City of Bradford
The City of Bradford is a local government district of West Yorkshire, with the status of a city and metropolitan borough. It is named after its largest settlement, but covers a far larger area which includes the towns of Keighley, Bingley, Haworth and Denholme. Bradford has a population of 528,155, making it the fourth-most populous metropolitan district and the sixth-most populous local authority district in England, it forms part of the West Yorkshire Urban Area conurbation which in 2011 had a population of 1,777,934, the city is part of the Leeds-Bradford Larger Urban Zone, with a population of 2,393,300, is the fourth largest in the United Kingdom after London and Manchester. The city is situated on the edge of the Pennines, is bounded to the east by the City of Leeds, the south east by the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees and the south west by the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale; the Pendle borough of Lancashire lies to the west, whilst the Craven and Harrogate boroughs of North Yorkshire lie to the north west and north east of the city.
Bradford is the 4th largest metropolitan district in the country, the contiguous urban area to the north which includes the towns of Shipley and Bingley is populated. The spa town of Ilkley lies further north. Two thirds of the district is rural, with an environment varying from moorlands in the north and west, to valleys and floodplains formed by the river systems that flow throughout the district. More than half of Bradford's land is green open space, stretching over part of the Airedale and Wharfedale Valleys, across the hills and the Pennine moorland between; the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District are both in close proximity. The City of Bradford has architecture designated as being of special or historic importance, most of which were constructed with local stone, with 5,800 listed buildings and 59 conservation areas; the model village of Saltaire has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Central Bradford rose to prominence during the 19th century as an international centre of textile manufacture wool.
The area's access to a supply of coal, iron ore and soft water facilitated the growth of Bradford's manufacturing base, which, as textile manufacture grew, led to an explosion in population and was a stimulus to civic investment. However, Bradford has faced similar challenges to the rest of the post-industrial area of northern England, including deindustrialisation, housing problems, economic deprivation. Wool and textiles still play an important part in the city's economy, but today's fastest-growing sectors include information technology, financial services, digital industries, environmental technologies, cultural industries and retail headquarters and distribution. Bradford's reputation as a base for high technology and computer-based industries is growing, building on a long tradition of innovation, high skill levels and quality products. Bradford has experienced significant levels of immigration throughout the 20th centuries. In the 1840s Bradford's population was increased by migrants from Ireland rural Mayo and Sligo, by 1851 around 18,000 people of Irish origin resided in the town, representing around 10% of the population, the largest proportion in Yorkshire.
Around the same time there was an influx of German Jewish migrants to the town, by 1910 around 1,500 people of German origin resided in the city. In the 1950s there was large scale immigration to a lesser extent from Poland. Bradford has the second highest proportion in England and Wales outside London, in terms of population and in percentage. An estimated 140,149 people of South Asian origin reside in the city, representing around 26.83% of the city's population. An estimated 352,317 of all White ethnic groups reside in the city which includes people of Polish and Irish origin, representing around 67.44% of the city's population. Bradford was granted the status of a city in 1897. Bradford was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1847, covering the parishes of Bradford and Manningham, it became a county borough with the passing of the Local Government Act 1888. The county borough was granted city status by Letters Patent in 1897. Bradford was expanded in 1882 to include Allerton, Bowling, Heaton and Tyersall.
In 1899 it was further expanded by adding North Bierley, Idle, Thornton and Wyke. Clayton was added in 1930; the Brontë sisters, Emily and Charlotte were born along with their brother Branwell at 74 Market Street in Thornton in Bradford before moving to the parsonage at Haworth in the heart of West Yorkshire's Brontë Country where they wrote a range of classics of English literature including "Wuthering Heights" and "Jane Eyre". The city played an important part in the early history of the Labour Party. A mural on the back of the Priestley Centre For The Arts in Little Germany commemorates the centenary of the founding of the Independent Labour Party in Bradford in 1893; the Bradford Pals were three First World War Pals battalions of Kitchener's Army raised in the city. When the three battalions were taken over by the British Army they were named the 16th, 18th and 20th Battalions, The Prince of Wales's Own West Yorkshire Regiment. On the morning of 1 July 1916, an estimated 1,394 young men from Bradford and District The Bradford Pals, the 16th and 18th Battalions of the Prince of Wales Own West Yorkshire Regiment left their trenches in Northern France to advance across No Man's Land.
It was the first hour of the first day of the Battle of the Somme. Of the es
Northern (train operating company)
Northern is a train operating company in Northern England. A subsidiary of Arriva UK Trains, it began operating the Northern franchise on 1 April 2016 and inherited units from the previous operator Northern Rail. Central to franchise commitments will be the introduction of 101 new-built units – the Class 195 and 331; these will be the first new-build trains for the Northern franchise since the introduction of the Class 333 in 2000 and the new rolling stock will enable all 102 Pacer trains in service with Northern to be retired by the end of 2019. Additionally, it is planned that a franchise sub-brand, known as Northern Connect, will provide inter-urban services between major cities and towns in Northern England, as well as serving a number of major commuting stations; however since the franchise began in April 2016, it has been beset by falling punctuality, poor customer service, regular industrial action by staff and delays in introducing new rolling stock due to issues encountered during testing.
Despite passenger growth at the vast majority of train operating companies in the United Kingdom and the Northern franchise operating more services, the number of passengers carried since the franchise commenced in 2016 has declined and has been attributed to worsening performance. The franchise will run to 2025 with an option for an additional year, dependent on performance. In August 2014, the Department for Transport announced that Abellio and Govia had been shortlisted to bid for the next Northern franchise; the franchise was awarded to Arriva in December 2015. In May 2016, the Competition and Markets Authority launched an investigation into the transport department's decision to award the Northern network to Arriva. Arriva operated the CrossCountry franchise and owned many bus companies in the Northern trains operating area in which'a significant overlap occurs without competition from other service providers.'In April 2018, a penalty fare scheme under the Railways Regulations 2018 commenced to encourage passengers to purchase a ticket before boarding trains.
Although this scheme is not wholly enforced across the Northern network, passengers are liable to paying a £20 penalty fare if they are deemed to have travelled without a valid ticket and had the ability to purchase a ticket prior to boarding the train at the station of origin. Customers who need to purchase a ticket at the station of origin with cash may do so by collecting a'Promise to Pay' notice prior to boarding from a ticket machine as these are not capable of accepting cash; these notices can be exchanged with the on-board conductor or with a member of railway staff at the destination station for a paid ticket. Section 6 of the Railways Regulations 2018 covers a number of scenarios that prohibit penalty fares being issued such'no facilities in operation for the sale of a travel ticket for that passenger’s journey'; the franchise was criticised for implementing a new timetable in May 2018 which resulted in widespread delays and cancellations. Network Rail and Northern announced an independent inquiry to learn lessons and identify route alterations in readiness for the next timetable change in December 2018.
In an attempt to counter operational problems, Northern implemented an emergency timetable on 4 June 2018 – it stemmed some delays and cancellations but was still problematic compared with performance before the timetable change. Punctuality was bad in the North West due to the delay in the Blackpool-Preston electrification scheme and the number of trains per hour through Manchester increased with more services utilising the Ordsall Chord which became operational in December 2017. Network Rail only informed train operating companies in January 2018 that the electrification scheme would be delayed until November – Northern had planned for the scheme to be complete as scheduled by May and had trained drivers to operate new routes with electric rolling stock. An alternative timetable had to be drafted up and many train drivers were not sufficiently trained to drive the existing diesel rolling stock which resulted in widespread cancellations. Furthermore, the additional services through the Manchester corridor resulted in increased congestion and which had a knock-on effect.
Performance statistics published by the Office of Rail and Road in October 2018 showed that from April to June 2018, the franchise recorded the lowest PPM – measured by train service departing within 5 minutes of its scheduled time – of any quarter since punctuality records began on the Northern franchise in 2009. Performance towards the latter half of the 2018 continued to be poor with many passengers protesting and the network beset by a reduced service on Saturdays due to industrial action. In October 2018 it was announced that Manchester Oxford Road station, the busiest station managed by Northern with over 8 million passengers, was the most delayed station in the United Kingdom in 2018 – this was attributed to the chaos following the May 2018 timetable. Between 14 October and 10 November 2018, Northern recorded the worst monthly performance on record with more trains late than on time. Less than 40% of services arrived on time and only 71.9% departed within 5 minutes of the scheduled departure time.
By November 2018, Arriva were re-evaluating their future involvement in the franchise due to a combination of declining passenger numbers as a result of the chaotic May 2018 timetable change and increasing compensation claims as a result of falling punctuality. Both have pushed the franchise into a loss-making entity and face a £282 million government subsidy shortfall, due to be passed onto the franchise. Since the franchise commenced in April 2016 and despite an increase
The Wharfedale line is one of the rail services in the West Yorkshire Metro area of northern England. The service connects Ilkley with Leeds and Bradford, is operated by Northern. West Yorkshire Metrocards are available for use on the line, covering Zones 3–5; the line is served predominantly by four-coach Class 333 electric multiple units. The line was owned by the Midland Railway from Leeds to Burley-in-Wharfedale. At this point the line became joint property, with the North Eastern Railway, was known as the Otley & Ilkley Joint Railway; the two lines from Leeds and Bradford come together at Esholt Junction – the location of an 1892 crash – south of Guiseley. The route from Leeds leaves the main line near Calverley and continues along the Aire valley until climbing a hill to: Guiseley railway station Menston railway station Burley-in-Wharfedale railway station Ben Rhydding railway station Ilkley railway stationA new station, Kirkstall Forge, opened in 2016 on the Aire Valley section of the route between Leeds and Guiseley.
The station at Kirkstall Forge provides a service on the Wharfedale line outside of peak hours only. Plans exist to reinstate the O&IJt branch line to Otley from Milner Wood Junction, between Menston and Burley; the first section of the route from Bradford Forster Square is used by the Airedale and Leeds–Bradford lines. The service to Ilkley branches north of Shipley railway station to: Baildon railway station a reopened station Esholt: station closed Esholt Junction for the line to Leeds. and on to Guiseley, Burley-in-Wharfedale, Ben Rhydding and IlkleyThe line was electrified throughout using 25 kV AC Overhead between 1994 and 1995 by British Rail. The now-closed and lifted Midland line continued west of Ilkley via Addingham, Bolton Abbey and Embsay to Skipton; the section from Embsay to Bolton Abbey has been reopened by enthusiasts who operate steam locomotives as the Embsay and Bolton Abbey Steam Railway. Metro Wharfedale Rail Users' Group A description of a journey along the route
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
Leeds railway station
Leeds railway station is the mainline railway station serving the city centre of Leeds in West Yorkshire, England. It is the third-busiest railway station in the UK outside London, it is located on New Station Street to the south of City Square, at the bottom of Park Row, behind the landmark Queens Hotel. It is one of 20 stations managed by Network Rail. Leeds is an important hub on the British rail network; the station is the terminus of the Leeds branch of the East Coast Main Line and is an important stop on the Cross Country Route between Scotland, the Midlands and South West England connecting to major cities such as Birmingham, Edinburgh, Nottingham, Bristol, Exeter and Penzance. There are regular inter-city services to major destinations throughout Northern England including Manchester, Liverpool and Sheffield, it is the terminus for trains running on the scenic Settle to Carlisle Line. Future expansion will link the station to the proposed High Speed 2 network. Leeds is a major hub for local and regional destinations across Yorkshire such as to York, Hull and Sheffield.
The station lies at the heart of the Metro commuter network for West Yorkshire providing services to Bradford, Dewsbury and Halifax. With over 31 million passenger entries and exits between April 2017 and March 2018, Leeds is the busiest railway station in the North of England and the third-busiest railway station in the United Kingdom outside London, after Birmingham New Street and Glasgow Central; the railway station is situated on a hill falling from the south of the city to the River Aire and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal basin. Much of it is supported on Victorian brick-vaulted arches situated just off Neville Street which contain a centre consisting of cafés, restaurants and exhibition spaces called Granary Wharf, known locally as the Dark Arches; the railway station has 17 platforms, making it the largest by number of platforms in England outside London. There are six through platforms. Most platforms are subdivided into i.e. 1a, 1b, 1c etc.. All together including the numbers, there are 47 platforms.
Retail facilities in the station include coffee shops, fast food outlets, a bar, newsagents and supermarkets. A British Transport Police station on New Station Street houses officers who police the West Yorkshire railway stations. Leeds railway station retained manned ticket barriers through the 1990s until 2008 when they were replaced by automatic barriers by Northern to reduce congestion around the barriers at peak times. PlatformsPlatform usage varies depending on operational circumstances but is generally: 1–5 – Bay platforms used by MetroTrain services operated by Northern, towards Harrogate, Bradford Forster Square and Skipton. 6, 8 – 6 is a Bay Platform used for terminating London North Eastern Railway services from London, 8 is a through platform used for London North Eastern Railway services which both terminate and continue onward to Bradford and Skipton, as well as the early morning LNER departure to Aberdeen. 8, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16 – through platforms. CrossCountry services heading north to York and beyond depart from Platforms 8, 9 or 11.
Platforms 15 and 16 are used by north/east and south/westbound TransPennine Express services to Hull, York and Middlesbrough and Huddersfield, Manchester Airport and Liverpool Lime Street. 7, 14 – Bay platforms used for local Northern services running north/east from Leeds. 10, 13, 17 – Bay platforms used for local and regional services running south/west to Manchester Victoria and Huddersfield, alongside southbound services towards Wakefield, Meadowhall and Nottingham. Leeds Interchange, located at the New Station Street exit, provides onward transport connections from the station. There are five bus stands serving Arriva and Yorkshire Tiger routes 4, 5, 16, 16A, 19, 19A, 40, 85, 87, 90, 757, 870 and DalesBus services. A 24-hour taxi rank operates at the interchange. Further bus stops are located on Neville Street below the railway station, as well as around City Square outside the railway station. Infirmary Street and Boar Lane Bus Points are a short walk for more bus connections. Leeds Interchange hosts one of the UK's first cycle hubs that allows a number of cycling services including repair and rental.
The facility opened in summer 2010 and is designed to encourage visitors and commuters into Leeds to continue their journey from the railway station by bike. Its design is based on the Dutch cyclepoint concept; the railways arrived in Leeds in 1834. It had a terminus at Marsh Lane east of the city centre. In 1840, the North Midland Railway constructed its line from Derby via Rotherham to a terminus at Hunslet Lane to the south, it was extended to a more centrally located terminus at Wellington Street in 1846, known as Wellington Station. Another railway station, Leeds Central, was opened in 1854 by the Manchester and Leeds Railway and the London and North Western Railway, or LNWR; the railway station became owned jointly by the LNWR and the North Eastern Railway, but other companies had powers to run trains there, including the Great Northern Railway and the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. In 1869 New Station opened as a joint enterprise by the North Eastern Railway, it connected the former Leeds and Selby Railway Line to the
London North Eastern Railway
London North Eastern Railway is a British train operating company that operates the InterCity East Coast franchise. LNER operates long-distance inter-city services on the East Coast Main Line, which runs from London King's Cross to North East England and Scotland, it manages 11 stations itself and its trains call at 53 stations in total. The company is owned by the Department for Transport. LNER took over the InterCity East Coast franchise in June 2018, after the previous owned operator Virgin Trains East Coast returned it to the government following sustained financial difficulties; the DfT intend for the company to provide services until a new public-private partnership can be established in 2020. In November 2017, the Secretary of State for Transport, Chris Grayling, announced the early termination of the InterCity East Coast franchise in 2020, three years ahead of schedule, following losses on the route by operator Virgin Trains East Coast, due to pay more than £2 billion in franchise premiums to the government over the last four years of its contract.
This was brought forward in February 2018 to mid-2018. The Department for Transport decided to either negotiate a deal with VTEC to continue to run the franchise on a temporary non-profit basis while a new franchise competition was conducted, or to arrange for VTEC be taken over by the DfT's operator of last resort. On 16 May 2018 it was announced that the latter had been decided and that LNER would take over from VTEC on 24 June 2018; the DfT announced that LNER would be the long-term brand applied to the InterCity East Coast franchise. As part of the overall strategy for the East Coast franchise, the Secretary of State for Transport stated that Great Northern services could be integrated into the operation when the Thameslink Southern & Great Northern franchise expires in 2021. LNER is the second time that a government appointed operator of last resort has taken control of the InterCity East Coast franchise; the company's name echoes that of the London and North Eastern Railway, one of the "Big Four" companies which operated between 1923 and 1948.
LNER has taken over the following services from VTEC: Future destinations include a proposed service to Middlesbrough, though the Rail Minister, Jo Johnson, told Parliament that it was dependent on the Azuma's being brought into service on the ECML and other schemes in progress that would provide sufficient capacity to enable the service to run. An additional constraint is the lack of a suitably long enough platform at Middlesbrough, which would necessitate a new build at an estimated cost of £20 million. London North Eastern Railway operates a number of named passenger trains: LNER inherited a fleet of InterCity 125 and InterCity 225s from Virgin Trains East Coast. Since September 2016, Virgin Trains East Coast had hired three Class 90s from DB Cargo for use on services to Newark and Leeds. LNER has inherited these locomotives and is expected to retain them for the foreseeable future to cover for the current shortage of Class 91 locomotives; the current fleet is scheduled to be replaced by Class 800/Class 801 high-speed trains from May 2019.
These will operate in 5-carriage sets. London North Eastern Railway has four main depots: Bounds Green TMD, London - for heavy duty maintenance of IC225 sets Neville Hill TMD, Leeds – managed by East Midlands Trains and Northern Heaton TMD, Newcastle – managed by Northern Craigentinny TMD, Edinburgh – for repaints and heavy duty maintenance of IC125/HST sets Media related to London North Eastern Railway at Wikimedia Commons Official website
InterCity is the classification applied to certain long-distance passenger train services in Europe. Such trains call at major stations only. An international variant of the InterCity trains are the EuroCity trains which consist of high-standard coaches and are run by a variety of operators; the Inter-City Rapid Transit Company was an Ohio interurban company, which began operations in 1930 as it had purchased its route from the Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company. It remained in operation till 1940; the use of Inter-City was reborn in the United Kingdom: A daily train of that name was introduced in 1950, running between the cities of London and Birmingham. This usage can claim to be the origin of all usages worldwide. In 1966 British Rail introduced the brand InterCity for all of its express train routes, in 1986 the term was adopted by the InterCity sector of British Rail. Following the privatisation of the railways in Great Britain the term is no longer in official use there, although many people still refer to fast long-distance services as InterCity trains.
The brand still exists though, according to DfT is owned by them. In West Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn first used the name in 1968, denoting special first-class services on the F-Zug train network. Many of the Class VT 11.5 diesel multiple units used on the TEE network were converted for early Intercity services. In Switzerland, the InterCity brand replaced SwissExpress in the 1982 schedule. In Norway, intercity trains were introduced in 1975 on the Vestfold Line also on the Østfold Line, they were fast trains on distances up to 2–3 hours. Today, the name is used not on the trains, but on the main lines from Oslo to Skien and Halden – and on the Ringerike Line, under construction from Oslo to Hønefoss. An international variant of InterCity, EuroCity, was introduced in May 1987. EuroCity trains consist of high-standard, air conditioned coaches, are run by a variety of operators, are subject to on-board border controls. For example, EuroCity trains running in Germany can be made up by rolling stock of either the SBB, ÖBB, SNCF, less by stock of the Czech ČD and Hungarian MÁV railways.
The Austrian Federal Railways have operated IC services since 1991. However, contrary to most other countries, these are little more than regional rail, as most long-distance, high-standard trains in Austria are to be EuroCity services when not leaving the Austrian borders. Modernised stock of Eurofima coaches is used under the brand name ÖBB-InterCity on the Austrian Western and Southern Railways from Vienna to Salzburg and Villach; the ÖBB deployed electric multiple unit trains, from 2006 three ICE T trainsets in cooperation with the Deutsche Bahn running from Vienna to Frankfurt via Linz and Passau. ÖBB high-speed rail service is provided by Railjet trains. Since 2011, there is an hourly express train service on the Western Railway operated by WESTbahn, the only long-distance competitor of the ÖBB. IC-Services: Western Railway Vienna–Linz–Salzburg Southern Railway Vienna–Bruck an der Mur–Klagenfurt–Villach Vienna–Bruck an der Mur–Graz Vienna–Wiener Neustadt–Mattersburg–Sopron–Csorna Graz–Klagenfurt North railway Vienna–Břeclav Enns Valley Railway Graz–Selzthal–Bischofshofen–Salzburg.
Graz–Leoben–Bischofshofen–Schwarzach/St. Veit–Innsbruck. Klagenfurt–Villach–Bischofshofen–Salzburg Salzburg-Tyrol Railway and Lower Inn Valley Railway Salzburg–Wörgl–Innsbruck Arlberg railway Innsbruck–Bregenz; the InterCity service from Vienna to Salzburg is going to be expanded for an hourly service to Landeck via Innsbruck by December 2008. The service from Vienna to Graz is going to operate hourly by December 2008. InterCity stops in Austria: Western railway: Wien Westbahnhof, Wien Hütteldorf, Tullnerfeld, St. Pölten Hauptbahnhof, Amstetten, St. Valentin, Linz Hauptbahnhof, Wels Hauptbahnhof, Attnang-Puchheim, Vöcklabruck, Salzburg Hauptbahnhof Southern railway: Wien Südbahnhof, Wien Meidling, Wiener Neustadt Hauptbahnhof, Mürzzuschlag, Bruck an der Mur, Graz Hauptbahnhof, Leibniz, Spielfeld-Straß Line from Bruck an der Mur to Villach: Bruck an der Mur, Leoben Hauptbahnhof, Zeltweg, Unzmarkt, Friesach in Kärnten, Treibach-Althofen, St. Veit an der Glan, Klagenfurt Hauptbahnhof, Krumpendorf am Wörthersee, Pörtschach am Wörthersee, Velden am Wörthersee, Villach Hauptbahnhof Line from Villach to Salzburg: Villach Hauptbahnhof, Spittal-Millstättersee, Mallnitz-Obervellach, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgastein, Schwarzach-St.
Veit, St. Johann im Pongau, Werfen, Golling-Abtenau, Salzburg Süd, Salzburg Hauptbahnhof InterCity trains link all major cities of Belgium; some of them serve destinations outside the country. The IC between Liège and Brussels travels at 200 km/h on the HSL 2. However, because of the density of the train network with many con