formal curriculum, exams. It was a success at preparing students for prestigious colleges. The Bamberger siblings wanted to use the proceeds from the sale of their department store in Newark, New Jersey, Flexner convinced them to put their money in the service of more abstract research. In 1932 Veblen resigned from Princeton and became the first professor in the new Institute for Advanced Study and he selected most of the original faculty and also helped the Institute acquire land in Princeton for both the original facility and future expansion. Flexner and Veblen set out to recruit the best mathematicians and physicists they could find, the rise of fascism and the associated anti-semitism forced many prominent mathematicians to flee Europe and some, such as Einstein and Hermann Weyl, found a home at the new institute. Weyl as a condition of accepting insisted that the Institute also appoint the thirty year old Austrian-Hungarian polymath John von Neumann, indeed, the IAS became the key lifeline for scholars fleeing Europe. Einstein was Flexners first coup and shortly after that he was followed by Veblens brilliant student James Alexander, Flexner was fortunate in the luminaries he directly recruited but also in the people that they brought along with them. Thus, by 1934 the fledgeling institute was led by six of the most prominent mathematicians in the world, in 1935 quantum physics pioneer Wolfgang Pauli became a faculty member. With the opening of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton replaced Göttingen as the center for mathematics in the twentieth century. Princeton Universitys science departments are less than two miles away and informal ties and collaboration between the two institutions occurred from the beginning and this helped start an incorrect impression that it was part of the University, one that has never been completely eradicated
18.
Shiing-Shen Chern
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Shiing-Shen Chern was a Chinese-American mathematician. Shiing-Shen Chern co-founded the world-renowned Mathematical Sciences Research Institute at Berkeley in 1982, Chern was born in Xiushui County, Jiaxing, in Zhejiang province. The year after his birth, China changed its regime from the Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China and he graduated from Xiushui Middle School and subsequently moved to Tianjin in 1922 to accompany his father. In 1926, after spending four years in Tianjin, Chern graduated from Fulun High School, at age 15, Chern entered the Faculty of Sciences of the Nankai University in Tianjin, studied mathematics there, and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in 1930. At Nankai, Cherns mentor was Li-Fu Chiang, a Harvard-trained geometer, also at Nankai, he was heavily influenced by the physicist Rao Yutai. Rao is today considered to be one of the fathers of modern Chinese informatics. Chern went to Beiping to work at the Tsinghua University Department of Mathematics as a teaching assistant, at the same time he also registered at Tsinghua Graduate School as a student. He studied projective geometry under Prof. Sun Guangyuan, a University of Chicago-trained geometer and logician who was also from Zhejiang, Sun is another mentor of Chern who is considered a founder of modern Chinese mathematics. In 1932, Chern published his first research article in the Tsinghua University Journal, in the summer of 1934, Chern graduated from Tsinghua with a masters degree, the first ever masters degree in mathematics issued in China. Chen-Ning Yangs father — Yang Ko-Chuen, another Chicago-trained professor at Tsinghua, at the same time, Chern was Chen-Ning Yangs teacher of undergraduate maths at Tsinghua. At Tsinghua, Hua Luogeng, also a mathematician, was Cherns colleague, in 1932, Wilhelm Blaschke from the University of Hamburg visited Tsinghua and was impressed by Chern and his research. In 1934, co-funded by Tsinghua and the Chinese Foundation of Culture and Education, Chern studied at the University of Hamburg and worked under Blaschkes guidance first on the geometry of webs then on the Cartan-Kähler theory. Blaschke recommended Chern to study in Paris, in August 1936, Chern watched summer Olympics in Berlin together with Hua Luogeng who paid Chern a brief visit. During that time, Hua was studying at the University of Cambridge in Britain, in September 1936, Chern went to Paris and worked with Élie Cartan. Chern spent one year at the Sorbonne in Paris, in 1937, Chern accepted Tsinghuas invitation and was promoted to professor of mathematics at Tsinghua. However, at the time the Marco Polo Bridge Incident happened. Three universities including Peking University, Tsinghua, and Nankai formed the National Southwestern Associated University, in the same year, Hua Luogeng was promoted to professor of mathematics at Tsinghua
19.
Richard Schoen
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Richard Melvin Schoen is an American mathematician. Born in Celina, Ohio, and a 1968 graduate of Fort Recovery High School and he then received his PhD in 1977 from Stanford University and is currently an Excellence in Teaching Chair at the University of California, Irvine. His surname is pronounced Shane, perhaps as a reflection of the dialect spoken by some of his German ancestors. Schoen has investigated the use of techniques in global differential geometry. In 1979, together with his doctoral supervisor, Shing-Tung Yau. In 1983, he was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship, and in 1984 and this work combined new techniques with ideas developed in earlier work with Yau, and partial results by Thierry Aubin and Neil Trudinger. The resulting theorem asserts that any Riemannian metric on a manifold may be conformally rescaled so as to produce a metric of constant scalar curvature. In 2007, Simon Brendle and Richard Schoen proved the differentiable sphere theorem and he has also made fundamental contributions to the regularity theory of minimal surfaces and harmonic maps. For his work on the Yamabe problem, Schoen was awarded the Bôcher Memorial Prize in 1989 and he joined the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1988 and the National Academy of Sciences in 1991, and won a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1996. In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society, in 2015, he was elected Vice President of the American Mathematical Society. He received the Wolf Prize in Mathematics for 2017, shared with Charles Fefferman, Richard Schoen at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
20.
Gang Tian
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Tian Gang is a Chinese-American mathematician and an academician of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is known for his contributions to analysis and quantum cohomology especially Gromov-Witten invariants. He was born in Nanjing, and was a professor of mathematics at MIT from 1995–2006 and he with John Milnor involved as Senior Scholars of The Clay Mathematics Institute. Since 2011, Gang Tian become director of Sino-French Research Program in Mathematic in le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris, since 2010, He became Scientific council for International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste in Italy. Tian graduated from Nanjing University in 1982, and received a degree from Peking University in 1984. In 1988, he received a Ph. D. in mathematics from Harvard University and this work was so exceptional he was invited to present it at the Geometry Festival that year. In 1998, he was appointed as a Cheung Kong Scholar professor at the School of Mathematical Sciences at Peking University, later his appointment was changed to Cheung Kong Scholar chair professorship. He was awarded the Alan T. Waterman Award in 1994, in 2004 Tian was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Much of Tians earlier work was about the existence of Kähler–Einstein metrics on complex manifolds under the direction of Yau and he proved that a Kähler manifold with trivial canonical bundle has trivial obstruction space, known as the Bogomolov–Tian–Todorov theorem. Tian found a formula for Weil-Petersson metric on moduli space of polarized Calabi-Yau manifolds. Tian made foundational contributions to Gromov-Witten theory and he constructed virtual fundamental cycles of the moduli spaces of maps from curves in both algebraic geometry and symplectic geometry. He also showed that the cohomology ring of a semi-positive symplectic manifold is associative. He introduced the Analytical Minimal Model program which is known as Tian-Song program in birational geometry, in Kähler geometry he has a new theory which is known as Cheeger-Colding-Tians theory. Tians alpha-invariant introduced by him and later Kollár and Demailly gave an interpretation to Tians alpha-invariant. It was first solved by Chen, Donaldson and Sun in January 13,2014, later, Tian also gave a proof in August,2015. In 2006, together with John Morgan of Columbia University, amongst others, Gang Tian was once one of the five members of the Abel Prize Committee, which is sometimes considered to be the second most important prize in mathematics after the Fields medal. Gang Tian was also one of the five members of the Ramanujan Prize selection committee. Since 2012 he became member of Leroy P. Steele Prize Committee in AMS, Gang Tian is member of the editorial boards of a number of journals in Mathematics
21.
Lizhen Ji
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Lizhen Ji, is an American mathematician. He is a professor of mathematics at the University of Michigan, april 1964, Ji was born in Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Ji graduated BS from Hangzhou University in Hangzhou in 1984, from 1984 to 1985, Ji was a master student at the Department of Mathematics of Hangzhou University. Ji went to United States to continue his study in 1985, in 1991, Ji obtained PhD from the Northeastern University. From 1991 to 1994, Ji was C. L. E, moore instructor at the Department of Mathematics of MIT. From 1994 to 1995, Ji was a member of the Institute for Advanced Study School of Mathematics in Princeton, from 1995 to 1999, Ji was an assistant professor at the Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan. From 1999 to 2005, Ji was a professor at the same department. In 2005, Ji was promoted to professor at UM. From 1998 to 2001, Ji was an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow and from 2014-2015, arithmetic Groups and Their Generalizations, What, Why, and How, by Lizhen Ji. Geometry, Analysis and Topology of Discrete Groups, co-edited by Lizhen Ji, Kefeng Liu, Yang Lo, compactifications of Symmetric Spaces, by Y. GuivarcH, Lizhen Ji, and J. C. Taylor, geometry Analysis and Topology of Discrete Groups, by Lizhen Ji, Kefeng Liu, and Yang Lo. Handbook of Geometric Analysis, by Lizhen Ji, Mathematics and Mathematical People, Chief-editor Lizhen Ji. Advanced Lectures in Mathematics, Chief-editor Lizhen Ji
22.
Kefeng Liu
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He is a professor of mathematics at University of California, Los Angeles, as well as the Executive Director of the Center of Mathematical Sciences at Zhejiang University. Liu was born in Kaifeng, Henan Province, China, in 1985, Liu received his B. A. in mathematics from the Department of Mathematics of Peking University in Beijing. In 1988, Liu obtained his M. A. from the Institute of Mathematics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, Liu then went to study in the United States, obtaining a Ph. D. from Harvard University in 1993 under Shing-Tung Yau. From 1993 to 1996, Liu was C. L. E. Moore Instructor at MIT, from 1996 to 2000, Liu was an assistant professor at Stanford University. Liu joined the UCLA faculty in 2000, where he was promoted to professor in 2002. In September 2003, Liu was appointed as the head of Zhejiang Universitys mathematics department, Liu is currently the Executive Director of the Center of Mathematical Sciences at Zhejiang University. The Â-vanishing theorem for loop spaces with spin structures is one of the corollaries and this is a loop space analogue of the Atiyah-Hirzebruch Â-vanishing theorem for group actions and the loop space Â-genus, or the Witten genus. An analogue of the Lawson-Yaus vanishing theorem for group action is also derived. The proof involves index theory and certain subtle properties of the Jacobi theta functions, using the modular invariance of the characters of Kac-Moody algebras in a substantial way, Liu proved general vanishing theorems associated to loop groups. These theorems provide new obstructions for group actions on manifolds, Liu proved a generalization of the 12-dimensional miraculous cancellation formula by Alveraz-Gaume and Witten to arbitrary dimensions and general vector bundles. Together with Weiping Zhang, he found relations between elliptic genus and other geometric invariants, such as holonomy, the APS eta-invariants and the Rokhlin invariants. Liu described an approach to the construction of elliptic cohomology by using the K-group of infinite dimensional vector bundles. Ma and W. Zhang, Liu proved several rigidity and vanishing theorems for the indices of elliptic operators. Ma and W. Zhang, Liu proved certain general rigidity, the main techniques are the Jacobi theta functions and the construction of a new class of elliptic operators associated to foliations. This new method brings new vanishing formulas for the intersection numbers and these formulas contain all the information needed for the Verlinde formula. Lius results are for general compact semi-simple Lie groups, and generalizes to the cases when the spaces are singular. It inspired Bismut and Labouries work on the general Verlinde formula and this method gives several very general new vanishing theorems about the characteristic numbers of the moduli spaces, which actually follows from the delta function property of heat kernels. Some generalized previous results by Atiyah-Bott and Witten, Yau, Liu introduced the general notion of Euler data
23.
Chinese language
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Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the Han majority and many ethnic groups in China. Nearly 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language, the varieties of Chinese are usually described by native speakers as dialects of a single Chinese language, but linguists note that they are as diverse as a language family. The internal diversity of Chinese has been likened to that of the Romance languages, There are between 7 and 13 main regional groups of Chinese, of which the most spoken by far is Mandarin, followed by Wu, Min, and Yue. Most of these groups are mutually unintelligible, although some, like Xiang and certain Southwest Mandarin dialects, may share common terms, all varieties of Chinese are tonal and analytic. Standard Chinese is a form of spoken Chinese based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin. It is the language of China and Taiwan, as well as one of four official languages of Singapore. It is one of the six languages of the United Nations. The written form of the language, based on the logograms known as Chinese characters, is shared by literate speakers of otherwise unintelligible dialects. Of the other varieties of Chinese, Cantonese is the spoken language and official in Hong Kong and Macau. It is also influential in Guangdong province and much of Guangxi, dialects of Southern Min, part of the Min group, are widely spoken in southern Fujian, with notable variants also spoken in neighboring Taiwan and in Southeast Asia. Hakka also has a diaspora in Taiwan and southeast Asia. Shanghainese and other Wu varieties are prominent in the lower Yangtze region of eastern China, Chinese can be traced back to a hypothetical Sino-Tibetan proto-language. The first written records appeared over 3,000 years ago during the Shang dynasty, as the language evolved over this period, the various local varieties became mutually unintelligible. In reaction, central governments have sought to promulgate a unified standard. Difficulties have included the great diversity of the languages, the lack of inflection in many of them, in addition, many of the smaller languages are spoken in mountainous areas that are difficult to reach, and are often also sensitive border zones. Without a secure reconstruction of proto-Sino-Tibetan, the structure of the family remains unclear. A top-level branching into Chinese and Tibeto-Burman languages is often assumed, the earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BCE in the late Shang dynasty
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Pinyin
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Pinyin, or Hànyǔ Pīnyīn, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China, Malaysia, Singapore, and Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones, Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang and it was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as a standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the standard in Taiwan in 2009. The word Hànyǔ means the language of the Han people. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing and this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years later, another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, and the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing Dynasty scholar-official, the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the effect of the kana syllabaries. This galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script, while Song did not himself actually create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, and it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. This Sin Wenz or New Writing was much more sophisticated than earlier alphabets. In 1940, several members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Societys new journal. Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Yat-sens son, Sun Fo, Cai Yuanpei, the countrys most prestigious educator, Tao Xingzhi, an educational reformer. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, biographies, some contemporary Chinese literature, and a spectrum of textbooks
25.
Hong Konger
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Hong Kong people, also known as Hong Kongers or Hong Kongese, are people who originate from or live in Hong Kong. The terms have no legal definition by the Hong Kong Government, more terms such as Hong Kong Permanent Resident. However, the words Hongkonger and Hong Kongese were officially added to the Oxford English Dictionary in March 2014, Hong Kong people do not comprise one particular ethnicity, and people that live in Hong Kong are independent of Chinese citizenship and residency status. Expatriates from many other live and work in the city. During the years leading up to the 1997 handover of sovereignty from Britain to China, many residents left Hong Kong, as a result, there are groups of Hong Kongers that hold immigrant status in other countries. Some who emigrated during that period have since returned to Hong Kong, due to Chinas one country, two systems policy, Hong Kong is a highly autonomous region and operates largely independently of China, having its own passport, currency, flag, and official languages. The terms Hongkonger, Hong Kongese, and Hong Kong people all translate to the same Cantonese term, the direct translation of this is Hong Kong people, however, the term Hong Konger is also frequently used. 香港人 may also be translated as Hongkongan, in March 2014, Hongkonger and Hong Kongese were both added to the Oxford English Dictionary. According to the Dictionary, the first time that the term Hong Kongese appeared was in 1878, while the term Hongkonger appeared even earlier, in an 1870 edition of US newspaper The Daily Independent. The term Hong Kong Chinese was frequently used during the British colonial era and it was common at that time to refer to an individual as Hong Kong Chinese to differentiate them from a Hong Kong Briton. The term is used to refer to Hong Kongers of Chinese ethnicity. The Hong Kong Basic Law gives a legal definition of a Hong Kong resident. Under Article 24 of the Basic Law, Hong Kong residents can be classified as permanent or non-permanent residents. Non-permanent residents are those who have the right to hold a Hong Kong Identity Card, Permanent residents are those who have the right to hold a Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card as well as the right of abode. The Basic Law allows residents to acquire right of abode by birth in Hong Kong, for example, residents of China may settle in Hong Kong for family reunification purposes if they obtain a One-way Permit. Unlike many countries, Hong Kong does not require applicants for naturalisation to take a citizenship or language test to become citizens. However, Hong Kong migrants and residents are assumed to understand their obligation under Article 24 of the Hong Kong Basic Law to abide by the laws of Hong Kong. According to Hong Kongs 2011 census,93. 6% of its population is ethnically Chinese, with 32. 1% having been born in Mainland China, Taiwan or Macau
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Mathematician
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A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics is concerned with numbers, data, quantity, structure, space, models, one of the earliest known mathematicians was Thales of Miletus, he has been hailed as the first true mathematician and the first known individual to whom a mathematical discovery has been attributed. He is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, the number of known mathematicians grew when Pythagoras of Samos established the Pythagorean School, whose doctrine it was that mathematics ruled the universe and whose motto was All is number. It was the Pythagoreans who coined the term mathematics, and with whom the study of mathematics for its own sake begins, the first woman mathematician recorded by history was Hypatia of Alexandria. She succeeded her father as Librarian at the Great Library and wrote works on applied mathematics. Because of a dispute, the Christian community in Alexandria punished her, presuming she was involved, by stripping her naked. Science and mathematics in the Islamic world during the Middle Ages followed various models and it was extensive patronage and strong intellectual policies implemented by specific rulers that allowed scientific knowledge to develop in many areas. As these sciences received wider attention from the elite, more scholars were invited and funded to study particular sciences, an example of a translator and mathematician who benefited from this type of support was al-Khawarizmi. A notable feature of many working under Muslim rule in medieval times is that they were often polymaths. Examples include the work on optics, maths and astronomy of Ibn al-Haytham, the Renaissance brought an increased emphasis on mathematics and science to Europe. As time passed, many gravitated towards universities. Moving into the 19th century, the objective of universities all across Europe evolved from teaching the “regurgitation of knowledge” to “encourag productive thinking. ”Thus, seminars, overall, science became the focus of universities in the 19th and 20th centuries. Students could conduct research in seminars or laboratories and began to produce doctoral theses with more scientific content. According to Humboldt, the mission of the University of Berlin was to pursue scientific knowledge. ”Mathematicians usually cover a breadth of topics within mathematics in their undergraduate education, and then proceed to specialize in topics of their own choice at the graduate level. In some universities, a qualifying exam serves to test both the breadth and depth of an understanding of mathematics, the students, who pass, are permitted to work on a doctoral dissertation. Mathematicians involved with solving problems with applications in life are called applied mathematicians. Applied mathematicians are mathematical scientists who, with their knowledge and professional methodology. With professional focus on a variety of problems, theoretical systems
27.
Differential geometry
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Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry. The theory of plane and space curves and surfaces in the three-dimensional Euclidean space formed the basis for development of differential geometry during the 18th century, since the late 19th century, differential geometry has grown into a field concerned more generally with the geometric structures on differentiable manifolds. Differential geometry is related to differential topology and the geometric aspects of the theory of differential equations. The differential geometry of surfaces captures many of the key ideas, Differential geometry arose and developed as a result of and in connection to the mathematical analysis of curves and surfaces. These unanswered questions indicated greater, hidden relationships, initially applied to the Euclidean space, further explorations led to non-Euclidean space, and metric and topological spaces. Riemannian geometry studies Riemannian manifolds, smooth manifolds with a Riemannian metric and this is a concept of distance expressed by means of a smooth positive definite symmetric bilinear form defined on the tangent space at each point. Various concepts based on length, such as the arc length of curves, area of plane regions, the notion of a directional derivative of a function from multivariable calculus is extended in Riemannian geometry to the notion of a covariant derivative of a tensor. Many concepts and techniques of analysis and differential equations have been generalized to the setting of Riemannian manifolds, a distance-preserving diffeomorphism between Riemannian manifolds is called an isometry. This notion can also be defined locally, i. e. for small neighborhoods of points, any two regular curves are locally isometric. In higher dimensions, the Riemann curvature tensor is an important pointwise invariant associated with a Riemannian manifold that measures how close it is to being flat, an important class of Riemannian manifolds is the Riemannian symmetric spaces, whose curvature is not necessarily constant. These are the closest analogues to the plane and space considered in Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry. Pseudo-Riemannian geometry generalizes Riemannian geometry to the case in which the metric tensor need not be positive-definite, a special case of this is a Lorentzian manifold, which is the mathematical basis of Einsteins general relativity theory of gravity. Finsler geometry has the Finsler manifold as the object of study. This is a manifold with a Finsler metric, i. e. a Banach norm defined on each tangent space. Riemannian manifolds are special cases of the more general Finsler manifolds. A Finsler structure on a manifold M is a function F, TM → [0, ∞) such that, F = |m|F for all x, y in TM, F is infinitely differentiable in TM −, symplectic geometry is the study of symplectic manifolds. A symplectic manifold is an almost symplectic manifold for which the symplectic form ω is closed, a diffeomorphism between two symplectic manifolds which preserves the symplectic form is called a symplectomorphism. Non-degenerate skew-symmetric bilinear forms can only exist on even-dimensional vector spaces, in dimension 2, a symplectic manifold is just a surface endowed with an area form and a symplectomorphism is an area-preserving diffeomorphism
28.
Geometric analysis
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Geometric analysis is a mathematical discipline at the interface of differential geometry and differential equations. It includes both the use of methods in the study of partial differential equations, and the application of the theory of partial differential equations to geometry. It incorporates problems involving curves and surfaces, or domains with curved boundaries, the calculus of variations is sometimes regarded as part of geometric analysis, because differential equations arising from variational principles have a strong geometric content. Geometric analysis also includes global analysis, which concerns the study of equations on manifolds
29.
Physics
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Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion and behavior through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. One of the most fundamental disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy, Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs, the United Nations named 2005 the World Year of Physics. Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, the stars and planets were often a target of worship, believed to represent their gods. While the explanations for these phenomena were often unscientific and lacking in evidence, according to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, and all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descended from late Babylonian astronomy. The most notable innovations were in the field of optics and vision, which came from the works of many scientists like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna. The most notable work was The Book of Optics, written by Ibn Al-Haitham, in which he was not only the first to disprove the ancient Greek idea about vision, but also came up with a new theory. In the book, he was also the first to study the phenomenon of the pinhole camera, many later European scholars and fellow polymaths, from Robert Grosseteste and Leonardo da Vinci to René Descartes, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton, were in his debt. Indeed, the influence of Ibn al-Haythams Optics ranks alongside that of Newtons work of the same title, the translation of The Book of Optics had a huge impact on Europe. From it, later European scholars were able to build the devices as what Ibn al-Haytham did. From this, such important things as eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, telescopes, Physics became a separate science when early modern Europeans used experimental and quantitative methods to discover what are now considered to be the laws of physics. Newton also developed calculus, the study of change, which provided new mathematical methods for solving physical problems. The discovery of new laws in thermodynamics, chemistry, and electromagnetics resulted from greater research efforts during the Industrial Revolution as energy needs increased, however, inaccuracies in classical mechanics for very small objects and very high velocities led to the development of modern physics in the 20th century. Modern physics began in the early 20th century with the work of Max Planck in quantum theory, both of these theories came about due to inaccuracies in classical mechanics in certain situations. Quantum mechanics would come to be pioneered by Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, from this early work, and work in related fields, the Standard Model of particle physics was derived. Areas of mathematics in general are important to this field, such as the study of probabilities, in many ways, physics stems from ancient Greek philosophy
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Geometry
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Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer, Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a practical way for dealing with lengths, areas, and volumes. Geometry began to see elements of mathematical science emerging in the West as early as the 6th century BC. By the 3rd century BC, geometry was put into a form by Euclid, whose treatment, Euclids Elements. Geometry arose independently in India, with texts providing rules for geometric constructions appearing as early as the 3rd century BC, islamic scientists preserved Greek ideas and expanded on them during the Middle Ages. By the early 17th century, geometry had been put on a solid footing by mathematicians such as René Descartes. Since then, and into modern times, geometry has expanded into non-Euclidean geometry and manifolds, while geometry has evolved significantly throughout the years, there are some general concepts that are more or less fundamental to geometry. These include the concepts of points, lines, planes, surfaces, angles, contemporary geometry has many subfields, Euclidean geometry is geometry in its classical sense. The mandatory educational curriculum of the majority of nations includes the study of points, lines, planes, angles, triangles, congruence, similarity, solid figures, circles, Euclidean geometry also has applications in computer science, crystallography, and various branches of modern mathematics. Differential geometry uses techniques of calculus and linear algebra to problems in geometry. It has applications in physics, including in general relativity, topology is the field concerned with the properties of geometric objects that are unchanged by continuous mappings. In practice, this often means dealing with large-scale properties of spaces, convex geometry investigates convex shapes in the Euclidean space and its more abstract analogues, often using techniques of real analysis. It has close connections to convex analysis, optimization and functional analysis, algebraic geometry studies geometry through the use of multivariate polynomials and other algebraic techniques. It has applications in areas, including cryptography and string theory. Discrete geometry is concerned mainly with questions of relative position of simple objects, such as points. It shares many methods and principles with combinatorics, Geometry has applications to many fields, including art, architecture, physics, as well as to other branches of mathematics. The earliest recorded beginnings of geometry can be traced to ancient Mesopotamia, the earliest known texts on geometry are the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus and Moscow Papyrus, the Babylonian clay tablets such as Plimpton 322. For example, the Moscow Papyrus gives a formula for calculating the volume of a truncated pyramid, later clay tablets demonstrate that Babylonian astronomers implemented trapezoid procedures for computing Jupiters position and motion within time-velocity space
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Theoretical physics
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Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena. This is in contrast to physics, which uses experimental tools to probe these phenomena. The advancement of science depends in general on the interplay between experimental studies and theory, in some cases, theoretical physics adheres to standards of mathematical rigor while giving little weight to experiments and observations. Conversely, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for explaining the photoelectric effect, a physical theory is a model of physical events. It is judged by the extent to which its predictions agree with empirical observations, the quality of a physical theory is also judged on its ability to make new predictions which can be verified by new observations. A physical theory similarly differs from a theory, in the sense that the word theory has a different meaning in mathematical terms. A physical theory involves one or more relationships between various measurable quantities, archimedes realized that a ship floats by displacing its mass of water, Pythagoras understood the relation between the length of a vibrating string and the musical tone it produces. Other examples include entropy as a measure of the uncertainty regarding the positions and motions of unseen particles, Theoretical physics consists of several different approaches. In this regard, theoretical particle physics forms a good example, for instance, phenomenologists might employ empirical formulas to agree with experimental results, often without deep physical understanding. Modelers often appear much like phenomenologists, but try to model speculative theories that have certain desirable features, some attempt to create approximate theories, called effective theories, because fully developed theories may be regarded as unsolvable or too complicated. Other theorists may try to unify, formalise, reinterpret or generalise extant theories, or create completely new ones altogether. Sometimes the vision provided by pure mathematical systems can provide clues to how a system might be modeled, e. g. the notion, due to Riemann and others. Theoretical problems that need computational investigation are often the concern of computational physics, Theoretical advances may consist in setting aside old, incorrect paradigms or may be an alternative model that provides answers that are more accurate or that can be more widely applied. In the latter case, a correspondence principle will be required to recover the previously known result, sometimes though, advances may proceed along different paths. However, an exception to all the above is the wave–particle duality, Physical theories become accepted if they are able to make correct predictions and no incorrect ones. They are also likely to be accepted if they connect a wide range of phenomena. Testing the consequences of a theory is part of the scientific method, Physical theories can be grouped into three categories, mainstream theories, proposed theories and fringe theories. Theoretical physics began at least 2,300 years ago, under the Pre-socratic philosophy, during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the concept of experimental science, the counterpoint to theory, began with scholars such as Ibn al-Haytham and Francis Bacon
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General relativity
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General relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newtons law of gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time. In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter, the relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of partial differential equations. Examples of such differences include gravitational time dilation, gravitational lensing, the redshift of light. The predictions of relativity have been confirmed in all observations. Although general relativity is not the only theory of gravity. Einsteins theory has important astrophysical implications, for example, it implies the existence of black holes—regions of space in which space and time are distorted in such a way that nothing, not even light, can escape—as an end-state for massive stars. The bending of light by gravity can lead to the phenomenon of gravitational lensing, General relativity also predicts the existence of gravitational waves, which have since been observed directly by physics collaboration LIGO. In addition, general relativity is the basis of current cosmological models of an expanding universe. Soon after publishing the special theory of relativity in 1905, Einstein started thinking about how to incorporate gravity into his new relativistic framework. In 1907, beginning with a thought experiment involving an observer in free fall. After numerous detours and false starts, his work culminated in the presentation to the Prussian Academy of Science in November 1915 of what are now known as the Einstein field equations. These equations specify how the geometry of space and time is influenced by whatever matter and radiation are present, the Einstein field equations are nonlinear and very difficult to solve. Einstein used approximation methods in working out initial predictions of the theory, but as early as 1916, the astrophysicist Karl Schwarzschild found the first non-trivial exact solution to the Einstein field equations, the Schwarzschild metric. This solution laid the groundwork for the description of the stages of gravitational collapse. In 1917, Einstein applied his theory to the universe as a whole, in line with contemporary thinking, he assumed a static universe, adding a new parameter to his original field equations—the cosmological constant—to match that observational presumption. By 1929, however, the work of Hubble and others had shown that our universe is expanding and this is readily described by the expanding cosmological solutions found by Friedmann in 1922, which do not require a cosmological constant. Lemaître used these solutions to formulate the earliest version of the Big Bang models, in which our universe has evolved from an extremely hot, Einstein later declared the cosmological constant the biggest blunder of his life
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Albert Einstein
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Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist. He developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics, Einsteins work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. Einstein is best known in popular culture for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led him to develop his theory of relativity during his time at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. Briefly before, he aquired the Swiss citizenship in 1901, which he kept for his whole life and he continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the theory of relativity to model the large-scale structure of the universe. He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and, being Jewish, did not go back to Germany and he settled in the United States, becoming an American citizen in 1940. This eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project, Einstein supported defending the Allied forces, but generally denounced the idea of using the newly discovered nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, with the British philosopher Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, Einstein was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955. Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works, on 5 December 2014, universities and archives announced the release of Einsteins papers, comprising more than 30,000 unique documents. Einsteins intellectual achievements and originality have made the word Einstein synonymous with genius, Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on 14 March 1879. His parents were Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer, the Einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews, and Albert attended a Catholic elementary school in Munich from the age of 5 for three years. At the age of 8, he was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium, the loss forced the sale of the Munich factory. In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan, when the family moved to Pavia, Einstein stayed in Munich to finish his studies at the Luitpold Gymnasium. His father intended for him to electrical engineering, but Einstein clashed with authorities and resented the schools regimen. He later wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought was lost in strict rote learning, at the end of December 1894, he travelled to Italy to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctors note. During his time in Italy he wrote an essay with the title On the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a Magnetic Field