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Shinjuku Station

Shinjuku Station is a major railway station in the Shinjuku and Shibuya wards in Tokyo, Japan. In Shinjuku, it is part of the Shinjuku districts. In Shibuya, it is located in the Sendagaya districts, it is the world's busiest railway station. Serving as the main connecting hub for rail traffic between Tokyo's special wards and Western Tokyo on inter-city rail, commuter rail, subway lines, the station was used by an average of 3.64 million people per day in 2007, making it, by far, the world's busiest transport hub. The main JR station and the directly adjacent private railways have a total of 35 platforms, including an underground arcade, above ground arcade and numerous hallways with another 17 platforms can be accessed through hallways to 5 directly connected stations without surfacing outside; the entire above/underground complex has well over 200 exits. Shinjuku is served by the following railway systems: JR East: ■ Chuo Main Line JC Chūō Line JB Chuo-Sobu Line JA Saikyo Line JS Shonan-Shinjuku Line JY Yamanote Line Keio Corporation: KO Keio Line KO Keio New Line Odakyu Electric Railway: OH Odakyu Odawara Line Toei Subway: E Toei Oedo Line S Toei Shinjuku Line Tokyo Metro: M Marunouchi Line The station is centered around facilities servicing the East Japan Railway Company lines.

These consist of eight ground-level island platforms on a north-south axis, connected by two overhead and two underground concourses. Most JR services here are urban and suburban mass transit lines, although JR's long-distance express services to Kōfu and Matsumoto on the Chūō Main Line, Narita Express to Narita Airport, joint operations with Tobu Railway to Nikkō and Kinugawa Onsen use this station; the JR section alone handles an average of 1.5 million passengers a day. The terminus for the private Odakyu Odawara Line is parallel to the JR platforms on the west side, handles an average of 490,000 passengers daily; this is a major commuter route stretching southwest through the suburbs and out towards the coastal city of Odawara and the mountains of Hakone. The ten platforms are built on two levels beneath the Odakyu department store; each track has platforms on both sides in order to separate boarding and alighting passengers. Chest-high platform screen doors were added to platforms 4 and 5 in September 2012.

The Keio Line concourse is located to the west of the Odakyu line concourse, two floors below ground level under Keio department store. It consists of three platforms stretching north to south. 720,000 passengers use this section daily, which makes it the busiest amongst the non-JR Group railways of Japan. This suburban commuter line links Shinjuku to the city of Hachiōji to the west. Chest-high platform edge doors were introduced on the Keio Line platforms in March 2014; the doors are different colours for each platform. The doors on platform 2 are green; the shared facilities for the Toei Shinjuku subway line and the Keiō New Line are distinctively called Keiō New Line Shinjuku Station and consist of two platforms stretching east-west five floors beneath the Kōshū Kaidō avenue to the southwest of the JR section. The concourse is managed by Keio Corporation but is in a separate location to the main Keio platforms. Further south are the two north-to-south Toei Ōedo subway line platforms. Toei Oedo Line's two underground platforms stretch north-south to the south of the Toei Shinjuku Line and Keio New Line facilities.

This is on the 7th basement floor of Tokyo prefectural road 414. Tokyo Metro's two Marunouchi Line underground platforms stretch east-west to the north of the JR and Odakyu facilities, directly below the Metro Promenade underground mall. Many department stores and shopping malls are built directly into the station; these include Lumine Est – above JR's east exit Odakyu department store – above the Odakyu line concourse Odakyu Mylord – above the southern end of Odakyu line concourse Lumine 1 shopping mall – above the Keio Line concourse Lumine 2 shopping mall – above JR's south and Lumine exits Keio Department store – above the Keio Line concourse Keio Mall – underground mall to the southwest of the Keio Line concourse Odakyu Ace – underground malls beneath the bus terminal by the west exit. In addition to the above, the Metro Promenade, an underground mall owned by Tokyo Metro, extends eastwards from the station beneath Shinjuku-dori avenue, all the way to the adjacent Shinjuku-sanchōme station with 60 exits along the way.

The Metro Promenade in turn connects to Shinjuku Subnade, another underground shopping mall, which leads onto Seibu Railway's Seibu-Shinjuku station. Shinjuku Station is connected by underground passageways and shopping malls to: Nishi-Shinjuku Station Seibu Shinjuku Station Shinjuku-nishiguchi Station Shinjuku-sanchōme Station Tochōmae Station Nearby non-connected stations include: Shinjuku-gyoemmae Station Yoyogi station Higashi-Shinjuku Station Okubo Station Shin-Okubo Station Minami-Shinjuku Station There is a bus terminal at the west exit servicing both local and long-distance buses, a JR Highway Bus terminal at the New South Gates. On April 4, 2016, the new bus terminal and commercial facilities nearby south exit, named Busta Shinjuku, opened for service. Considerable numbers of the coaches and the

Caving organizations

There are a number of caving organizations throughout the world. The Union Internationale de Spéléologie is the international umbrella organization for caving and speleology; the Austrian Speleological Association, formed in 1949, represents over 20 caving clubs, with some 2500 members and about 30 show caves in Austria, is the Austrian member of UIS and FSE. Australian Speleological Federation is a national organisation formed in 1956, it is an environmental organisation promoting the protection of Australia's unique cave systems. The Speleological Society Ponir was founded in 1984 in Banja Luka; the main activity of the society is caving, finding and studying of underground karst phenomena – caves. As a part of this SD Ponir conducted training and educating new members through courses and caving expeditions. Training the young cavers includes theoretical courses and practical training. During its existence, SD Ponir organized many expeditions and explored a large number of caves in the territory of BiH.

SD Ponir is exploring the two biggest ones on the territory of BiH-Jojkinovac. Brazilian Speleological Society is a national organisation formed in 1969. SBE is member of UIS and FEALC; the first Bulgarian Speleological Society was founded on March 18, 1929. This was the result of the acknowledged necessity to set up a public organization which, under the conditions prevalent at that time, would begin a systematic investigation of caves, protecting them from destruction and setting the beginnings of cave tourism; the founders of the Society were eminent Bulgarian scientists, people active in the realm of tourism, cave-exploration fans - office employees and workers. The foundation of the first Bulgarian Speleological Society marked the beginning of a new stage in the development of Speleology in Bulgaria. Though not numerous in its membership, despite its limited financial capacities, the Society engaged in huge-scale and useful activities, it made a reappraisal of all, done until that time in cave investigation and in obtaining more knowledge about the country's caves.

Organized trips and studies were carried out in certain caves and karst regions of Bulgaria. The results obtained were published in the scientific publication of the Society - "Bulletin of the Bulgarian Speleological Society" - Volume One of which appeared in 1936. Active propaganda was carried out for the protection of the caves. There was a useful and active cooperation between the Bulgarian Speleological Society and the Bulgarian Tourist Union; the first provincial branches of the Society were founded in the Rakitovo village and the towns of Dryanovo and Lovech. The Bulgarian Speleological Society became more active after 1947. New members entered the Society. In 1948 and 1949 they took part with great enthusiasm in what were known as the cave brigades organized with the generous support of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Detailed investigations were carried out during this period of the karst regions of Lakatnik, Karloukovo and Zlatna Panega in Lovech District; the charts prepared and the materials collected constituted an important scientific contribution.

After 1949 the Bulgarian Speleological Society ceased its activities over a brief period of time. A good deal of work was done by the speleologists in the town of Rousse and by university students organized in their Speleological Club "Akademik" in Sofia. Amateur work continued, as well as the research initiated in this field by the various institutes of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and by the Sofia University. However, there was a keenly felt need for a speleological organization in the country; such an organization was necessary to unite the efforts of amateur speleologists and of the specialists and to promote the development of this branch of science in Bulgaria. Favourable conditions to that effect were created after 1957, with the restoration of the Bulgarian Tourist Union. At that time a number of scientists and amateur speleologists, as well as active supporters of the tourist movement, approached the Central Council of the Bulgarian Tourist Union with a proposal to set up a Committee for Cave Tourism.

On July 14, 1958, the Central Council decided on setting up a Commission on Speleology and Cave Tourism. Forty-two clubs were set up all over the country. With the generous support of the Central Council of the Bulgarian Tourist Union, the new speleological organization grew in strength and became active, its objectives became formulated and presented, a number of enactments were passed. There were a number of additional initiatives, such as plenary sessions, conferences and international expeditions. Penetration and survey work in the known caves and in the discovery of new cave sites became more active and on a higher scientific and technological level; the Commission on Speleology and Cave Tourism took on the task of the development and popularization of cave tourism in Bulgaria. After the Fourth Congress of the Bulgarian Tourist Union in 1972, the Commission on Speleology and Cave Tourism was transformed into the Bulgarian Federation on Speleology, which continues operating today; this new and higher form of organization furnished a fresh impetus to the development of Speleology in Bulgaria.

Its operation became more efficient. New initiatives were undertaken with

Jeremy Affeldt

Jeremy David Affeldt is an American former professional baseball pitcher. He threw and batted left-handed and played in Major League Baseball for the Kansas City Royals, Colorado Rockies, Cincinnati Reds and San Francisco Giants. Affeldt was a third-round draft pick by the Kansas City Royals in 1997, he made the team in 2002, started part of the year for them. In five seasons with the Royals, Affeldt bounced back and forth between the starting rotation and the bullpen. In 2006, he was traded to the Colorado Rockies at the trade deadline, was a member of the Rockies 2007 World Series team. After one season with the Cincinnati Reds, he signed with the San Francisco Giants in 2009, where he was a member of the 2010, 2012, 2014 World Series championship teams. Affeldt was born in Arizona, to David and Charlotte Affeldt, his father was a member of the United States Air Force, Affeldt lived in Guam, Merced and Spokane, growing up. While in Merced and his father would attend Oakland Athletics games, Affeldt enjoyed watching Mark McGwire, Jose Canseco, Dave Stewart.

Affeldt attended a Division 2-B school in Colbert, Washington. He participated in three sports while there, but it was baseball that drove several major league scouts to the school to see him pitch, he graduated in 1997. Affeldt was drafted by the Kansas City Royals in the third round of the 1997 MLB draft. Affeldt decided not to accept a scholarship offer to play college baseball for his hometown Gonzaga University, he spent 1997 pitching for the rookie–league Gulf Coast League Royals. While with them, he went 2–0 with a 4.50 ERA in ten games. Affeldt improved with the GCL Royals the next year, his performance earned him a promotion to the single-A Lansing Lugnuts. Affeldt did not do well in his time with them, though. In 1999, Affeldt spent the entire season with the Royals' single-A affiliate, which had changed to the Charleston Alley Cats during the offseason. Although he only went 7–7, he had a 3.83 ERA in twenty–seven games. Affeldt pitched with the Wilmington Blue Rocks of the single-A advanced Carolina League in 2000.

While with Wilmington, he led the entire Kansas City Royals' organization with fifteen losses. He threw seventeen wild pitches. However, his ERA was 4.09, the Blue Rocks were only a half–game ahead of the worst team in the league.2001 was a better season for Affeldt, as he went 10–6 with a 3.90 ERA in twenty–five starts for the double-A Wichita Wranglers. He was selected to pitch in the Texas League All-Star Game, he was named to the postseason All–Star team. Affeldt was not expected to make the Kansas City Royals' roster in 2002, but he was added to the bullpen after he had an 0.64 ERA and fourteen strikeouts in fourteen innings in Spring training. His major league debut came on April 6 against the Chicago White Sox, he pitched two innings, giving up a run in a 14 -- 0 loss. On April 24, Affeldt picked up his first major league win by pitching 3.2 innings of relief in an 8–2 win over the Detroit Tigers. Affeldt's time in the bullpen did not last long. On May 3, he replaced Bryan Rekar in the Royals' starting rotation.

In his first start, he pitched four innings, gave up one run, earned a no–decision in a 4–3 loss to the Baltimore Orioles. Affeldt's time as a starter garnered so-so results. In his last start, on June 8, Affeldt picked up the loss as the Royals fell 11–3 to the St. Louis Cardinals. After getting pulled in the fourth inning due to an injury, Affeldt was placed on the disabled list with fingernail and blister problems. After making three rehab starts in Wichita, Affeldt returned to the Royals on August 2 and threw a perfect inning against the Minnesota Twins, he remained in the bullpen for the remainder of the 2002 season. After the season, he pitched in a winter league in the Dominican Republic. In 2003, Affeldt found himself competing with Runelvys Hernández for the first spot in the Royals' starting rotation during Spring training; because Tony Peña, the Royals' manager, was unable to decide which one would be the ace, he flipped a coin to determine who would be number one. Hernández won the toss.

Affeldt was placed on the disabled list after only four games with blister problems again. His time on the DL was brief and he returned to the Royals on May 6. On May 28, he struck out a career high eight batters in a win against the Minnesota Twins. On June 6, he notched his first hit. Affeldt's final start of the year came on July 23, in a game. After the start, the Royals moved him to the bullpen to try to fix his blister problems; the move was thought to be temporary. While in the bullpen, on August 3, he got his career first save in a 2–0 win over the Tampa Bay Devil Rays. On August 21, the Royals announced. Two days he got another save against Minnesota, he picked up two more saves before the end of the year and finished with a 7–6 record and a 3.93 ERA. After the season, to try to help with his blister problems, he had part of a fingernail on the middle finger of his left hand removed; the Royals announced that if he developed blister problems again, he would be sent to the bullpen for good.

In 2004, Affeldt was named the Royals' third starter out of Spring training. He went 0–3 with a 5.24 ERA in eight starts. His final start of 2004 came on May 18 against the Texas Rangers. Affeldt gave up five runs in four in