Edo romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of Tokyo. It was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate, which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868. During this period, it grew to become one of the largest cities in the world and home to an urban culture centered on the notion of a "floating world". From the establishment of the Tokugawa bakufu headquarters at Edo, the town became the de facto capital and center of political power, although Kyoto remained the formal capital of the country. Edo grew from what had been a small, little-known fishing village in 1457 into the largest metropolis in the world with an estimated population of 1,000,000 by 1721. Edo was devastated by fires, with the Great Fire of Meireki in 1657 being the most disastrous. An estimated 100,000 people died in the fire. During the Edo period, there were about 100 fires begun by accident and quickly escalating and spreading through neighborhoods of wooden machiya which were heated with charcoal fires. Between 1600 and 1945, Edo/Tokyo was leveled every 25 -- 50 years or so by fire, war.
In 1868, when the shogunate came to an end, the city was renamed Tokyo. The emperor moved his residence to Tokyo, making the city the formal capital of Japan: Keiō 4: On the 17th day of the 7th month, Edo was renamed Tokyo. Keiō 4: On the 27th day of the 8th month, Emperor Meiji was crowned in the Shishin-den in Kyoto. Keiō 4: On the eighth day of the ninth month, the nengō was formally changed from Keiō to Meiji and a general amnesty was granted. Meiji 2: On the 23rd day of the 10th month, the emperor went to Tokyo and Edo castle became an imperial palace. Ishimaru Sadatsuga was the magistrate of Edo in 1661. During the Edo period, Roju were senior officials. Machi-bugyō were in charge of protecting the citizens and merchants of Edo, Kanjō-bugyō were responsible for the financial matters of the Shogunate; the city was laid out as a castle town around Edo Castle. The area surrounding the castle known as Yamanote consisted of daimyō mansions, whose families lived in Edo as part of the sankin kōtai system.
It was this extensive samurai class which defined the character of Edo in contrast to the two major cities of Kyoto and Osaka neither of which were ruled by a daimyō or had a significant samurai population. Kyoto's character was defined by the Imperial Court, the court nobles, its Buddhist temples and its history. Areas further from the center were the domain of the chōnin; the area known as Shitamachi, northeast of the castle, was a center of urban culture. The ancient Buddhist temple of Sensō-ji still stands in Asakusa, marking the center of an area of traditional Shitamachi culture; some shops in the streets near the temple have existed continuously in the same location since the Edo period. The Sumida River called the Great River, ran along the eastern edge of the city; the shogunate's official rice-storage warehouses, other official buildings and some of the city's best-known restaurants were located here. The "Japan Bridge" marked the center of the city's commercial center, an area known as Kuramae.
Fishermen and other producers and retailers operated here. Shippers managed ships known as tarubune to and from Osaka and other cities, bringing goods into the city or transferring them from sea routes to river barges or land routes such as the Tōkaidō; this area remains the center of Tokyo's financial and business district. The northeastern corner of the city was considered a dangerous direction in traditional onmyōdō, is protected from evil by a number of temples including Sensō-ji and Kan'ei-ji. Beyond this were the districts of the eta or outcasts, who performed "unclean" work and were separated from the main parts of the city. A path and a canal, a short distance north of the eta districts, extended west from the riverbank leading along the northern edge of the city to the Yoshiwara pleasure districts. Located near Ningyocho, the districts were rebuilt in this more-remote location after the Great Fire of Meireki in 1657, as the city expanded. See Tokyo for photographs of the modern city.
Edo period Edo society Fires in Edo 1703 Genroku earthquake Edokko History of Tokyo Iki Asakusa Forbes, Andrew. 100 Famous Views of Edo. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B00HR3RHUY Gordon, Andrew.. A Modern History of Japan from Tokugawa Times to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511060-9/ISBN 978-0-19-511060-9. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard.. Kyoto: the Old Capital, 794–1869. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. Sansom, George.. A History of Japan: 1615–1867. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0527-5/ISBN 978-0-8047-0527-1. Akira Naito, Kazuo Hozumi. Edo, the City that Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History. Kodansha International, Tokyo. ISBN 4-7700-2757-5 Alternate spelling from 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article. A Trip to Old Edo Fukagawa Edo Museum Map of Bushū Toshima District, Edo from 1682
Seba-juku was the thirty-first of the sixty-nine stations of the Nakasendō. It is located in the central part of the present-day city of Nagano Prefecture, Japan; the area was named "Seba," which means "washing a horse," when a retainer of Minamoto no Yoshinaka washed his master's horse in the waters here. Seba-juku was established in 1614, along with Shiojiri-juku and Motoyama-juku, in order to accommodate the change in the Nakasendō's route. Nakasendō Shiojiri-juku - Seba-juku - Motoyama-juku
Shiojiri Station is a train station in the city of Shiojiri, Nagano Prefecture, operated jointly by East Japan Railway Company, with a freight terminal operated by the Japan Freight Railway Company. It is the operational border between JR East and Central Japan Railway Company for the Chūō Main Line. Shiojiri Station is served by the Chūō Main Line, is 222.1 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Tokyo Station. It is the terminus of the 27.7 kilometer Okaya – Shiojiri branch line. It is the terminus for the Shinonoi Line; the station consists of three ground-level island platforms, connected to the station building by an elevated station building. The station has a Midori no Madoguchi staffed ticket office. Shiojiri Station opened on 15 December 1902 as the terminal of a Chuo Line extension from Matsumoto; the station was relocated with the old station being converted to a classification yard. With the 1987 privatization of the Japanese National Railways, the station was assigned to the control of the East Japan Railway Company.
In fiscal 2015, the station was used by an average of 3,981 passengers daily. Shiojiri City Hall JR East Shiojiri Station
Shukuba were post stations during the Edo period in Japan located on one of the Edo Five Routes or one of its sub-routes. They were called shuku-eki; these post stations were places. They were created based on policies for the transportation of goods by horseback that were developed during the Nara and Heian periods; these post stations were first established by Tokugawa Ieyasu shortly after the end of the Battle of Sekigahara. The first post stations were developed along the Tōkaidō. In 1601, the first of the Tōkaidō's fifty-three stations were developed, stretching from Shinagawa-juku in Edo to Ōtsu-juku in Ōmi Province. Not all the post stations were built at the same time, however, as the last one was built in 1624; the lodgings in the post stations were established for use by public officials and, when there were not enough lodgings, nearby towns were put into use. The post station's toiyaba and sub-honjin were all saved for the public officials, it was hard to receive a profit as the proprietor of these places, but the shōgun provided help in the form of various permits, rice collection and simple money lending, making it possible for the establishments to stay open.
The hatago, retail stores, tea houses, etc. which were designed for general travelers, were able to build a profit. Ai no shuku were intermediate post stations. Speaking, as the Meiji period arrived and brought along the spread of rail transport, the number of travelers visiting these post stations declined, as did the prosperity of the post stations. Toiyaba: General offices that helped manage the post town. Honjin: Rest areas and lodgings built for use by samurai and court nobles. Honjin were not businesses. Waki-honjin: These facilities were for use by samurai and court nobles, but general travelers could stay here if there were vacancies. Hatago: Facilities that offered accommodations to general travelers and served food. Kichin-yado: Facilities that offered accommodations to general travelers, but did not serve food. Chaya: Rest areas that sold tea and alcohol to travelers. Shops: General shops built to sell wares to travelers. Kōsatsu: Signboards on which the shōgun's proclamations were posted.
Nationally designated Architectural Preservation Sites Aizu Nishi Kaidō's Ōuchi-juku Hokkoku Kaidō's Unno-juku Nakasendō's Narai-juku Nakasendō's Tsumago-juku Tōkaidō's Seki-juku Saba Kaidō's Kumagawa-shuku Inaba Kaidō's Hirafuku-shuku Inaba Kaidō's Ōhara-shuku Inaba Kaidō's Chizu-shuku Tōkaidō's Ishibe-juku Ai no shuku Castle town Edo Five Routes
The Shinonoi Line is a railway line in Nagano Prefecture, operated by the East Japan Railway Company. It connects Shinonoi Station in Nagano with Shiojiri Station in Shiojiri; the line is a corridor between the Chūō Main Line. All the limited express trains on the Shinonoi Line come from the Chūō Main Line: Azusa and Super Azusa from Tokyo and Shinano from Nagoya. All stations are located in Nagano Prefecture. ●: All trains stop, ▲: Some trains stop, ｜: non-stop A passing loop is located in Azumino, known as Hirase shingōjō. It has two tracks. Coordinates:36°15′47″N 137°56′54″E A switchback is located in Azumino, known as Haneo shingōjō Coordinates: 36°29′08″N 138°05′55″E A switchback is located in Azumino, known as Kuwanohara shingōjō Coordinates: 36°31′20″N 138°04′40″E E353 series 383 series E127 series 211 series 313 series 115 series 123 series 381 series E257 series The Shinonoi to Nishijo section opened in 1900, was extended via Matsumoto to Shiojiri in 1902; the Shiojiri to Matsumoto section was double-tracked between 1961 and 1965, with the Tazawa to Akashina section double-tracked in 1966.
The Akashina to Nishijo section was double-tracked, but the original line was decommissioned in 1988. The Shiojiri to Matsumoto section was electrified in 1964/5, extended to Shinonoi in 1973, CTC signalling being commissioned on the entire line the previous year. Matsumoto Station: The Chikuma Electric Railway opened a 5 km line, electrified at 600 V DC, to Asama Onsen in 1924. In 1958 the voltage was raised to 750 V DC, but the line closed in 1964; this article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia
Kyoto Kyoto City, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan. It is best known in Japanese history for being the former Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. In Japanese, Kyoto was called Kyō, Miyako, or Kyō no Miyako. In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto, from the Chinese calligraphic, jingdu. After the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo in 1868, the seat of the Emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as Saikyō. Kyoto is sometimes called the thousand-year capital; the National Diet never passed any law designating a capital. Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto and Meaco, utilised by Dutch cartographers. Another term used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi, meaning "urba" or "capital". Ample archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, although not much published material is retained about human activity in the area before the 6th century, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established.
During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara. His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province; the new city, Heian-kyō, a scaled replica of the Tang capital Chang'an, became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto or in other cities such as Kamakura and Edo, Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration; the city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, did not recover until the mid-16th century. During the Ōnin War, the shugo collapsed, power was divided among the military families. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, came to involve the court nobility and religious factions as well.
Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since. In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi built earthwork walls called odoi encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo; the Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city which showed the rebels' dissatisfaction towards the Tokugawa Shogunate. The subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy; the modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city.
The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932. There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population large enough to persuade the emperor to surrender. In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki; the city was spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. As a result, the Imperial City of Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex. Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference.
Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres above sea level; this interior positioning results in cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 square kilometres. The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an; the Imperial Palace faced south. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern. Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a fa