Shiraz is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province known as Pars and Persis. At the 2016 census, the population of the city was 1,869,001 and its built-up area with "Shahr-e Jadid-e Sadra" was home to 1,565,572 inhabitants. Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iran on the "Rudkhaneye Khoshk" seasonal river, it has been a regional trade center for over a thousand years. Shiraz is one of the oldest cities of ancient Persia; the earliest reference to the city, as Tiraziš, is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC. The modern city was founded or restored by the Umayyads in 693 and grew prominent under the successive Iranian Saffarid and Buyid dynasties in the 9th and 10th–11th centuries, respectively. In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, due to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists, it was the capital of Persia during the Zand dynasty from 1750 until 1800. Two famous poets of Iran and Saadi, are from Shiraz, whose tombs are on the north side of the current city boundaries.

Shiraz is known as the city of poets, literature and flowers. It is considered by many Iranians to be the city of gardens, due to the many gardens and fruit trees that can be seen in the city, for example Eram Garden. Shiraz has had major Christian communities; the crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design. In Shiraz industries such as cement production, fertilizers, textile products, wood products and rugs dominate. Shirāz has a major oil refinery and is a major center for Iran's electronic industries: 53% of Iran's electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz. Shiraz is home to Iran's first solar power plant; the city's first wind turbine has been installed above Babakuhi mountain near the city. The earliest reference to the city is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BCE, found in June 1970, while digging to make a kiln for a brick factory in the south western corner of the city; the tablets written in ancient Elamite name a city called Tiraziš. Phonetically, this is interpreted as /tiračis/ or /ćiračis/.

This name became Old Persian /širājiš/. The name Shiraz appears on clay sealings found at a 2nd-century CE Sassanid ruin, east of the city. By some of the native writers, the name Shiraz has derived from a son of Tahmuras, the third Shāh of the world according to Ferdowsi's Shāhnāma. Though there is no definitive record of its existence prior to the late 7th century CE, few archaeological finds dating from 1933 and beyond indicate that the site or vicinity of Shiraz was settled in the pre-Islamic era as early as the 6th century BCE. A number of Sasanian-era remains have been discovered around the city, including reliefs at Barm-e Delak to the east and Guyim to the northwest, ruins of Sasanian fortresses at Qasr-e Abu Nasr to the east and Fahandezh; the latter is identified with the fortress of Shahmobad mentioned as being in Shiraz by the 10th-century geographical work, Hudud al-'alam. The names "Tirrazish" and "Shirrazish" were found on Elamite tablets in Persepolis, while Sasanian and early Islamic-era clay seals found at Qasr-e-Abu Nasr mention the name "Shiraz" alongside the name of the Sasanian administrative district of the area, Ardashir-Khwarrah.

According to the diplomat and academic John Limbert, this indicates that the name "Shiraz" is traced back to the Elamite "Shirrazish" and that both refer to a settlement that existed at the site of Qasr-e-Abu Nasr. This settlement prospered between the 6th and 8th-centuries CE and was the administrative center for the Shiraz plain until the modern city of Shiraz was founded. Nonetheless, the lack of references to Shiraz in early Persian sources suggests the city could not have been more than a way-station in the plain in which it lays; the present city of Shiraz was founded or restored in 693 by Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi, the brother of the Umayyad viceroy of the eastern half of the caliphate, al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, or the latter's kinsman Muhammad ibn Qasim. The Arab Muslim army had conquered the wider region of Fars, where the site of Shiraz is located, in several expeditions launched from their garrison town of Basra between 640 and 653, captured the immediate area around Shiraz early on, in 641.

This area did not possess any cities, though there were a number of forts which were forced to pay tribute to the Arabs. The Sasanians held firm in Istakhr, their capital in Fars, until the Arabs captured it in a heavy battle in 653, during which the plain of Shiraz had been utilized as an Arab campground; because of Istakhr's deep association with the Sasanian Empire and the Zoroastrian religion, the Arabs sought to establish in nearby Shiraz a rival cultural and administrative center. Thus, during its initial founding in 693, the city was planned to be much larger than Isfahan. However, the initial ambitions were not realized and Shiraz remained a "provincial backwater" in the shadow of Istakhr until at least the late 9th century, according to Limbert; this is attributed to the reticence of the Zoroastrian population of Fars to inhabit the Islamic Arab city. As the population shifted to Islam from Zoroastrianism and Istakhr concurrently declined, Shiraz grew into the practical center of Fars.

According to Muslim traditional sources, Shiraz was used as a hideout by three of the brothers of the Shia Mus


Nunez is the anglicized form of the Spanish surname Núñez. The Portuguese variant is Nunes. Notable people with the name include: Antonio Núñez Jiménez, Cuban revolutionary and academic Jorge Núñez Prida, Mexican engineer and Scouting president Juan Núñez de la Peña, Spanish historian Conchita Núñez, Spanish actress Joseph Nunez, United States actor Miguel A. Núñez, Jr. American actor Oscar Nunez, United States actor and comedian Oscar Núñez Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa, Spanish explorer and conquistador Elizabeth Nunez, United States writer Hernán Núñez, Spain writer and collector of proverbs José Rafael Núñez Tenorio, Venezuelan philosopher Sigrid Nunez, United States writer Silvia Núñez del Arco, Peruvian author Alex Nuñez, a character in Degrassi: The Next Generation Alcide Nunez, United States jazz clarinetist José Nunez, United States electronica and house music producer Carlos Núñez Muñoz, Spanish musician from Galicia Carlos Núñez Cortés, a member of Argentine comedy-musical group Les Luthiers Juan Carlos Núñez, Venezuelan composer Jorge Núñez, American Idol contestant Antonio Escobar Núñez, a Spanish composer, music producer and sound designer Aaron Nunez Cardozo, 1762–1834, Gibraltarian consul for Tunis and Algie Casto Méndez Núñez, Spanish military naval officer Blasco Núñez Vela, Spanish viceroy of Peru Carmen Rosa Núñez Campos, Peruvian entrepreneur and politician Corazon Nuñez-Malanyaon, Philippine politician Devin Nunes, member of the United States Congress and chair of the House Intelligence Committee Emilio Núñez, Cuban soldier and politician Emilio Núñez Portuondo, Cuban politician Fabian Núñez, US-American politician José Núñez de Cáceres, Dominican politician and writer Marco Antonio Núñez, Chilean politician Osvaldo Nunez, Canadian politician Rafael Núñez, President of Colombia in the 1880s and 1890s Samuel B.

Nunez, Jr. Louisiana politician Abraham Núñez, Major League Baseball infielder for the New York Yankees Abraham Núñez, Major League Baseball outfielder for the Caffè Danesi Nettuno of Italy's Serie A1 Clemente Núñez, United States baseball player Eduardo Núñez, Major League Baseball infielder for the Boston Red Sox Juan Carlos Oviedo, Major League Baseball pitcher, called himself Leo Núñez before 2011 Álvaro Adrián Núñez, Uruguayan goalkeeper Antonio Núñez, Spanish footballer Gervasio Núñez, Argentine footballer Jorge Martín Núñez, Paraguayan footballer Josep Lluís Núñez, former president of FC Barcelona Leonel Núñez, Johor Darul Takzim FC player Milton Núñez, Honduran footballer Nicolás Núñez, Chilean footballer Ramón Núñez, Honduran-American footballer Rodrigo Núñez, Chilean footballer José María Núñez Piossek, A rugby union player Sidarka Núñez, Dominican Republic volleyball player Manuel Núñez Tovar, Venezuelan naturalist, researcher and entomologist Samuel Nunez, United States physician and early Jewish settler in Georgia Rafael E. Núñez, cognitive scientist Marianela Núñez Argentine classical ballet dancer

High-mobility group

High-Mobility Group or HMG is a group of chromosomal proteins that are involved in the regulation of DNA-dependent processes such as transcription, recombination, DNA repair. The HMG proteins are subdivided into 3 superfamilies each containing a characteristic functional domain: HMGA – contains an AT-hook domain HMGA1 HMGA2 HMGB – contains a HMG-box domain HMGB1 HMGB2 HMGB3 HMGB4 HMGN – contains a nucleosomal binding domain HMGN1 HMGN2 HMGN3 HMGN4 Sex-Determining Region Y Protein TCF Transcription Factors Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 T Cell Transcription Factor 1Proteins containing any of these embedded in their sequence are known as HMG motif proteins. HMG-box proteins are found in a variety of eukaryotic organisms, they were isolated from mammalian cells, named according to their electrophoretic mobility in polyacrylamide gels. HMG proteins are thought to play a significant role in various human disorders. Disruptions and rearrangements in the genes coding for some of the HMG proteins are associated with some common benign tumors.

Antibodies to HMG proteins are found in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The SRY gene on the Y Chromosome, responsible for male sexual differentiation, contains an HMG-Box domain. A member of the HMG family of proteins, HMGB1, has been shown to have an extracellular activity as a chemokine, attracting neutrophils and mononuclear inflammatory cells to the infected liver; the high-mobility group protein such as HMO1 alters DNA architecture by binding and looping. Furthermore, these HMG-box DNA-binding proteins increase the flexibility of the DNA upon binding. Gene regulatory network HMG-box Transcription factors HMG nomenclature home page High+Mobility+Group+Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings