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Shinny is an informal type of hockey played on ice. It is used as another term for street hockey. There are no formal rules or specific positions, there are no goaltenders; the goal areas at each end may be marked by nets, or by objects, such as stones or blocks of snow. Body checking and lifting or "roofing/reefing/raising the puck" are forbidden because the players are not wearing protective equipment. Shinny is a game that all levels of hockey enthusiasts can play because it requires no rink, requires no skills except ability to hold a stick and at the least to try to touch the puck or ball when it goes by. Shinny may be non-competitive and recreational. In his book Country on Ice, Doug Beardsley claims that most Canadian hockey professional players have played some form of shinny in their youth. There is a common ritual for choosing teams, which has each player "throwing" their hockey stick into a pile at centre ice, or the middle area between two nets. If there are not enough people on the rink who are playing an organized game, one player may approach another player and ask, "Wanna get a game goin', bud?", or toss his own stick into the middle.

Once people follow suit and enough sticks are in the pile, someone divides the pile into two smaller piles strategically assigning sticks to one side or another. Players pick up their own sticks, the teams having been formed. If there are too many players for the size of playing area, three teams may be created, with one team waiting to play the winner. Otherwise, the two teams can put the extra players on the "bench," allowing for players to rest between shifts. Teams are formed with intent to divide the group into equal levels of skills among the players. Players joining after play has started are told "which way they are going" based upon the score of the game and their skill level; some games continue for many hours with a variety of players participating for as long. Shinny believed to be a precursor to ice hockey, was informal enough in its formative years that the pucks and sticks were makeshift. During the Great Depression, for example, northern boys used tree branches or broomhandles as sticks, a tin can, a piece of wood, a frozen road apple as a puck.

Any object about the right size might serve as a puck. The name is derived from the Scottish game shinty and indeed shinny was a common name for one of shinty's many regional variations in Scotland. Shinny, a Canadian term, is called scrimmage, pick-up hockey, drop-in hockey and puck, or RAT Hockey in the United States. In some municipalities around the world where the climate permits, part of a city's taxes may go to the formal set-up and maintenance of skating rinks designed for shinny. In some cities, such as Montreal; the City of Toronto, Canada, known for both its hockey fan reputation and fresh waves of new immigrants, hosts free or low-cost shinny sessions and has programs for adults to learn how to shinny on city rinks. In fact, Toronto has more outdoor mechanically-cooled rinks than any city in the world, with 53 outdoor mechanically cooled rinks in operation; the programs, expanded in 2011, include parent/child shinny and two levels of beginner, are supervised by city-paid coaches. U.

S. Pond Hockey Championships ShinnyUSA - Lifetime Adult Hockey Pickup Hockey - Local Toronto Pickup Shinny Group for Beginners & Intermediate Players

North-West Mounted Police in popular media

The Canadian North-West Mounted Police had a prominent role in popular media from the late 19th century onwards. The North-West Mounted Police, founded in 1873, were viewed with scepticism by the press, but soon became portrayed in media and fictional accounts as courageous and chivalrous, displaying a sense of fair-play as they brought their suspects to justice. In the 20th century, over 250 films were made about the force, along with radio and television portrayals; the early reputation of the NWMP was created by journalistic accounts of the force published in the 1880s and 1890s, followed by biographical and narrative accounts by retired NWMP officers. The initial press response was mixed among the Liberal media, featured accounts of what Dawson describes as "inefficiency and impropriety" within the new organisation. In contrast, the memoirs promoted an image of a tough, but fair, focused on maintaining order. Quite however, a more heroic, romantic tone took over within newspaper accounts and a powerful myth built up around the mounted police.

The first appearance of the NWMP in fiction occurred in 1885, in Joseph Collin's The Story of Louis Riel. The police soon became a popular subject for popular novels, with over 150 novels about the NWMP being published between 1890 and 1940 in North America and Britain, along with magazines and publications for children. Gilbert Parker and Ralph Connor's works popular and influential, while James Curwood's illustrated works also... Connor's Corporal Connor: A Tale of Macleod Trail... Numerous poems were written about the NWMP, with best known being the Riders of the Plains published in 1878 and expanded several times afterwards; the novels used plot. The mounted policeman was, as Michael Dawson describes, an Anglo-Saxon, "chivalric, self-abnegating hero whose motives were always beyond question", he would pursue and capture a suspect through a dangerous, hostile environment winning bloodlessly, facing a villain who had a foreign or French-Canadian background. Andrew Graybill describes how the hero would exhibit "Victorian manliness", with the narrative focusing on "romance and the preservation of justice through fair play.

This narrative contrasted with the classic Western story in which a community is saved from violence by violence. Surrounding environment different: dangerous environment, vice pastoral; the works were all published in English: there were no French-Canadian novels published during the period which featured a mounted policeman as a hero. There were differences, however, in how United States and Canadian authors portrayed the NWMP in their works. British novels about the NWMP, for example, focused on the role of the mounted police as colonial soldiers, with the stories emphasising the upper class backgrounds of the protagonists, their moral duty in serving the British Empire on the fringes of civilisation. In contrast, United States authors translated their own frontier to Canada, telling stories in which familiar moral narratives took place using Canadian characters. Dick Harrison describes the mounted police in these novels as "U. S. marshalls in red tunics", with the police "larger than the law" as they impose their own judgments.

United States readers perceived the NWMP as part of their own frontier story, with the solitary mounted policeman both part of an organisation and yet still somewhat of a loner. The Canadian tradition embraced much of the imperial British narrative, but depicts the NWMP as a symbol of wider law, moral authority and right, that Harrison calls "an unseen ideal of order"; the mounted police are more civilised in these stories than the settlers they are protecting: brave and compassionate. These stories focused on the positive themes of hope and pride, rather than any negative elements, reinforcing reinforced the readers' sense of themselves as an heroic people. Michael Marsden describes this narrative as "the story of the winning of the West as it should have been won". Furthermore in the 1920s, the stories of the NWMP and the white, rural 19th-century prairies was a comforting image for readers. In the face of contemporary fears about threats to social hierarchies, fears of immigrants and other social problems, the myth of the NWMP depicted in these novels was a reassuring symbol.

As Laurier commented about Corporal Connor, it would "preserve a special phase of our national history, customs which are passing away". US image wins out by the 1930s. Domestic Canadian popular fiction market collapses in the 1930s due to US competition. During the 1930s and 1940s, the NWMP became the topic of radio films. Radio series such as the Renfrew of the Mounted and Challenge of the Yukon continued the portrayal of the mounted police as iconic heroes, the latter series translating to television as Sergeant Preston of the Yukon in the 1950s. Over 250 films were made about the NWMP including Rose Marie; the popularity of these waned in the 1970s, although this image of the NWMP has influenced late 20th century television portrayals of the modern RCMP, such as the Due South series depicted a mounted policeman from the Yukon. Dawson, Michael; the Mountie From Dime Novel to Disney. Toronto, Canada: Between the Lines. ISBN 9781896357164. Graybill, Andrew R.. Policing the Great Plains: Rangers and the North American Frontier, 1875-1910.

Lincoln, U. S.: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803260023. Harrison, Dick. "The Mounted Police in Fiction". In Dempsey, Hugh A.. Men in Scarlet. Lincoln, U. S.: Historical Society of Alberta and McClelland and Stewart West. Pp. 163–174. OCLC 635848375. Harrison, Dic

Galactic habitable zone

In astrobiology and planetary astrophysics, the galactic habitable zone is the region of a galaxy in which life might most develop. The concept of a galactic habitable zone analyzes various factors, such as metallicity and the rate of major catastrophes such as supernovae, uses these to calculate which regions of a galaxy are more to form terrestrial planets develop simple life, provide a suitable environment for this life to evolve and advance. According to research published in August 2015 large galaxies may favor the birth and development of habitable planets more than smaller galaxies such as the Milky Way. In the case of the Milky Way, its galactic habitable zone is believed to be an annulus with an outer radius of about 10 kiloparsecs and an inner radius close to the Galactic Center. Galactic habitable-zone theory has been criticized due to an inability to quantify the factors making a region of a galaxy favorable for the emergence of life. In addition, computer simulations suggest that stars may change their orbits around the galactic center therefore challenging at least part of the view that some galactic areas are more life-supporting than others.

The idea of the circumstellar habitable zone was introduced in 1953 by Hubertus Strughold and Harlow Shapley and in 1959 by Su-Shu Huang as the region around a star in which an orbiting planet could retain water at its surface. From the 1970s, planetary scientists and astrobiologists began to consider various other factors required for the creation and sustenance of life, including the impact that a nearby supernova may have on life's development. In 1981, computer scientist Jim Clarke proposed that the apparent lack of extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way could be explained by Seyfert-type outbursts from an active galactic nucleus, with Earth alone being spared from this radiation by virtue of its location in the galaxy. In the same year, Wallace Hampton Tucker analyzed galactic habitability in a more general context, but work superseded his proposals. Modern galactic habitable-zone theory was introduced in 1986 by L. S. Marochnik and L. M. Mukhin of the Russian Space Research Institute, who defined the zone as the region in which intelligent life could flourish.

Donald Brownlee and palaeontologist Peter Ward expanded upon the concept of a galactic habitable zone, as well as the other factors required for the emergence of complex life, in their 2000 book Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe. In that book, the authors used the galactic habitable zone, among other factors, to argue that intelligent life is not a common occurrence in the Universe; the idea of a galactic habitable zone was further developed in 2001 in a paper by Ward and Brownlee, in collaboration with Guillermo Gonzalez of the University of Washington. In that paper, Gonzalez and Ward stated that regions near the galactic halo would lack the heavier elements required to produce habitable terrestrial planets, thus creating an outward limit to the size of the galactic habitable zone. Being too close to the galactic center, would expose an otherwise habitable planet to numerous supernovae and other energetic cosmic events, as well as excessive cometary impacts caused by perturbations of the host star's Oort cloud.

Therefore, the authors established an inner boundary for the galactic habitable zone, located just outside the galactic bulge. In order to identify a location in the galaxy as being a part of the galactic habitable zone, a variety of factors must be accounted for; these include the distribution of stars and spiral arms, the presence or absence of an active galactic nucleus, the frequency of nearby supernovae that can threaten the existence of life, the metallicity of that location, other factors. Without fulfilling these factors, a region of the galaxy cannot create or sustain life with efficiency. One of the most basic requirements for the existence of life around a star is the ability of that star to produce a terrestrial planet of sufficient mass to sustain it. Various elements, such as iron, titanium, oxygen and others, are required to produce habitable planets, the concentration and ratios of these vary throughout the galaxy. One important elemental ratio is that of, one of the factors determining the propensity of a region of the galaxy to produce terrestrial planets.

The galactic bulge, the region of the galaxy closest to the galactic center, has an distribution peaking at −0.2 decimal exponent units relative to the Sun's ratio. The extended thick disk has an average of −0.6 dex, while the halo, the region farthest from the galactic center, has the lowest distribution peak, at around −1.5 dex. In addition, ratios such as, may be relevant to the ability of a region of a galaxy to form habitable terrestrial planets, of these and are reducing over time, meaning that future terrestrial planets are more to possess larger iron cores. In addition to specific amounts of the various stable elements that comprise a terrestrial planet's mass, an abundance of radionuclides such as 40K, 235U, 238U, 232Th is required in order to heat the planet's interior and power life-sustaining processes such as plate tectonics, a geomagnetic dynamo; the and ratios are dependent on the ratio.


Apthamitra is a 2004 Indian Kannada-language horror film directed by P. Vasu, starring Vishnuvardhan, Ramesh Arvind, Soundarya and others; this was actress Soundarya's last film. It is an official remake of the 1993 Malayalam film Manichithrathazhu; the movie was dubbed in Telugu as Soundharya Chandramukhi. The movie was dubbed in Hindi as Chandramukhi ka Bhool Bhulaiya Mahal; the film ran for one year in the main theaters across Karnataka. Apthamitra was followed by its sequel, Aptharakshaka. P. Vasu remade the movie in Tamil in 2005 as Chandramukhi. Ramesh and Ganga are married couple who move into Mysore to buy an ancient palace, against the wishes of his uncles and elders of the family, his uncle agrees to reside with them with his two daughters Vani and Hema, on one condition that the room on the first floor, locked and sealed should not be visited by anyone in the family. They have their care-taker Rangajja. During their stay in the house they come to know that this palace earlier belonged to Raja Vijaya Rajendra Bahaddur.

He had a court dancer named Nagavalli from Andhra Pradesh. But Nagavalli loved a fellow dancer named Ramanatha, who used to reside in a house just behind the palace; when the Raja came to know of their affair on an Durgashtami day, he be-headed Dancer Ramanatha and burned Nagavalli alive. Nagavalli vowed at the time of her death that she would seek revenge of her death from the Raja by burning him alive on same Durgashtami day, as like her. Strange things start to happen in the palace and everyone suspect Sowmya, always found at the place of the incident. So, Ramesh calls in his psychiatrist friend Vijay to help him clear of the misconceptions regarding the palace and its history. Ramesh's uncle is not happy with the way Vijay functions and is always suspectful of him. Vani, Ramesh's cousin is in love with an orphan-dance teacher who incidentally resides in the same house behind the palace. Vijay comes to know of this and tells Ramesh's uncle about this and the alliance is approved by all in the family and their marriage is fixed.

When the whole family is out of town to visit Mahadev, to decide his wedding with Vani, Ganga with help from Sowmya opens the room in the first floor with the key given by Sowmya. While she entered the room, Sowmya comes running to tell not to open the door as the key-maker who made the key had died, but Ganga told her not to believe on this superstitions. During this time there are attempts to kill Ramesh by someone unknown, which every time is foiled by Vijay. Vani is attacked once by someone unknown. So Ramesh's uncle calls upon an Acharya Ramachandra Shastri to perform some Shanti pooja upon the palace. Though Ramesh is not interested in all these proceedings he agrees on advice of Vijay. On the eve of Engagement ceremony of Mahadev and Vani, Ganga accuses Mahadev of trying to molest her -, refused by both Mahdev and Vijay. Upon hearing this Ramesh shouts at him to get out of his house. Acharya stops the family from doing so and asks Vijay to tell them the mystery behind the strange incidents.

Vijay reveals to everyone that Ganga is behind all the strange incidents and she only tried to kill Ramesh and Vani. Ganga who visited the first floor room was enamoured by her diary. Since Ganga suffered from Multiple personality disorder or Split personality disorder, the mystery behind Nagavalli's story compelled her to assume herself as Nagavalli, compelling the spirit of Nagavalli to enter her body, she now intends to kill Vijay as he had posed in front of her as Raja Vijaya Rajendra Bahaddur, on the coming Durgashtami day as vowed by Nagavalli while dying. Vijay explains to everyone that since Nagavalli inside Ganga thinks that Mahadev is the dancer Ramnath. Vijay on Durgashtami Day, makes Nagavalli believe that he himself is the king, employs a sophisticated system to make Nagavalli burn a dummy with his image on it. Nagavalli leaves Ganga's body. Vijay is safe. Vijay helps Ganga psychologically to regain herself. Ramesh thanks Vijay for his help. Vishnuvardhan as Dr. Vijay / Vijaya Rajendra Bahaddur Ramesh Aravind as Ramesh Soundarya as Ganga / Nagavalli Prema as Sowmya Dwarakish as Mukunda Avinash as Acharya Ramachandra Shastri Pramila Joshai as Rukku Shivaram as Rangajja Satyajit as Shivananda Shridhar Jain as Dancer & Prof. Mahadev Sneha Eshwar as vani Bhoomika Shetty as Hema Gurukiran scored the film's background music and composed for its soundtrack, with lyrics for the tracks written by V. Manohar, Kaviraj, V. Nagendra Prasad and Goturi.

The soundtrack album consists of six tracks. The track Kaalavannu Tadeyoru was taken from the 1977 film, Kittu Puttu which had Dwarakish and Vishnuvardhan playing the lead roles as well, alongside Manjula, the lyrics for, written by Chi. Udayashankar. 52nd Filmfare Awards SouthThe film, won five Filmfare Awards that includes: Best Film – Kannada: Dwarakish Best Director – Kannada: P. Vasu Best Actor – Kannada: Vishnuvardhan Best Actress – Kannada: Soundarya Best Music Director – Kannada: Gurukiran Apthamitra on IMDb

Techno Animal

Techno Animal is an industrial hip hop duo formed in 1990 in London, England by British composers and musicians Justin Broadrick and Kevin Martin. The name addresses the concept of a technological animal and is not a direct reference to the techno genre. Kevin Martin had formed the industrial metal group God in 1987. Justin Broadrick had founded Godflesh in 1988, recorded with Napalm Death and would soon join God alongside Martin; the Techno Animal project came to fruition in 1990, arising from the musicians' shared interest in studio exploration. The intent was to restrict the project to the studio and use sampling to develop the music, with no intent to perform the material live. Techno Animal's debut album Ghosts was released in 1991. In his review of the album, English music critic Simon Reynolds compared the music to that of other sample-based acts such as Einstürzende Neubauten, Die Krupps and 23 Skidoo. In 2017, Martin and Broadrick formed the band Zonal. According to Broadrick, this new project is a spiritual continuation of Techno Animal.

Regarding Zonal, he said: "We felt fresh again about collaboration. Although as Zonal we play some old Techno Animal songs, most of our set is new material as Zonal, it pretty much continues where we left off as Techno Animal." Notably, Techno Animal's music was an important source of inspiration for electronic music musician Kid606, with their debut album Ghosts being influential to him. "It was one of the first experimental electronic records I had heard," he said, "Kevin Martin and Justin Broadrick were humongous influences on me from early on." AlbumsGhosts Re-Entry Radio Hades Techno Animal Versus Reality Symbiotics The Brotherhood of the Bomb Singles & EPsBabylon Seeker Unmanned Demonoid Phobic Cyclops Brotherhood of the Bomb/Monolith Megaton/Classical Homicide Dead Man's Curse We Can Build You

Cardonald Place Farm

Cardonald Place Farm is a farmhouse on the banks of the White Cart Water river in Cardonald, Scotland. It was built in 1848 on the site occupied by the former Cardonald Palace. Cardonald Castle was the seat of the Cardonald Stewart family in the 16th Century. Nothing remains of Cardonald Palace, although a stone from the palace has been set into the farmhouse above the door; the farmhouse is featured on the cover of the 1993 book. The Cardonald Stewarts built a palace at Cardonald around 1565, in 1580 Walter Stewart of Cardonald, Commendator of Blantyre Priory, based himself at Cardonald Palace; the palace is referred to in John Thomson's Atlas of Scotland as'Cardonald Ho.'). The palace was demolished in 1846 to be replaced by Cardonald Place Farm in 1848, "Place" being a corruption of palace. A stone from the palace, showing the coat of arms of the Cardonald Stewarts, was set above the entrance to the farm house; the five bedroom farmhouse at 135 Cardonald Place Farm, Cardonald Place Road, Cardonald, G52 3JX, has a large coat of arms above its entrance.

In 1926, Glasgow Corporation bought the Cardonald estates, including Cardonald Place Farm. They built the Moulin Circus estate on the grounds of the farm orchard in the 1940s; the steading was used as a Council yard up until around 1992 and had fallen into a state of disrepair. It was sold to a private developer, Hugh Kinnaird, who refurbished the main farmhouse and converted the steading into 3 houses. Nothing remains of orchard; the farm is a Category C listed building. The main building is in a T-shape. National Monuments Record of Scotland Site Reference NS56SW 205 National Monuments Record of Scotland Site Reference NS56SW 205 McDonald, P'The castles of Glasgow', The Scots Mag June, Page: 243 The History of Cardonald, Cardonald Library