A launch is an open motorboat. The forward part of the launch may be covered. Prior to the era of engines on small craft, a launch was the largest boat carried on a sailing vessel, powered by sail or by oars. In competitive rowing, a launch is a motorized boat used by the coach during training. A launch was the largest boat carried by a warship in the age of sail; the word comes from lancar. In the Age of Sail, a ship carried a variety of ship's boats of different sizes and used for different purposes. In addition to the launch, examples include the jolly boat, captain's gig and cutter. Distinctions among the smaller vessels were clear, both in purpose. In the age of motorized ships, these distinctions of size and purpose have disappeared, but the terms continue in use. During the Demak Sultanate attack on Portuguese Malacca of 1513, lancaran were used as armed troop transports for landing alongside penjajap and kelulus, as the Javanese junks were too large to approach shore. In the 18th century, a launch was used to set the large anchors on a ship.
The launch of that era was about 24 feet long. In 1788 Captain Bligh was set adrift in Bounty’s launch. On the River Thames the term "launch" is used to mean any motorised pleasure boat; the usage arises from the legislation governing the management of the Thames and laying down the categories of boats and the tolls for which they were liable. Motor launch was the designation for large vessels used in the Second World War by the Royal Navy and some other navies, they were used for inshore work in defending the coast from submarines and carried light armament: a few depth charges, a gun and a few machine guns. In competitive rowing the term "launch" is used to refer to any motorized boat used by the coach to follow practicing boats during workouts. RAF rescue launch Cabin cruiser Slipper launch Naphtha launch Picket boat, a naval launch
A davit is any of various crane-like devices used on a ship for supporting and lowering equipment such as boats and anchors. The term sometimes refers to structural arms in other applications where a suspended load is supported in similar fashion to the naval application. Davit systems are most used to lower an emergency lifeboat to the embarkation level to be boarded. Davits can be used as man-overboard safety devices to retrieve personnel from the water; the lifeboat davit has falls that are used to lower the lifeboat into the water. "Davit" can refer to a single mechanical arm with a winch for lowering and raising spare parts onto a vessel and for lowering any other equipment from the deck of a vessel or a pontoon to the water. The maintaining and operation of davits is all under jurisdiction of the International Maritime Organization; the regulations are enforced by the country's own Coast Guard. The development of the davit from its original "goose neck form" to the current devices advanced when A.
P. Schat patented a number of systems in 1926 that allowed the lifeboat to glide over obstructions on a ship's hull, known as the "Schat Skate"; this was followed by a self-braking winch system. The standard became so common that shipyard specifications call for Schat-type davits which are available from various sources. Similar systems developed by Schat companies are used on offshore oil or gas rigs, being placed around the structure. Development of the davit has been in terms of material. Traditionally davits have been made in aluminium or steel but recent advances in composite material have led to the manufacture of davits in carbon fibre which has an excellent power to weight ratio; this means davits can be stowed away when not in use and the same davit used in multiple deck sockets fitted permanently on deck. Davits are designed to fit into deck spaces that the naval architects deemed necessary: Radial — Hand powered davit; this type was used on the lifeboats of the RMS Lusitania. Each arm must be rotated out manually.
Goose-neck shape to the arm, swung out. Mechanical — This type is like the radial davit, but both arms are moved out at the same time using a screw system. An example is the Welin Quadrant davit type used on RMS Titanic. Gravity — There are multiple forms. Roller — Davit slides down a track, bringing the davit to the embarkation deck. Single pivot — One pivot point where the lifeboat is moved over the side of the craft. Multi pivot — Common on promenade decks of cruise ships. Useful where space is limited. Free fall — Lifeboat slides right off vessel. Lifeboat must be an enclosed type. Main type of Davit on merchant ships now; this type does not use. Fixed — Common on oil rigs. Lifeboat is lowered into the water. Liferaft These can be Enclosed enclosed, or open. Frapping Lines These lines are used on all davits except the fixed and freefall davits; the frapping line are used to pull the lifeboat over to the embarkation deck along with the tricing pendent to be loaded. Gripes Ropes used to hold the Lifeboat in the stored position while underway.
Tricing pendants Lines used to pull the lifeboat over to the embarkation deck so that the Frapping lines can be connected. Falls The wires which lift or lower the lifeboat are known. There are 3 basic systems used to release the lifeboat from the davit. On-load: For this style of release mechanism, the lifeboat can be released at any point from the davit; this type of system allows a lifeboat to be released when it is not in the water, whether this is because of the emergency or an accident. Because of this, during an evacuation the release mechanism must be watched to make sure there is not an accidental activation. Offload: This release mechanism requires the weight of the lifeboat to not be on the hook when it is released; this includes the Titanic-era Monomony hook design that requires someone to remove the hook from the lifeboat by hand. But this type includes the hydrostatic system many lifeboats use now. For this, a float is raised up and engages the release once the craft is in the water to the right depth.
Free Fall: This type of release mechanism is basic. The lifeboat slides down and off of the ship when engaged; this is done by pumping a lever, inside the lifeboat by the pilot. If there is not enough hydraulic pressure to release the stop fall, a pump on the inside must be rotated to build up the hydraulic pressure to release the lifeboats stopfall hook. Once the stopfall hook is released the lifeboat will slide into the water; this type of lifeboat is more common due to its quick ease of operation. For all lifeboats using a roller gravity davit and Rottmer releasing gear, this is the procedure: Make sure the Davit tracks are clear of debris Remove the lifeboat cover if applicable Put in the lifeboat plugs At this time the Rottmer releasing gear is checked to be secure. Attach the sea painter to the bow of the ship. Remove the gripes from the lifeboat. Make sure the gripes preventing bar is free from the track. Have the assigned brake man life the braking bar and lower the lifeboat to the embarkation deck.
Now that the Tricing pendants have pulled the lifeboat in close, attach the Frapping lines to the wire falls by passing them to a worker, on the lifeboat. Load t
A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built for river and canal transport of heavy goods. Some barges are not self-propelled and must be towed or pushed by towboats, canal barges or towed by draft animals on an adjacent towpath. Barges contended with the railway in the early Industrial Revolution, but were outcompeted in the carriage of high-value items due to the higher speed, falling costs and route flexibility of railways. Barge is attested from Old French barge, from Vulgar Latin barga; the word could refer to any small boat. Bark, "small ship", is attested from Old French barque, from Vulgar Latin barca; the more precise meaning "three-masted ship" arose in the 17th century, takes the French spelling for disambiguation. Both are derived from the Latin barica, from Ancient Greek: βάρις, translit. Báris, lit.'Egyptian boat', from Coptic: ⲃⲁⲁⲣⲉ bāri "small boat", hieroglyphic Egyptian and similar ba-y-r for "basket-shaped boat". By extension, the term "embark" means to board the kind of boat called a "barque".
The long pole used to maneuver or propel a barge has given rise to the saying "I wouldn't touch that with a barge pole." On the British canal system, the term'barge' is used to describe a boat wider than a narrowboat, the people who move barges are known as lightermen. On the UK canal system, boats wider than seven feet are referred to as widebeam. In the United States, deckhands are supervised by a leadman or the mate; the captain and pilot steer the towboat, which pushes one or more barges held together with rigging, collectively called'the tow'. The crew live aboard the towboat as it travels along the inland river system or the intracoastal waterways; these towboats travel between ports and are called line-haul boats. Poles are used on barges to fend off the barge as it nears a wharf; these are called'pike poles'. Barges are used today for low-value bulk items, as the cost of hauling goods by barge is low. Barges are used for heavy or bulky items; the most common European barge can carry up to about 2,450 tonnes.
As an example, on June 26, 2006, a 565-short-ton catalytic cracking unit reactor was shipped by barge from the Tulsa Port of Catoosa in Oklahoma to a refinery in Pascagoula, Mississippi. Large objects are shipped in sections and assembled onsite, but shipping an assembled unit reduced costs and avoided reliance on construction labor at the delivery site. Of the reactor's 700-mile journey, only about 40 miles were traveled overland, from the final port to the refinery. Self-propelled barges may be used as such when traveling upstream in placid waters. Canal barges are made for the particular canal in which they will operate. Many barges Dutch barges, which were designed for carrying cargo along the canals of Europe, are no longer large enough to compete in this industry with larger newer vessels. Many of these barges have been renovated and are now used as luxury hotel barges carrying holidaymakers along the same canals on which they once carried grain or coal. In primitive regions today and in all pre-development regions worldwide in times before industrial development and highways, barges were the predominant and most efficient means of inland transportation in many regions.
This holds true today, for many areas of the world. In such pre-industrialized, or poorly developed infrastructure regions, many barges are purpose-designed to be powered on waterways by long slender poles – thereby becoming known on American waterways as poleboats as the extensive west of North America was settled using the vast tributary river systems of the Mississippi drainage basin. Poleboats use muscle power of "walkers" along the sides of the craft pushing a pole against the streambed, canal or lake bottom to move the vessel where desired. In settling the American west it was faster to navigate downriver from Brownsville, Pennsylvania, to the Ohio River confluence with the Mississippi and pole upriver against the current to St. Louis than to travel overland on the rare primitive dirt roads for many decades after the American Revolution. Once the New York Central and Pennsylvania Railroads reached Chicago, that time dynamic changed, American poleboats became less common, relegated to smaller rivers and more remote streams.
On the Mississippi riverine system today, including that of other sheltered waterways, industrial barge trafficking in bulk raw materials such as coal, timber, iron ore and other minerals is common. Such barges need to be pushed by towboats. Canal barges, towed by draft animals on a waterway adjacent towpath were of fundamental importance in the early Industrial Revolution, whose major early engineering projects were efforts to build viaducts and canals to fuel and feed raw materials to nascent factories in the early industrial takeoff and take their goods to ports and cities for distribution; the barge and ca
QF 3-pounder Hotchkiss
The QF 3-pounder Hotchkiss or in French use Canon Hotchkiss à tir rapide de 47 mm were a family of long-lived light 47 mm naval guns introduced in 1886 to defend against new and fast vessels such as torpedo boats and submarines. There were many variants produced under license which ranged in length from 32 to 50 calibers but 40 caliber was the most common version, they were used by the navies of a number of nations and used by both sides in a conflict. They were used ashore as coastal defense guns and as an anti-aircraft gun, whether on improvised or specialized HA/LA mounts; the French Navy used two versions of the Hotchkiss 3-pounder: the short-barreled 40-caliber M1885 and the long-barreled 50-caliber M1902. The French L/40 M1885 and the British QF 3-pounder were the same gun. Like the British who paired their 3-pounders with the larger QF 6-pounder Hotchkiss the French paired theirs with the Canon de 65 mm Modèle 1891 sometimes called a 9-pounder in English publications; the 3-pounder was used as anti-torpedo boat defense aboard armored cruisers, ironclads, pre-dreadnought battleships, protected cruisers and submarines.
During World War I, the role of the guns changed from anti-torpedo boat defense to anti-aircraft defense and new high angle mounts were developed but were found to be ineffective. After World War I the majority of 3-pounders in the anti-aircraft role were replaced with either the anti-aircraft version of the Canon de 75 modèle 1897 or the Canon de 75 mm modèle 1924. A 3-pounder Hotchkiss was used on an improvised mounting in a battle that resulted in Australia's first prisoners of World War 2 being captured near Berbera in 1940; the guns are now used in a Three Pound Saluting Gun Battery at the Garden Island Naval Base. The Austro-Hungarian Navy used two versions of the Hotchkiss 3-pounder; the first was the short 47 mm. The second was the long 47 mm; these two guns were the primary rapid fire anti-torpedo boat guns of many ships built or refitted between 1890 and 1918. On 16 August 1914 at the Battle of Antivari, the Austro-Hungarian protected cruiser SMS Zenta was sunk by a combined Anglo-French force.
Both sides in the battle were armed with Hotchkiss guns. China adopted the Hotchkiss 3-pounder in the 1880s, to arm smaller auxiliaries. During the First Sino-Japanese war, ships of both sides were armed with Hotchkiss 3-pounder guns. Italy adopted the Hotchkiss 3-pounder in the 1880s to arm its armored cruisers, protected cruisers, torpedo boats and torpedo cruisers. Ships on both sides of the Italo-Turkish war were armed with 3-pounder guns; the Italians carried Vickers guns, while the Ottoman Navy carried Nordenfelt guns. Japan adopted the Hotchkiss 3-pounder 5-barrel revolver cannon in the 1880s and adopted the simpler single-barrel quick-firing weapon; the Japanese versions of the 3-pounder were known as Yamanouchi guns and were identical to their British equivalents. The Japanese had a related 30 caliber 2½-pounder gun from Elswick, the Yamanouchi Mk I. During the Russo-Japanese War, ships of both sides were armed with Hotchkiss 3-pounder guns; the Japanese removed them after the war. Polish 47 mm Hotchkiss guns named the wz.1885 gun, were used on first ships of the Polish Navy, received after World War I, like ex-German torpedo boats and minesweepers.
By the time of World War II most had been replaced on naval ships but several stored guns were used in combat on improvised stationary mounts by Land Coastal Defence units in the Battle of Kępa Oksywska in September 1939. The Romanian Navy used the Škoda-produced version of the gun; the gun was used as secondary and tertiary armament on the Romanian monitors of the Mihail Kogălniceanu class. It served as the main armament of the Căpitan Nicolae Lascăr Bogdan class of armored multi-purpose boats, each of the 8 boats carrying one gun. Russia adopted the Hotchkiss 3-pounder 5-barrel revolver cannon in the 1880s, adopted the less complicated single-barrel 43 caliber quick-firing weapon; the 5-barrel guns were equipped on the Ekaterina II-class battleships commissioned in 1889 but by 1892 the battleship Dvenadsat Apostolov and her successors had single-barrel weapons. In 1888 licensed production of a Russian variant started at the Obukhov State Plant. During the Russo-Japanese War, ships of both sides were armed with Hotchkiss 3-pounders, which were found to be ineffective against Japanese torpedo boats and were removed from first-line warships after the war.
The Evstafi class, commissioned in 1910 ceased carrying the weapon but they were fitted to patrol vessels and river craft during World War I and at least 62 weapons were converted to anti-aircraft guns by 1917. In 1886 this gun was the first of the modern Quick-firing artillery to be adopted by the Royal Navy as the Ordnance QF 3 pounder Hotchkiss, built under licence by the Elswick Ordnance Company. By the middle of World War I the Hotchkiss gun was obsolescent and was replaced by the more powerful Ordnance QF 3 pounder Vickers gun. Of the 2,950 produced it is estimated; the availability and light weight of the gun kept it in use in small vessels and many were brought back into service on merchant vessels used for auxiliary duties in World War II or as saluting guns and sub-calibre guns for gunnery practice until the 1950s. Early in WWII, it was pressed into service in ports around the British Empire
A landing operation is a military action during which a landing force utilizing landing craft, is transferred to land with the purpose of power projection ashore. With the proliferation of aircraft, a landing may refer to amphibious forces, airborne forces, or a combination of both. In a military invasion conducted by sea, the landing and establishment of a beachhead is a critical phase. In the Iliad, the landing operation of the Achaean navy is described in book three. Since the Trojans had been warned of the invasion, the beach was defended. In Greek polytheism, the ἱερά ἐπιβατήρια were sacrifices offered to the gods after a successful landing. A λόγος ἐπιβατήριον was a dignified speech delivered upon disembarkation, contrasting with an ἀποβατήριον, the speech delivered upon departure. Missions of air landing troops, as defined by the U. S. FM 100–5, Operations manual, include seizing and holding, or otherwise exploiting, important tactical localities or installations, in conjunction with or pending the arrival of other military or naval forces.
Such missions include seizure and clearance of landing fields, strong points, ports. It may includes executing an envelopment from the air in conjunction with an attack by ground forces, execution of surprise attacks as a diversion or feint in connection with other air landing or ground operations, or to create confusion and disorder among the hostile military and civilian personnel. Air landing can provide an attack against an isolated enemy position, impossible or impracticable of attack by ground forces. U. S. War Department, manual FM 100-5, Operations, 1941 Landing Normandy landings Bridgehead Beach group Airhead
The full-rigged pinnace was the larger of two types of vessel called a pinnace in use from the sixteenth century. The word pinnace, similar words in many languages, came from the Spanish pinaza c1240, from pino, from the wood of which the ships were constructed; the word came into English from the Middle French pinasse. "The pinnace is the most confusing of all the early seventeenth-century types of vessels. Pinnace was more of a use than a type name, for any vessel could have been a pinnace or tender to a larger one. Speaking, pinnaces were built, single-decked, square-sterned vessels suitable for exploring and light naval duties. On equal lengths, pinnaces tended to be narrower than other types. Although sailing vessels, many pinnaces carried sweeps for moving in calms or around harbors." The rigs of pinnaces included the single-masted fore-and-aft rig with staysail and sprit mainsail to the mizzenmast, a square sprit-sail under the bowsprit. Open square-sterned pulling boats were called pinnaces at least as early as 1626.
The larger pinnace'type' was much larger than the smaller tender type, carried enough cannon to be considered an merchantman, or fast and maneuverable small warship. The English pinnace Sunne was the first vessel reported built at the Chatham Dockyard, in 1586. English pinnaces of the time were of around 100 tons, carried 5 to 16 guns; the Dutch built pinnaces during the early 17th century. Dutch pinnaces had a hull form resembling a small "race-built" galleon, was rigged as a ship, or carried a similar rig on two masts. Pinnaces were used as pirate vessels and small warships. Not all were small vessels, some being nearer to larger ships in tonnage; this type saw widespread use in northern waters. In 2009 the wreck of an English pinnace with a set of twelve matched cannon was discovered, the first of its type for the time. Vessels at that time carried a mixture of unmatched cannon using disparate ammunition; the matched armament is considered revolutionary, a contributing factor to the deadly reputation of the English naval artillery
Landing craft are small and medium seagoing watercraft such as boats, barges, used to convey a landing force from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault. The term excludes landing ships. Production of landing craft peaked during World War II, with a significant number of different designs produced in large quantities by the United Kingdom and United States; because of the need to run up onto a suitable beach, World War II landing craft were flat-bottomed, many designs had a flat front with a lowerable ramp, rather than a normal bow. This made them difficult to control and uncomfortable in rough seas; the control point was at the extreme rear of the vessel, as were the engines. In all cases, they were known by an abbreviation derived from the official name rather than by the full title. In the days of sail, the ship's boats were used as landing craft; these rowing boats were sufficient, if inefficient, in an era when marines were light infantry, participating in small-scale campaigns in far-flung colonies against less well-equipped indigenous opponents.
In order to support amphibious operations during the landing in Pisagua by carrying significant quantities of cargo, landing troops directly onto an unimproved shore, the Government of Chile built flat-bottomed landing craft, called Chalanas. They transported 1,200 men in the first landing and took on board 600 men in less than 2 hours for the second landing. During World War I, the mass mobilization of troops equipped with rapid-fire weapons rendered such boats obsolete. Initial landings during the Gallipoli campaign took place in unmodified rowing boats that were vulnerable to attack from the Turkish shore defenses. In February 1915, orders were placed for the design of purpose built landing craft. A design was created in four days resulting in an order for 200'X' Lighters with a spoon-shaped bow to take shelving beaches and a drop down frontal ramp; the first use took place after they had been towed to the Aegean and performed in the 6 August landing at Suvla Bay of IX Corps, commanded by Commander Edward Unwin.'X' Lighters, known to the soldiers as'Beetles', carried about 500 men, displaced 135 tons and were based on London barges being 105 feet 6 inches long, 21 feet wide, 7 ft 6 inches deep.
The engines ran on heavy oil and ran at a speed of 5 knots. The sides of the ships were bulletproof, was designed with a ramp on the bow for disembarkation. A plan was devised to land British heavy tanks from pontoons in support of the Third Battle of Ypres, but this was abandoned; the Imperial Russian Navy soon followed suit, building a series of similar landing motor barges of the so-called Bolinder-class, named after the supplier of the diesels installed in them. These, proved too small and unseaworthy for their intended Black sea theater — they were intended for the planned Marmara Sea landings. Instead, a new class was designed, based on the widespread pattern of the Black sea merchant steamers; these were very light at the bow, having all their machinery concentrated at the stern, which allowed easy beaching on any sloping coast, were equipped with a bow ramp for fast unloading. This resulted in a 1300-ton, 1500 hp Elpidifor-class, named after the Rostov-on-Don merchant Elpidifor Paramonov, whose eponymous grain carrier served as a pattern on which they were based.
With a 1.8 m loaded draft, equipped with the ballast tanks and reinforced hull for safe beaching, they were able to land 1000 troops with their train at any available beach. While the landings for which they were created never happened, the ships themselves turned out quite useful and had a long career, supporting the Caucasus Campaign and as minesweepers and utility transports. During the inter-war period, the combination of the negative experience at Gallipoli and economic stringency contributed to the delay in procuring equipment and adopting a universal doctrine for amphibious operations in the Royal Navy. Despite this outlook, the British produced the Motor Landing Craft in 1920, based on their experience with the early'Beetle' armoured transport; the craft could put a medium tank directly onto a beach. From 1924, it was used with landing boats in annual exercises in amphibious landings. A prototype motor landing craft, designed by J. Samuel White of Cowes, was built and first sailed in 1926.
It had a box-like appearance, having a square bow and stern. To prevent fouling of the propellers in a craft destined to spend time in surf and be beached, a crude waterjet propulsion system was devised by White's designers. A Hotchkiss petrol engine drove a centrifugal pump which produced a jet of water, pushing the craft ahead or astern, steering it, according to how the jet was directed. Speed was 5-6 knots and its beaching capacity was good. By 1930, three MLC were operated by the Royal Navy; the United States revived and experimented in their approach to amphibious warfare between 1913 and mid-1930s, when the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps became interested in setting up advanced bases in opposing countries during wartime. In 1939, during the annual Fleet Landing Exercises, the FMF became interested in the military potential of Andrew Higgins's design of a powered, shallow-draught boat; these LCPL, dubbed the'Higgins Boats', were reviewed and passed by the U. S. Naval Bureau of Construction and Repair.
Soon, the Higgins boats were developed to a final design with a ramp - the LCVP, were pr