Ehon Hyaku Monogatari
The Ehon Hyaku Monogatari called the Tōsanjin Yawa is a book of yōkai illustrated by Japanese artist Takehara Shunsensai, published about 1841. The book was intended as a followup to Toriyama Sekien's Gazu Hyakki Yagyō series. Like those books, it is a supernatural bestiary of ghosts and spirits which has had a profound influence on subsequent yōkai imagery in Japan; the author's pen name is Tōsanjin. According to the Kokusho Sōmokuroku this is considered to be a gesaku author from the latter half of the Edo period, Tōkaen Michimaro, it can be said that this is a kind of hundred-tale kaidan book popular in the Edo period, as "100 Tales" is part of the title, but rather than being tales with story titles, yōkai names are printed with illustrations of yōkai, so it could be said that this work is a fusion of kaidan book and picture book. This book is known by the title Tōsanjin Yawa because the title on the first page of each volume is "Tōsanjin Yawa, Volume." Scholar of Japanese manners and customs Ema Tsutomu and folklorist Fujisawa Morihiko, as well as magazines at that time, introduced this book by the name Tōsanjin Yawa, so this title became famous.
On the other hand, Mizuki Shigeru, in his 1979 Yōkai 100 Monogatari describes it in his references as "Ehon Hyaku Monogatari." It has been recognized that a book with the same contents, titled Ehon Kaidan Zoroe, was published in 2005 by Yumoto Kōichi. The preface's title is changed, the title of each volume is Ehon Kaidan Zoroe Volume rather than Tōsanjin Yawa Volume. Upon examination, it appears to be an earlier publication than Ehon Hyaku Monogatari, with the relationship that the inscriptions of "Tōsanjin" and "Tōka Sanjin" are mixed, it is suggested that the first edition of Ehon Hyaku Monogatari may have been published before 1841; the illustrations below are numbered by appearance order. For example, the third illustration in the first volume is 1-3, so on. 1-1 Hakuzōsu 1-2 Hienma 1-3 Kowai 1-4 Shio-no-Chōji 1-5 Isonade 1-6 Shinigami 1-7 Nojukubi 1-8 Nebutori 1-9 Ōgama 2-1 Mamedanuki 2-2 Yamachichi 2-3 Yanagi-onna 2-4 Rōjin-no-hi 2-5 Tearai-oni 2-6 Shussebora 2-7 Kyūso 2-8 Futakuchi-onna 2-9 Mizoidashi 3-1 Kuzunoha 3-2 Shibaemon-tanuki 3-3 Basan 3-4 Katabiragatsuji 3-5 Haguro-bettari 3-6 Akaei-no-uo 3-7 Funayūrei 3-8 Yuigon-yūrei, Mizukoi-yūrei 4-1 Teoi-hebi 4-2 Goi-no-hikari 4-3 Kasane 4-4 Okiku-mushi 4-5 Noteppō 4-6 Tenka 4-7 Nogitsune 4-8 Onikuma 4-9 Kaminari 5-1 Azukiarai 5-2 Yama-otoko 5-3 Tsutsugamushi 5-4 Kaze-no-kami 5-5 Kajiga-baba 5-6 Yanagi-baba 5-7 Katsura-otoko 5-8 Yoru-no-gakuya 5-9 Maikubi Ehon Hyaku Monogatari books
Death, due to its prominent place in human culture, is imagined as a personified force known as the Grim Reaper. In some mythologies, the Grim Reaper causes the victim's death by coming to collect that person. In turn, people in some stories try to hold on to life by avoiding Death's visit, or by fending Death off with bribery or tricks. Other beliefs hold that the Spectre of Death is only a psychopomp, serving to sever the last ties between the soul and the body, to guide the deceased to the afterlife, without having any control over when or how the victim dies. Death is most personified in male form, although in certain cultures Death is perceived as female. Mot was personified to Canaanites as a god of death, he was considered a son of the king of El. His contest with the storm god Baʿal forms part of the myth cycle discovered in the 1920s in the ruins of Ugarit. Lacunae obscure some of the details, but Mot consumes Baʿal before being split open and mutilated by that god's sister, the warrior'Anat.
After a time, both gods are restored and resume battle before the sun goddess Shapash prompts a truce by warning Mot that, if forced to, El would intervene on Baʿal's behalf. The Phoenicians worshipped death under the name Mot and a version of Mot became Maweth, the devil or angel of death in Judaism. In Ancient Greek religion and Greek mythology, death is one of the children of Nyx. Like her, he is portrayed directly, he sometimes appears in art as a bearded and winged man, less as a winged and beardless youth. He has a twin, the god of sleep. Together and Hypnos represent a gentle death. Thanatos, led by Hermes psychopompos, takes the shade of the deceased to the near shore of the river Styx, whence the boatman Charon, on payment of a small fee, conveys the shade to Hades, the realm of the dead. Homer's Iliad 16.681, the Euphronios Krater's depiction of the same episode, have Apollo instruct the removal of the heroic, semi-divine Sarpedon's body from the battlefield by Hypnos and Thanatos, conveyed thence to his homeland for proper funeral rites.
Among the other children of Nyx are Thanatos' sisters, the Keres, blood-drinking, vengeant spirits of violent or untimely death, portrayed as fanged and taloned, with bloody garments. Breton folklore shows the Ankou; the Ankou is the spirit of the last person that died within the community and appears as a tall, haggard figure with a wide hat and long white hair or a skeleton with a revolving head who sees everyone, everywhere. The Ankou drives a deathly cart with a creaking axle; the cart or wagon is piled high with corpses and a stop at a cabin means instant death for those inside. In Ireland there was a creature known as a dullahan, whose head would be tucked under his or her arm, the head was said to have large eyes and a smile that could reach the head's ears; the dullahan would ride a black horse or a carriage pulled by black horses, stop at the house of someone about to die, call their name, the person would die. The dullahan did not like being watched, it was believed that if a dullahan knew someone was watching them, they would lash that person's eyes with their whip, made from a spine.
In Ireland there is a female spirit known as Banshee, who heralds the death of a person by shrieking or keening. The banshee is described in Gaelic lore as wearing red or green with long, disheveled hair, she can appear in a variety of forms. Most she is seen as an ugly, frightful hag, but she can appear as young and beautiful if she chooses. In Ireland and parts of Scotland, a traditional part of mourning is the keening woman, who wails a lament – in Irish: Caoineadh, caoin meaning "to weep, to wail"; when several banshees appear at once, it indicates the death of someone holy. The tales sometimes recounted that the woman, though called a fairy, was a ghost of a specific murdered woman, or a mother who died in childbirth. In Scottish folklore there was a belief that a black, dark green or white dog known as a Cù Sìth took dying souls to the afterlife. In Welsh Folklore Gwyn ap Nudd is the escort of the grave, the personification of Death and Winter who leads the wild hunt to collect wayward souls and escort them to the Otherworld, sometimes it is Melwas, Arawn or Afallach in a similar position.
La Calavera Catrina is a character in Mexican art that symbolizes death. She is an icon of the Mexican Day of the Dead, a holiday that focuses on the remembrance of the dead. Our Lady of the Holy Death is a female deity or folk saint of Mexican folk religion, whose faith has been spreading in Mexico and the United States. In Spanish the word "muerte" is a female noun, so it is common in Spanish-speaking countries for death to be personified as female figures; this happens in other Romanic languages like French, Portuguese and Romanian. Since the pre-Columbian era Mexican culture has maintained a certain reverence towards death, which can be seen in the widespread commemoration of the Day of the Dead. Elements of that celebration include the use of skeletons to remind people of their mortality; the cult of Santa Muerte is indeed a continuation of the Aztec cult of the goddess of death Mictecacihuatl clad
Greek mythology is the body of myths told by the ancient Greeks. These stories concern the origin and the nature of the world, the lives and activities of deities and mythological creatures, the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself; the Greek myths were propagated in an oral-poetic tradition most by Minoan and Mycenaean singers starting in the 18th century BC. Two poems by Homer's near contemporary Hesiod, the Theogony and the Works and Days, contain accounts of the genesis of the world, the succession of divine rulers, the succession of human ages, the origin of human woes, the origin of sacrificial practices. Myths are preserved in the Homeric Hymns, in fragments of epic poems of the Epic Cycle, in lyric poems, in the works of the tragedians and comedians of the fifth century BC, in writings of scholars and poets of the Hellenistic Age, in texts from the time of the Roman Empire by writers such as Plutarch and Pausanias.
Aside from this narrative deposit in ancient Greek literature, pictorial representations of gods and mythic episodes featured prominently in ancient vase-paintings and the decoration of votive gifts and many other artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles. In the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an extensive influence on the culture and literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes. Greek mythology is known today from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c. 900 BC to c. 800 BC onward. In fact and archaeological sources integrate, sometimes mutually supportive and sometimes in conflict.
Mythical narration plays an important role in nearly every genre of Greek literature. The only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus; this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens wrote on many of these topics, his writings may have formed the basis for the collection. Among the earliest literary sources are the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the "epic cycle", but these and lesser poems now are lost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the "Homeric Hymns" have no direct connection with Homer, they are choral hymns from the earlier part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiod, a possible contemporary with Homer, offers in his Theogony the fullest account of the earliest Greek myths, dealing with the creation of the world. Hesiod's Works and Days, a didactic poem about farming life includes the myths of Prometheus and the Five Ages.
The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, rendered yet more dangerous by its gods. Lyrical poets took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became less narrative and more allusive. Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, relate individual mythological incidents. Additionally, myth was central to classical Athenian drama; the tragic playwrights Aeschylus and Euripides took most of their plots from myths of the age of heroes and the Trojan War. Many of the great tragic stories took on their classic form in these tragedies; the comic playwright Aristophanes used myths, in The Birds and The Frogs. Historians Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, geographers Pausanias and Strabo, who traveled throughout the Greek world and noted the stories they heard, supplied numerous local myths and legends giving little-known alternative versions. Herodotus in particular, searched the various traditions presented him and found the historical or mythological roots in the confrontation between Greece and the East.
Herodotus attempted to reconcile the blending of differing cultural concepts. The poetry of the Hellenistic and Roman ages was composed as a literary rather than cultic exercise, it contains many important details that would otherwise be lost. This category includes the works of: The Roman poets Ovid, Valerius Flaccus and Virgil with Servius's commentary; the Greek poets of the Late Antique period: Nonnus, Antoninus Liberalis, Quintus Smyrnaeus. The Greek poets of the Hellenistic period: Apollonius of Rhodes, Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Parthenius. Prose writers from the same periods who make reference to myths includ
Shinto or kami-no-michi is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past. Shinto practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in the 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified religion, but rather to a collection of native beliefs and mythology. Shinto today is the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of "spirits", "essences" or "gods", suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals, applies as well to various sectarian organizations. Practitioners express their diverse beliefs through a standard language and practice, adopting a similar style in dress and ritual, dating from around the time of the Nara and Heian periods; the word Shinto was adopted as Jindō or Shindō, from the written Chinese Shendao, combining two kanji: shin, meaning "spirit" or kami.
The oldest recorded usage of the word Shindo is from the second half of the 6th century. Kami is rendered in English as "spirits", "essences", or "gods", refers to the energy generating the phenomena. Since the Japanese language does not distinguish between singular and plural, kami refers to the singular divinity, or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms: rocks, rivers, objects and people can be said to possess the nature of kami. Kami and people are not separate; as much as nearly 80% of the population in Japan participates in Shinto practices or rituals, but only a small percentage of these identify themselves as "Shintoists" in surveys. This is. Most of the Japanese attend Shinto shrines and beseech kami without belonging to an institutional Shinto religion. There are no formal rituals to become a practitioner of "folk Shinto". Thus, "Shinto membership" is estimated counting only those who do join organised Shinto sects. Shinto has about 85,000 priests in the country. According to surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008, less than 40% of the population of Japan identifies with an organised religion: around 35% are Buddhists, 3% to 4% are members of Shinto sects and derived religions.
In 2008, 26% of the participants reported visiting Shinto shrines, while only 16.2% expressed belief in the existence of a god or gods in general. According to Inoue: "In modern scholarship, the term is used with reference to kami worship and related theologies and practices. In these contexts,'Shinto' takes on the meaning of'Japan's traditional religion', as opposed to foreign religions such as Christianity, Islam and so forth." Shinto religious expressions have been distinguished by scholars into a series of categories: Shrine Shinto, the main tradition of Shinto, has always been a part of Japan's history. It consists of taking part in worship events at local shrines. Before the Meiji Restoration, shrines were disorganized institutions attached to Buddhist temples; the current successor to the imperial organization system, the Association of Shinto Shrines, oversees about 80,000 shrines nationwide. Imperial Household Shinto are the religious rites performed by the imperial family at the three shrines on the imperial grounds, including the Ancestral Spirits Sanctuary and the Sanctuary of the Kami.
Folk Shinto includes the numerous folk beliefs in spirits. Practices include divination, spirit possession, shamanic healing; some of their practices come from Buddhism, Taoism or Confucianism, but most come from ancient local traditions. Sect Shinto is a legal designation created in the 1890s to separate government-owned shrines from local organised religious communities; these communities originated in the Edo period. The basic difference between Shrine Shinto and Sect Shinto is that sects are a development and grew self-consciously, they can identify a founder, a formal set of teachings and sacred scriptures. Sect Shinto groups are thirteen, classified under five headings: pure Shinto sects, Confucian sects,mountain worship sects, purification sects, faith-healing sects (Kurozumikyo／黒住教, Konkokyo/金光教 and its branching Omotokyo/大本教 and Tenrikyo／天理教. Koshintō, literally'Old Shinto', is a reconstructed "Shinto from before the time of Buddhism", today based on Ainu religion and Ryukyuan practices.
It continues the restoration movement begun by Hirata Atsutane. Many other sects and schools can be distinguished. Faction Shinto is a grouping of Japanese new religions developed since the second half of the 20th century that have departed from traditional Shinto and are not always regarded as part of it. Kami, shin, or, jin is defined in English as "god", "spirit", or "spiritual essence", all these terms meaning "the energy generating a thing". Since the Japanese language does not distinguish between singular and plural, kami refers to the divinity, or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms. Rocks, rivers, objects, places
In East Asian and Buddhist mythology, Yama is a dharmapala said to judge the dead and preside over the Narakas and the cycle of afterlife saṃsāra. Although based on the god Yama of the Hindu Vedas, the Buddhist Yama has developed different myths and different functions from the Hindu deity, he has spread far more and is known in most countries where Buddhism is practiced, including China, Japan, Vietnam, Mongolia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia and Laos. Adopted from Hinduism into Buddhism, Yama's exact role is vague in canonical texts, but is clearer in extracanonical texts and popular beliefs, although these are not always consistent with Buddhist philosophy. In the Pali canon, the Buddha states that a person who has ill-treated their parents, holy persons, or elders is taken upon his death to Yama. Yama asks the ignoble person if he considered his own ill conduct in light of birth, sickness, worldly retribution and death. In response to Yama's questions, such an ignoble person answers that he failed to consider the karmic consequences of his reprehensible actions and as a result is sent to a brutal hell "so long as that evil action has not exhausted its result."In the Pali commentarial tradition, the scholar Buddhaghosa's commentary to the Majjhima Nikaya describes Yama as a vimānapeta, a "being in a mixed state", sometimes enjoying celestial comforts and at other times punished for the fruits of his karma.
However, Buddhaghosa considered his rule as a king to be just. Modern Theravādin countries portray Yama sending old age, disease and other calamities among humans as warnings to behave well. At death, they are summoned before Yama, who examines their character and dispatches them to their appropriate rebirth, whether to earth or to one of the heavens or hells. Sometimes there are thought to be each presiding over a distinct Hell. In Chinese mythology, King Yan is the god of death and the ruler of Diyu, overseeing the "Ten Kings of Hell", he is known as Yanluo, a transcription of the Sanskrit for King Yama. In both ancient and modern times, Yan is portrayed as a large man with a scowling red face, bulging eyes, a long beard, he wears traditional robes and a judge's cap or a crown which bears the character for "king". He appears on Chinese hell money in the position reserved for political figures on regular currency. Yan is not only the ruler but the judge of the underworld and passes judgment on all the dead.
He always appears in a male form, his minions include a judge who holds in his hands a brush and a book listing every soul and the allotted death date for every life. Ox-Head and Horse-Face, the fearsome guardians of hell, bring the newly dead, one by one, before Yan for judgement. Men or women with merit will be rewarded good future lives or revival in their previous life. Men or women who committed misdeeds will be sentenced to miserable future lives. In some versions, Yan divides Diyu into eight, ten, or eighteen courts each ruled by a Yan King, such as King Chujiang, who rules the court reserved for thieves and murderers; the spirits of the dead, on being judged by Yan, are supposed to either pass through a term of enjoyment in a region midway between the earth and the heaven of the gods or to undergo their measure of punishment in the nether world. Neither location is permanent and after a time, they return to Earth in new bodies. "Yan" was sometimes considered to be a position in the celestial hierarchy, rather than an individual.
There were said to be cases in which an honest mortal was rewarded the post of Yan and served as the judge and ruler of the underworld. Some said common people like Bao Zheng, Fan Zhongyan, Zhang Binglin became the Yan at night or after death; these Chinese beliefs subsequently spread to Japan. In Japan, he is called Enma, King Enma, Great King Enma. In Korea, Yan is known as Great King Yeom-ra. In Vietnam, these Buddhist deities are known as Diêm La or Diêm Vương and are venerated as a council of all ten kings who oversee underworld realm of địa ngục. "If you lie, Lord Enma will pull out your tongue" is a superstition in Japan told to scare children into telling the truth. A Japanese kotowaza states "When borrowing, the face of a jizō. Jizō is portrayed with a serene, happy expression whereas Enma is portrayed with a thunderous, furious expression; the kotowaza alludes to changes in people's behaviour for selfish reasons depending on their circumstances. In Tibetan Buddhism, Shinje is both regarded with horror as the prime mover of the cycle of death and rebirth and revered as a guardian of spiritual practice.
In the popular mandala of the Bhavachakra, all of the realms of life are depicted between the jaws or in the arms of a monstrous Shinje. Shinje is sometimes shown with a consort and sometimes pursued by Yamantaka. Lord Yama appears as King Yemma in the manga franchise Dragonball. Lord Yama appears as Great King Emma in manga franchise Dr. slump. Lord Yama appears as King Enma in the anime and manga franchise Yu Yu Hakusho along with a fictional son named "Koenma." Lord Yama appears as King Enma in the manga franchise Hoozuki no Reitetsu. Lord Yama appears as Ancient Enma in the anime and video game franchise Yo-Kai W
Religion in Japan
Religion in Japan is dominated by Shinto and by Buddhism. According to surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008, less than 40% of the population of Japan identifies with an organized religion: around 35% are Buddhists, 3% to 4% are members of Shinto sects and derived religions, from fewer than 1% to 2.3% are Christians. Most of the Japanese pray and worship ancestors and gods at Shinto shrines or at private altars, while not identifying as "Shinto" or "Shintoist" in surveys; this is because these terms have little meaning for the majority of the Japanese, or because they define membership in Shinto organizations or sects. The term "religion" itself in Japanese culture defines only organized religions. People who identify as "non-religious" in surveys mean that they do not belong to any religious organization though they may take part in Shinto rituals and worship; some scholars, such as Jun'ichi Isomae and Jason Ānanda Josephson, have challenged the usefulness of the term "religion" in regard to Japanese "traditions", arguing that the Japanese term and concept of "religion" is an invention of the 19th century.
However, other scholars, such as Hans Martin Kramer and Ian Reader, regard such claims as overstated and contend that the terms relate to terminology and categorizations that existed in Japan prior to the 19th century. Shinto kami-no-michi, is the indigenous religion of Japan and most of the people of Japan, it is defined as an action-centered religion, focused on ritual practices to be carried out diligently, to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient roots. Shinto practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in the 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified "Shinto religion", but rather to a collection of native beliefs and mythology. Shinto today is the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of gods, suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals, applies as well to various sectarian organizations. Practitioners express their diverse beliefs through a standard language and practice, adopting a similar style in dress and ritual, dating from around the time of the Nara and Heian periods.
The word Shinto was adopted as Shindo, from the written Chinese Shendao, combining two kanji: "shin", meaning "spirit" or kami. The oldest recorded usage of the word Shindo is from the second half of the 6th century. Kami are defined in English as "spirits", "essences" or "gods", referring to the energy generating the phenomena. Since Japanese language does not distinguish between singular and plural, kami refers to the divinity, or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms: rocks, rivers, animals and people can be said to possess the nature of kami. Kami and people are not separate. Shinto is the largest religion in Japan, practiced by nearly 80% of the population, yet only a small percentage of these identify themselves as "Shintoists" in surveys; this is due to the fact that "Shinto" has different meanings in Japan: most of the Japanese attend Shinto shrines and beseech kami without belonging to Shinto organisations, since there are no formal rituals to become a member of folk "Shinto", "Shinto membership" is estimated counting those who join organised Shinto sects.
Shinto has 78,890 priests in the country. With the profound changes that the Japanese society has gone through in the 20th century, after World War II, including rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, traditional religions were challenged by the transformation and underwent a reshaping themselves, principles of religious freedom articulated by the constitution provided space for the proliferation of new religious movements. Both new sects of Shinto and movements claiming a independent status, as well as new forms of Buddhist lay societies, provided ways of aggregation for people uprooted from traditional families and village institutions. While traditional Shinto is residential and hereditary, a person participates in the worship activities devoted to the local tutelary deity or ancestor asking for specific healing or blessing services or participating in pilgrimages, in the new religions groups were formed by individuals without regard to kinship or territorial origins, required a voluntary decision to join.
These new religions provided cohesion through a unified doctrine and practice shared by the nationwide community. The recognized new religions number in the hundreds, total membership is in the tens of millions; the largest new religion is Soka Gakkai, a Buddhist sect founded in 1930, which has about 10 million members in Japan. Scholars in Japan have estimated that between 10% and 20% of the population belongs to the new religions, although more realistic estimates put the number at well below the 10% mark; as of 2007, there are 223,831 priests and leaders of the new religions in Japan, three times the number of traditional Shinto priests. Many of these new religions are Shinto-derived and retain the fundamental characters of Shinto identifying themselves as forms of Shinto; these include Tenrikyo, Omotokyo, Shinreikyo, Sekai Shindokyo and others. Others are independent new