Unit load device
A unit load device is a pallet or container used to load luggage and mail on wide-body aircraft and specific narrow-body aircraft. It allows a large quantity of cargo to be bundled into a single unit. Since this leads to fewer units to load, it saves ground crews time and effort and helps prevent delayed flights; each ULD has its own packing list. The IATA publishes ULD regulations and notes there are 900,000 in service worth more than US$1 billion, averaging $1100 each. ULDs come in two forms: pallets and containers. ULD pallets are rugged sheets of aluminum with rims designed to lock onto cargo net lugs. ULD containers known as cans and pods, are closed containers made of aluminum or combination of aluminum and Lexan, depending on the nature of the goods to be transported, may have built-in refrigeration units. Examples of common ULDs and their specifics are listed below. Notes LD3s, LD6s, LD11s will fit 787s, 777s, 747s, MD-11s, Il-86s, Il-96s, L-1011s and all Airbus wide-bodies; the 767 uses LD8s because of its narrower fuselage.
The less common LD1 is designed for the 747, but LD3s are more used in its place because of ubiquity. LD3s with reduced height can be loaded on the Airbus A320 family. LD7 pallets will fit 787s, 777s, 747s, late model 767s, Airbus wide-bodies. Interchangeability of certain ULDs between LD3/6/11 aircraft and LD2/8 aircraft is possible when cargo needs to be transferred to a connecting flight. Both LD2s and LD8s can be loaded in LD3/6/11 aircraft, but at the cost of using internal volume inefficiently. Only the LD3 of the LD3/6/11 family of ULDs can be loaded in a 767. Policies vary from airline to airline as to; the 787, intended to replace the 767, was designed to use the LD3/6/11 family of ULDs to solve the wasted volume issue. Aircraft loads can consist depending on requirements. In some aircraft the two types must be mixed. Container capacity of an aircraft is measured in positions; each half-width container in the aircraft it was designed for occupies one position. Each row in a cargo compartment consists of two positions.
Therefore, a full-width container will take two positions. An LD6 or an LD11 can occupy the space of two LD3s. An LD8 takes the space of two LD2s. Aircraft pallet capacity is measured by; these pallets occupy three LD3 positions or four LD2 positions. PMCs can only be loaded in cargo compartments with large doors designed to accept them. All ULDs are identified by their ULD number. A three-letter prefix identifies its type and key characteristics, followed by a 4 or 5 digit serial number to uniquely identify it from others of the same type, ending with a two character suffix identifying the ULD's owner. For example, AKN 12345 DL means that the ULD is a forkliftable LD3 with the unique number 12345 and its owner is Delta Air Lines. Notes AAA: LD7 container, 81 in tall, contoured for maindeck narrow-body AAD: LD7 container, 96 in tall, contoured for maindeck wide-body AAF: LD26 container AAP: LD9 AAU: LD29 container AAY: LD7 container, 81 in tall, contoured for maindeck wide-body and narrow-body AAZ: LD7 container, 64 in tall, contoured for maindeck wide-body and narrow-body and any belly AGA: M2 container AKC: LD1 without forklift holes AKE: LD3 without forklift holes/half ALF AKH, AKW: LD3-45 for A320/321, 45 in tall, same base as AKE, extensions on both sides AKN: LD3 with forklift holes ALB: LD4 with forklift holes ALD: LD11 container ALF: LD6 without forklift holes ALP: LD11 without forklift holes ALP: LD4 without forklift holes AMA: M1 container AMD: M1H container AMJ: LD7 container, 96 in tall, contoured for main deck wide-body AMU: LD39 container contour similar to ALF, but deeper and bigger extensions.
Biggest lower-deck container AVY: LD1 with forklift holes AWC: LD6 with forklift holes AYY: Demi, a half-width contoured container used for the main deck AYX: AYY with fittings to connect a fire extinguisher so as to carry Dangerous Goods DPE: LD2 without forklift holes DPN: LD2 with forklift holes DQF: LD8 with forklift holes FLA: LD11 pallet FQA: LD8 pallet HMA: Horse stall KMA: Sheep and goat pen P1P: LD7, large pallet, folding wings for overhang PAD: LD7, large pallet, flat PGA: M6, large pallet, freighter main deck only PLA: LD11 pallet PMC: LD7, large pallet QKE: LD3 same as AKE but made of KEVLAR and designed to be bombproof. No forklift holes. RAP: LD9 with refrigeration unit RAU: LD29 container with refrigeration unit RKN: LD3 with refrigeration unit R
2011 Christchurch earthquake
An Mw 6.2 earthquake occurred in Christchurch on 22 February 2011 at 12:51 p.m. local time. The earthquake struck the Canterbury Region in New Zealand's South Island and was centred two kilometres west of the port town of Lyttelton, 10 kilometres south-east of the centre of Christchurch, at the time New Zealand's second-most populous city; the earthquake caused widespread damage across Christchurch, killing 185 people in the nation's fifth-deadliest disaster. Christchurch's central city and eastern suburbs were badly affected, with damage to buildings and infrastructure weakened by the magnitude 7.1 Canterbury earthquake of 4 September 2010 and its aftershocks. Significant liquefaction affected the eastern suburbs; the earthquake was felt across parts of the lower and central North Island. While the initial quake only lasted for 10 seconds, the damage was severe because of the location and shallowness of the earthquake's focus in relation to Christchurch as well as previous quake damage. Subsequent population loss saw the Christchurch main urban area fall behind the Wellington equivalent to decrease from second to third most populous area in New Zealand.
One hundred and eighty five people from more than 20 countries died in the earthquake. Over half of the deaths occurred in the six-storey Canterbury Television Building, which collapsed and caught fire in the earthquake. A state of local emergency was declared by the Mayor of Christchurch, superseded when the government declared a state of national emergency, which stayed in force until 30 April 2011. Of the 185 victims, 115 people died in the Canterbury Television building alone, while another 18 died in the collapse of PGC House, eight were killed when masonry fell on Red Bus number 702 in Colombo Street. In each of these cases the buildings that collapsed were known to have been appreciably damaged in the September 2010 earthquake but the local authority had permitted the building to be re-occupied or protective barriers adjacent to them moved closer to areas at risk of falling debris. An additional 28 people were killed in various places across the city centre, twelve were killed in suburban Christchurch.
Due to the injuries sustained some bodies remained unidentified. Between 6,600 and 6,800 people were treated for minor injuries, Christchurch Hospital alone treated 220 major trauma cases connected to the quake. Rescue efforts continued for over a week shifted into recovery mode; the last survivor was pulled from the rubble the day after the quake. The nationalities of the deceased are as follows. Road and bridge damage hampered rescue efforts. Soil liquefaction and surface flooding occurred. Road surfaces were forced up by liquefaction, water and sand were spewing out of cracks. A number of cars were crushed by falling debris. In the central city, two buses were crushed by falling buildings; because the earthquake hit during the lunch hour, some people on the footpaths were buried by collapsed buildings. Damage occurred to many older buildings those with unreinforced masonry and those built before stringent earthquakes codes were introduced. On 28 February 2011, the Prime Minister announced that there would be an inquiry into the collapse of buildings, signed off as safe after the previous earthquake on 4 September 2010, "to provide answers to people about why so many people lost their lives."Of the 3,000 buildings inspected within the four avenues of the central city by 3 March 2011, 45% had been given red or yellow stickers to restrict access because of the safety problems.
Many heritage buildings were given red stickers after inspections. As of February 2015, there had been 1240 demolitions within the four avenues since the September 2010 earthquakes; the six-storey Canterbury Television building collapsed in the earthquake, leaving only its lift shaft standing, which caught fire. 115 people died in the building, which housed a TV station, a medical clinic and an English language school. On 23 February police decided that the damage was not survivable, rescue efforts at the building were suspended. Fire-fighting and recovery operations resumed that night joined by a Japanese search and rescue squad. Twelve Japanese students from the Toyama College of Foreign Languages died in the building collapse. A government report found that the building's construction was faulty and should not have been approved; the four-storey Pyne Gould Guinness House on Cambridge Terrace, headquarters of Pyne Gould Corporation, with 18 casualties. On Wednesday morning, 22 hours after the quake, a survivor was pulled from the rubble.
The reinforced concrete building had been constructed in 1963–1964. The Forsyth Barr Building survived the earthquake but many occupants were trapped after the collapse of the stairwells, forcing some to abseil out after the quake. Search of the building was technically difficult for USAR teams, requiring the deconstruction of 4-tonne stair sets, but the building was cleared with no victims discovered; the earthquake destroyed the ChristChurch Cathedral's spire and part of its tower, damaged the structure of the remaining building. The remainder of the tower was demolished in March 2012; the west wall suffered collapses in the June 2011 earthquake and the December 2011 quake due to a steel structure – intended to stabilise the rose window – pushing it in. The Anglican Church has decided to demolish the building and replace it with a new structure – a decision which has become controversial in post-quake Christchurch. Various groups have opposed the Church's intentions, with actions including taking a case to court
Corrugated box design
Corrugated box design is the process of matching design factors for corrugated fiberboard boxes with the functional physical and end-use requirements. Packaging engineers work to meet the performance requirements of a box while controlling total costs throughout the system. In addition to the structural design discussed in this article, printed bar codes and graphic design are vital. Corrugated boxes are used as shipping containers. Boxes need to contain the product from manufacturing through distribution to sale and sometimes end-use. Boxes provide some measure of product protection by themselves but require inner components such as cushioning and blocking to help protect fragile contents; the shipping hazards depend upon the particular logistics system being employed. For example, boxes unitized into a unit load on a pallet do not encounter individual handling while boxes sorted and shipped through part of their distribution cycle as mixed loads or express carriers can receive severe shocks, etc...
Ordinary shipping containers require printing and labels to identify the contents, provide legal and regulatory information, bar codes for routing. Boxes that are used for marketing and point-of-sale have high graphics to help communicate the contents; some boxes are designed for display of contents on the shelf. Others are designed to help dispense the contents. Popular for their strength, lightness and cost-effectiveness, corrugated boxes are used for the shipping of a variety of items. Due to the quality and safety of packaging items in corrugated boxes, they are used in the food industry; the boxes handle the pressure that comes with making them ideal for easy transporting. More than 95% of all products in the United States are shipped in corrugated boxes. Corrugated paperboard accounts for more than half of all the paper recycled in the US. One of the important functions of a corrugated box is to provide crush resistance and adequate strength for stacking in warehouses. A box can be designed by optimizing the grade of corrugated board, box design, flute direction, inner supports.
Support from the product provides "load sharing" and can be an important factor. Box closures sometimes can have effects on box stacking strength. If long-term storage of corrugated boxes in high humidity is expected, extra strength and moisture resistance is called for; the method of loading boxes on pallets affects stacking. Vertical columns provide the best box performance while interlocking patterns of boxes reduce performance; the interaction of the boxes and pallets is important. Box compression testing is a means of evaluating boxes, stacks of boxes, unit loads under controlled conditions. Field conditions of stacking and dynamic compression do not have the same degree of control. Compression strength can be estimated based on container construction and use parameters: actual package testing is conducted to verify these estimates. Many packaging engineers find it beneficial to periodically audit warehouses and visit customer's package receiving operations; when field performance is observed or documented to have problems, a new cycle of design and testing may be justified.
For a corrugated box to withstand the deformation while stacking or storage. Where stack load=gross weight of box *stack height. Fiber Box Association has a method for estimating compression strength which includes the following factors: Time Moisture Palletizing type Pallet patterns Pallet type Handling Packaging engineers design corrugated boxes to meet the particular needs of the product being shipped, the hazards of the shipping environment, the needs of retailers and consumers Engineers and designers start with the needs of the particular project: cost constraints, machinery capabilities, product characteristics, logistics needs, applicable regulations, consumer needs, etc. Designs are made with Computer Aided Design programs connected to automated sample making tables. Several design and construction options might be considered. Samples are submitted to performance testing based on ASTM or other standard test protocols such as the International Safe Transit Association. Structural design is matched with graphic design.
For consumer based designs, marketing personnel sometimes use Focus groups or more quantitative means of assessing acceptance. Test markets are employed for major programs; the process starts by making corrugated board on a corrugating line, a long series of linked machines which may be in size of a football field. A finished piece of singlewall corrugated board is a single corrugated layer sandwiched between two liners. Skilled workers prepare job tickets for each stack of box blanks and route the blanks to fabrication machines. Printing dies and patterns are prepared on large, rubber or tin sheets, they are loaded onto rollers and the box blanks are fed through it, where each is trimmed, cut, scored and glued to form a box. Finished boxes are stacked and sent to a banding machine to be wrapped and shipped; the most common box style is the Regular Slotted Container. All flaps are the same length from score to edge; the major flaps meet in the middle and the minor flaps do not, unless the width is equal to the length.
Box styles in Europe are specified by a 4-digit code provided by the European Federation of Corrugated Board Manufacturers: A regular slotted container is coded 0201. The manufacturer's joint is most joined with adhesive but may be taped or stitched; the box is shipped flat to the packag
Container gardening or pot gardening is the practice of growing plants, including edible plants in containers instead of planting them in the ground. A container in gardening is a small and portable object used for displaying live flowers or plants, it may take the form of a pot, tub, basket, barrel or hanging basket. Pots, traditionally made of terracotta but now more plastic, window boxes have been the most seen. Small pots are called flowerpots. In some cases, this method of growing is used for ornamental purposes; this method is useful in areas where the soil or climate is unsuitable for the plant or crop in question. Using a container is generally necessary for houseplants. Limited growing space, or growing space, paved over, can make this option appealing to the gardener. Additionally, this method is popular for urban horticulture on balconies of apartments and condominiums where gardeners lack the access to the ground for a traditional garden. Containers range from teacups to complex automatic-watering irrigation systems.
This flexibility in design is another reason container gardening. They can be found on porches, front steps, in urban locations, on rooftops. Sub-irrigated planters are a type of container. Potting material must be loose and allow drainage to offer proper aeration for roots to breathe, preventing root rot. Re-potting is the action of placing an potted plant into a larger or smaller pot. A pot that fits a plant's root system better is used. Plants are re-potted according to the size of their root system. Most plants need to be re-potted every few years because they become "pot-bound" or "root-bound". Plants' roots can sense its surroundings, including the size of the pot it is in, increasing the pot size allows plant size to increase proportionally. Many types of plants are suitable for the container, including decorative flowers, cacti and small trees. There are many advantages to growing plants in containers, namely: Less risk of soil-borne disease Virtually eliminate weed problems Mobile plants gives more control over moisture, sunlight & temperature Great addition to the interior of the house.
University of Illinois Container Gardening Guide Container Vegetable Gardening
Kyrgyzstan the Kyrgyz Republic, known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country with mountainous terrain, it is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west and southwest, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek. Kyrgyzstan's recorded history spans over 2,000 years, encompassing a variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by its mountainous terrain, which has helped preserve its ancient culture, Kyrgyzstan has been at the crossroads of several great civilizations as part of the Silk Road and other commercial and cultural routes. Though long inhabited by a succession of independent tribes and clans, Kyrgyzstan has periodically fallen under foreign domination and attained sovereignty as a nation-state only after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. Since independence, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic, although it continues to endure ethnic conflicts, economic troubles, transitional governments and political conflict.
Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Turkic Council, the Türksoy community and the United Nations. Ethnic Kyrgyz make up the majority of the country's 6 million people, followed by significant minorities of Uzbeks and Russians. Kyrgyz is related to other Turkic languages, although Russian remains spoken and is an official language, a legacy of a century of Russification; the majority of the population are non-denominational Muslims. In addition to its Turkic origins, Kyrgyz culture bears elements of Persian and Russian influence. "Kyrgyz" is believed to have been derived from the Turkic word for "forty", in reference to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero who united forty regional clans against the Uyghurs. Kyrgyz means We are forty. At the time, in the early 9th century AD, the Uyghurs dominated much of Central Asia and parts of Russia and China.
The 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan is a reference to those same forty tribes and the graphical element in the sun's center depicts the wooden crown, called tunduk, of a yurt—a portable dwelling traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. In terms of naming conventions, the country's official name is "Kyrgyz Republic" whenever it is used in some international arenas and foreign relations. However, in the English-speaking world, the spelling Kyrgyzstan is used while its former name Kirghizia is used as such. According to David C. King, Scythians were early settlers in present-day Kyrgyzstan; the Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khaganate in 840 A. D. From the 10th century the Kyrgyz migrated as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years. In the twelfth century the Kyrgyz dominion had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz migrated south.
The Kyrgyz peacefully became a part of the Mongol Empire in 1207. The descent of the Kyrgyz from the indigenous Siberian population, on the other hand, is confirmed by recent genetic studies; because of the processes of migration, conquest and assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples who now inhabit Central and Southwest Asia are of mixed origins stemming from fragments of many different tribes, though they now speak related languages. Issyk Kul Lake was a stopover on the Silk Road, a land route for traders and other travelers from the Far East to Europe. Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the 17th century by the Mongols, in the mid-18th century by the Manchurian Qing Dynasty, in the early 19th century by the Uzbek Khanate of Kokand. In the late nineteenth century, the eastern part of what is today Kyrgyzstan the Issyk-Kul Region, was ceded to the Russian Empire by Qing China through the Treaty of Tarbagatai; the territory known in Russian as "Kirghizia", was formally incorporated into the Empire in 1876.
The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts, many of the Kyrgyz opted to relocate to the Pamir Mountains and Afghanistan. In addition, the suppression of the 1916 rebellion against Russian rule in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz to migrate to China. Since many ethnic groups in the region were split between neighboring states at a time when borders were more porous and less regulated, it was common to move back and forth over the mountains, depending on where life was perceived as better. Soviet power was established in the region in 1919, the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian SFSR. On 5 December 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was established as a constituent Union Republic of the Soviet Union. During the 1920s, Kyrgyzstan developed in cultural and social life. Literacy was improved, a standard literary language was introduced by imposing Russian on the populace. Economic and social development was notable. Many aspects of the Ky
Christchurch is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Region. The Christchurch urban area lies on the South Island's east coast, just north of Banks Peninsula, it is home to 404,500 residents, making it New Zealand's third-most populous city behind Auckland and Wellington. The Avon River flows with an urban park located along its banks. Archaeological evidence has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by humans in about 1250. Christchurch became a city by Royal Charter on 31 July 1856, making it the oldest established city in New Zealand; the Canterbury Association, which settled the Canterbury Plains, named the city after Christ Church, Oxford. The new settlement was laid out in a grid pattern centred on Cathedral Square. Agriculture is the historic mainstay of Christchurch's economy; the early presence of the University of Canterbury and the heritage of the city's academic institutions in association with local businesses has fostered a number of technology-based industries.
Christchurch is one of five'gateway cities' for Antarctic exploration, hosting Antarctic support bases for several nations. The city suffered a series of earthquakes between September 2010 and early 2012, with the most destructive of them occurring at 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday, 22 February 2011, in which 185 people were killed and thousands of buildings across the city collapsed or suffered severe damage. By late 2013, 1,500 buildings in the city had been demolished, leading to an ongoing recovery and rebuilding project; the name of "Christchurch" was agreed on at the first meeting of the Canterbury Association on 27 March 1848. It was suggested by founder John Robert Godley, whose alma mater was Oxford; the Māori name Ōtautahi was adopted in the 1930s. The site was a seasonal dwelling of Ngāi Tahu chief Te Potiki Tautahi, whose main home was Port Levy on Banks Peninsula. Prior to that the Ngāi Tahu referred to the Christchurch area as Karaitiana, a transliteration of the English word Christian. Archaeological evidence found in a cave at Redcliffs in 1876 has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by moa-hunting tribes about 1250 CE.
These first inhabitants were thought to have been followed by the Waitaha tribe, who are said to have migrated from the East coast of the North Island in the 16th century. Following tribal warfare, the Waitaha were dispossessed by the Ngāti Māmoe tribe, they were in turn subjugated by the Ngāi Tahu tribe, who remained in control until the arrival of European settlers. Following the purchase of land at Putaringamotu by the Weller brothers, whalers of Otago and Sydney, a party of European settlers led by Herriott and McGillivray established themselves in what is now Christchurch, early in 1840, their abandoned holdings were taken over by the Deans brothers in 1843. The First Four Ships were chartered by the Canterbury Association and brought the first 792 of the Canterbury Pilgrims to Lyttelton Harbour; these sailing vessels were the Randolph, Charlotte Jane, Sir George Seymour, Cressy. The Charlotte Jane was the first to arrive on 16 December 1850; the Canterbury Pilgrims had aspirations of building a city around a cathedral and college, on the model of Christ Church in Oxford.
The name "Christ Church" was decided prior to the ships' arrival, at the Association's first meeting, on 27 March 1848. The exact basis for the name is not known, it has been suggested that it is named in Dorset, England. The last explanation is the one accepted. At the request of the Deans brothers — whose farm was the earliest European settlement in the area — the river was named after the River Avon in Scotland, which rises in the Ayrshire hills near to where their grandfather's farm was located. Captain Joseph Thomas, the Canterbury Association's Chief Surveyor, surveyed the surrounding area. By December 1849 he had commissioned the construction of a road from Port Cooper Lyttelton, to Christchurch via Sumner; however this proved more difficult than expected and road construction was stopped while a steep foot and pack horse track was constructed over the hill between the port and the Heathcote valley, where access to the site of the proposed settlement could be gained. This track became known as the Bridle Path, because the path was so steep that pack horses needed to be led by the bridle.
Goods that were too heavy or bulky to be transported by pack horse over the Bridle Path were shipped by small sailing vessels some eight miles by water around the coast and up the estuary to Ferrymead. New Zealand's first public railway line, the Ferrymead Railway, opened from Ferrymead to Christchurch in 1863. Due to the difficulties in travelling over the Port Hills and the dangers associated with shipping navigating the Sumner bar, a railway tunnel was bored through the Port Hills to Lyttelton, opening in 1867. Christchurch became a city by royal charter on 31 July 1856, the first in New Zealand. Many of the city's Gothic Revival buildings by architect Benjamin Mountfort date from this period. Christchurch was the seat of provincial administration for the Province of Canterbury, abolished in 1876. Christchurch buildings were damaged by earthquakes in 1869, 1881 and 1888. In 1947, New Zealand's worst fire disaster occurred at Ballantyne's Department Store in the inner city, with 41 people killed in a blaze which razed
Shipping container architecture
Shipping container architecture is a form of architecture using steel intermodal containers as structural element. It is referred to as cargotecture, a portmanteau of cargo with architecture, or "arkitainer"; the use of containers as a building material has grown in popularity over the past several years due to their inherent strength, wide availability, low expense. Homes have been built with containers because they are seen as more eco-friendly than traditional building materials such as brick and cement. Customized Due to their shape and material, shipping containers can be modified to fit many purposes. Strength and durability Shipping containers are designed to be stacked in high columns, carrying heavy loads, they are designed to resist harsh environments, such as on ocean-going vessels or sprayed with road salt while transported on roads. Due to their high strength, shipping containers are the last to fall in extreme weather, such as tornadoes and tsunamis. Modular All shipping containers are the same width and most have two standard height and length measurements and as such they provide modular elements that can be combined into larger structures.
This simplifies design and transport. As they are designed to interlock for ease of mobility during transportation, structural construction is completed by emplacing them. Due to the containers' modular design, additional construction is as easy as stacking more containers, they can be stacked up to 12 units high. Labor The welding and cutting of steel is considered to be specialized labor and can increase construction expenses, yet overall it is still lower than conventional construction. Unlike wood frame construction, attachments must be welded or drilled to the outer skin, more time consuming and requires different job site equipment. Transport Because they conform to standard shipping sizes, pre-fabricated modules can be transported by ship, truck, or rail. Availability Because of their wide-spread use and used shipping containers are available across the planet. Expense Many used containers are available at an amount, low compared to a finished structure built by other labor-intensive means such as bricks and mortar — which require larger more expensive foundations.
Eco-friendly A 40 ft shipping container weights over 3,500 kg. When upcycling shipping containers, thousands of kilograms of steel are saved. In addition when building with containers, the amount of traditional building materials needed are reduced. Temperature Steel conducts heat well. Lack of flexibility Although shipping containers can be combined together to create bigger spaces, creating spaces different to their default size is expensive and time consuming. Containers any longer than 40 feet will be difficult to navigate in some residential areas. Humidity As noted above, single wall steel conducts heat. In temperate climates, moist interior air condenses against the steel. Rust will form unless the steel is well insulated. Construction site The size and weight of the containers will, in most cases, require them to be placed by a crane or forklift. Traditional brick and lumber construction materials can be moved by hand to upper stories. Building permits The use of steel for construction, while prevalent in industrial construction, is not used for residential structures.
Obtaining building permits may be troublesome in some regions due to municipalities not having seen this application before. However, in the US certain shipping container homes have been built in outside of the city's zoning code. Treatment of timber floors To meet Australian government quarantine requirements, most container floors when manufactured are treated with insecticides containing copper and arsenic. Before human habitation, floors should be safely disposed. Units with steel floors would be preferable, if available. Cargo spillages. Spillages or contamination may have occurred on the inside surfaces and will have to be cleaned before habitation. Ideally all internal surfaces should be abrasive blasted to bare metal, re-painted with a nontoxic paint system. Solvents Solvents released from paint and sealants used in manufacture might be harmful. Damage While in service, containers are damaged by friction, handling collisions, force of heavy loads overhead during ship transits; the companies will inspect containers and condemn them if there are cracked welds, twisted frames or pin holes are found, among other faults.
Roof weaknesses Although the two ends of a container are strong, the roof is not. A limit of 300 kg is recommended. Many structures based on shipping containers have been constructed, their uses, sizes and appearances vary widely; when futurist Stewart Brand needed a place to assemble all the material he needed to write How Buildings Learn, he converted a shipping container into office space, wrote up the conversion process in the same book. In 2006, Southern California Architect Peter DeMaria, designed the first two-story shipping container home in the U. S. as an approved structural system under the strict guidelines of the nationally recognized Uniform Building Code. This home was the Redondo Beach House and it inspired the creation of Logical Homes, a cargo container based pre-fabricated home company. In 2007, Logical Homes created their flag