Wet Tropics of Queensland
The Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Site consists of 8,940 km² of Australian wet tropical forests growing along the north-east Queensland portion of the Great Dividing Range. The Wet Tropics of Queensland meets all four of the criteria for natural heritage for selection as a World Heritage Site. World Heritage status was declared in 1988, on 21 May 2007 the Wet Tropics were added to the Australian National Heritage List; the tropical forests have the highest concentration of primitive flowering plant families in the world. Only Madagascar and New Caledonia, due to their historical isolation, have humid, tropical regions with a comparable level of endemism; the Wet Tropics rainforests are recognised internationally for their ancient ancestry and many unique plants and animals. Many plant and animal species in the Wet Tropics are found nowhere else in the world; the Wet Tropics has the oldest continuously surviving tropical rainforests on earth On 9 November 2012, the Australian Government acknowledged the Indigenous heritage of the area as being nationally significant.
The Aboriginal Rainforest People of the Wet Tropics of Queensland have lived continuously in the rainforest environment for at least 5000 years, this is the only place in Australia where Aboriginal people have permanently inhabited a tropical rainforest environment. The Wet Tropics of Queensland stretches in part from Townsville to Cooktown, running in close parallel to the Great Barrier Reef; the terrain is rugged. The Great Dividing Range and a number of small coastal ranges, tablelands, foothills and an escarpment dominate the landscape; the heritage site contains the northern section of the Queensland tropical rain forests including the Daintree Rainforest. 16 different structural types of rainforest have been identified. The World Heritage area includes Wallaman Falls. In total it spans 13 major river systems including the Annan, Daintree, Mulgrave, Johnstone, Herbert, Mitchell and Palmer River. Copperlode Falls Dam, Koombooloomba Dam and Paluma Dam are found within the World Heritage Area.
15% of the area is protected as national park. Among the national parks included within the Wet Tropics are: Barron Gorge National Park Black Mountain National Park Cedar Bay National Park Daintree National Park Edmund Kennedy National Park Girringun National Park Kirrama National Park Kuranda National Park Macalister Range National Park Wooroonooran National Parkand over 700 protected areas including owned land; the Wet Tropics Management Authority was established in 1983. The agency employed 20 staff in 2012 as a unit within the Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, it is headed by a board of directors responsible to the Wet Tropics Ministerial Council which contains both Queensland and Federal Government representatives. The site contains many unique features such as over 390 rare plant species, which includes 74 species that are threatened. There are at least 85 species that are endemic to the area, 13 different types of rainforest and 29 species of mangrove, more than anywhere else in the country.
Of the 19 families of primitive flowering plants worldwide, 12 are found in the Wet Tropics including two families found nowhere else. This includes at least 50 individual species which are endemic to the area.90 species of orchids have been noted. The large rare trees Stockwellia or Vic Stockwell's Puzzle Stockwellia quadrifida grow only in restricted areas of "well developed upland rain forest" in the Wet Tropics, they continue living today as descendants of, similar to, the ancient Gondwanan fossil species considered one of the Eucalypts' fossil ancestors, which diversified into so many different species forms of all the Eucalypt plants today. 65% of Australia's fern species are protected here, including all seven of the ancient fern species. 370 species of bird have been recorded in the area. 11 species of those are found nowhere else. The endangered southern cassowary and rare spotted-tailed quoll are some of the many threatened species, while the musky rat-kangaroo is one of 50 animal species that are unique to this area.
The musky rat-kangaroo is significant because it represents an early stage in the evolution of kangaroos. Other rare animals include brush-tailed bettong. 107 mammal species have been identified. Australia's rarest mammal, the tube nosed insectivorous murina florious bat, is found here. One quarter of Australia's rodent species are found within the Wet Tropics.113 species of reptiles including 24 endemic species are found in the area and there are 51 amphibian species, of which 22 are endemic. One reason for the high level of endemism is that the geomorphology is diverse, resulting in habitat islands where distinct subspecies have evolved; some species are endemic to groups of mountains. Rainfall in the area varies with elevation and orientation of the coastline being the major influences. Rainfall averages from 1,200 millimeters to over 8,000 mm annually; the highest mountains along the escarpment between Cairns and Tully receive the highest rainfall owing to orographic factors. Mount Bellenden Ker is the wettest recording station in the area with other high peaks and eastern slopes favouring high rainfall.
Most of the rainfall occurs from November to April. Tropical cyclones may impact the area; the expansion of the sugarcane industry in lowland plains poses a significant threat to some endangered ecosystems. Some are fragmented and their natural vegetation is degraded. Invasive pes
Goold Island National Park
Goold Island is a national park in Queensland, Australia, 1,250 km northwest of Brisbane. The island is close to the northern tip of Hinchinbrook Island off the coast from Cardwell in Rockingham Bay and is part of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Covering 8.3 km2 the island is located 17 km from shore. It is covered with open eucalypt forest, rainforested gullies and semi permanent creek water. For many thousands of years before non-indigenous peoples arrived into the region, Goold Island, neighbouring islands and surrounding seas were occupied and enjoyed by generations of the Bandjin peoples ancestors, leaving behind an array of stone fish traps and shell middens still to be found on and around the island to this day. Bandjin survivors of an violent non-indigenous'occupation' of the region continue to value and consider Goold Island as part of their sea country and, in December 2005, they included Goold Island within Australia's and Queensland's first accredited'Traditional Use of Marine Resource Agreement' Campers are required to bring their own water and all camping equipment.
Camping is limited numbers so it is best to book in advance. Access to the islands is by private boat or charter or sea kayak. Marine stingers are present during the warmer months; the nearby Brook Islands are smaller and made up of North, Tween and South islands, the first three of which comprise the Brook Islands National Park. These islands are used by nesting birds, it is important not to disturb the birds during breeding seasons. Birds found here include the Torresian imperial-pigeon, bridled terns, black-naped terns, roseate terns and little terns; the beach stone-curlew makes North Brook Island its home. List of islands of Queensland Oyster Point Protected areas of Queensland
Midgenoo is a town and a locality in the Cassowary Coast Region, Australia. The town is north of centre within the locality; this land is used for crops, principally sugarcane. The Bruce Highway and North Coast railway line traverse the locality from south-west to north, passing through the town. Midgenoo railway station services the town. There are sugarcane tramways in the locality; the town's name Midgenoo is taken from its railway station and is an Aboriginal word for a local tree. Midgenoo State School opened in 1923 but closed in 1933. Media related to Midgenoo, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons Town map of Midgenoo, 1975
Feluga is a locality in the Cassowary Coast Region, Australia. Feluga is in the valley of the Tully River with a high rainfall; the locality grows sugarcane. The Bruce Highway is the eastern boundary of the locality; the North Coast railway line runs parallel and west of the highway but there are no railway stations serving the locality. There is a network of cane tramways to deliver sugarcane to the sugar mill in Tully; the locality takes its name from the railway station name, which in turn was named by the Queensland Railways Department on 25 November 1921. The name is believed to be corrupted version of a Palestinian place name El Faluje, a town was occupied by Australian Light Horse troops on 10 November 1917. Feluga Provisional School opened on 7 February 1927, becoming Feluga State School c. 1934. Feluga State School is a government co-educational primary school in Feluga Road. In 2016, the school had an enrolment of 32 students with 3 teachers and 6 non-teaching staff. Media related to Feluga, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons
Dunk Island is an island within the Cassowary Coast Region, Australia. The island lies 4 km off the Australian east coast, opposite the town of Mission Beach; the island forms part of the Family Islands National Park and is in the larger Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. The island has a diverse population of birds; the Bandjin and Djiru peoples once used the island as a source of food. Europeans first settled on the island in 1897. Dunk Island was used by the Royal Australian Air Force during World War II. In recent years the island and its resort facilities were affected by both Cyclone Larry and Cyclone Yasi. Dunk Island is by far the largest island in the Family Islands National Park, all of which consist of granite rock. All of the islands were part of the mainland. Dunk Island covers 970ha, of which 730 ha is national park and the rest is freehold, its topography varies, with sandy beaches and rocky shores undulating slopes and steeper semi-rugged terrain. Mount Kootaloo is the island's highest point, at 271 m above sea level.
There are over 100 species including rare and vulnerable seabirds. During the summer months, the island becomes a breeding site for noddies; the lack of predators, along with a plentiful supply of food from the surrounding reef waters, make it an ideal nesting site. Dunk Island is home to reptiles such as pythons, tree snakes and skinks; the island's fringing reefs and surrounding waters are home to an array of marine life such as sea turtles, corals, fish and crabs. Purtaboi Island is closed and inaccessible for guests from October through to April each year due to the crested terns nesting on the island; the traditional Aboriginal owners of Dunk Island are the Bandjin and Djiru people, who have lived in this area for tens of thousands of years. After the sea level rise, they paddled to the islands in bark canoes to gather food and materials; the Aboriginal name for Dunk Island is Coonanglebah, or "The Island of Peace and Plenty". It received its European name from Captain Cook, who sailed past it on 8 June 1770, remarked that it was a "tolerable high island" and named it after George Montague-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax.
Europeans settled the nearby mainland during the 1800s, seeking gold and grazing land. In 1848, John MacGillivray studied the fauna and flora of the island while HMS Rattlesnake was anchored off the island for ten days, he subsequently wrote of its natural features in the Narrative of the Voyage of HMS Rattlesnake, published in England in 1852. Dunk Island, eight or nine miles in circumference, is well wooded—it has two conspicuous peaks, one of, 857 feet in height. Our excursions were confined to the vicinity of the watering place and the bay in which it is situated; the shores are sandy on the other, where a low point runs out to the westward. At their junction, under a sloping hill with large patches of brush, a small stream of fresh water, running out over the beach, furnished a supply for the ship, although the boats could approach the place only at high-water. In 1897, suffering from work anxiety and exhaustion, advised by doctors that he had just six months to live, writer Edmund James Banfield moved to Dunk Island with his wife Bertha – so becoming the island’s first white settlers.
A journalist and senior editor with the Townsville Daily Bulletin for fifteen years, Banfield let the tranquillity of this unspoilt tropical paradise weave its magic and he lived on Dunk Island for the remaining 26 years of his life until his death in 1923. A small hut built with the assistance of an Aborigine called. Over a period of time they cleared four acres of land for a plantation of fruit and vegetables. Combined with their chickens and goats as well as the abundance of seafood and mangrove vegetation, they lived self-sufficiently. Fascinated by Dunk Island’s flora and fauna Banfield meticulously recorded his observations and went on to write a series of articles about island life under the pseudonym Rob Krusoe, he was further inspired to write a full-length book entitled Confessions of a Beachcomber, published in 1908. The book became a celebrated text for romantics and escapists and established Dunk Island’s reputation as an exotic island paradise. In the ensuing years, Banfield wrote several other books about Dunk including My Tropical Isle in 1911 and Tropic Days in 1918.
In these he shared the secrets of nature that he had uncovered and described the customs and legends of the Aboriginal people on the island. E. J. Banfield died on 2 June 1923 and his final book Last Leaves from Dunk was published posthumously in 1925, his widow remained on the island for another year before moving to Brisbane where she died, ten years after her husband. Today both are buried on the trail to Mt Kootaloo; the island was bought in 1934 by Captain Brassey and Banfield's bungalow provided the basis for the beginnings of a resort. The Royal Australian Air Force occupied Dunk Island during World War II, building its airstrip in 1941, they installed a radar station on the island's highest point a year, dismantled when the war ended in 1945. The Brassey family returned to run the resort for a period at the end of the war; the island went through a succession of owners. In 1956, Gordon & Kathleen Stynes purchased the island and relocated their family from Victoria to Dunk Island; the Stynes Family set about to redevelop and upgrade the resort’s facilities to establish the island as a tourist destination.
As a result, Dunk Island bec
Shire of Johnstone
The Shire of Johnstone was a local government area of Queensland. It was located on the Coral Sea coast about 90 kilometres south of the city of Cairns; the shire, administered from the town of Innisfail, covered an area of 1,639.1 square kilometres, existed as a local government entity from 1881 until 2008, when it amalgamated with the Shire of Cardwell to form the Cassowary Coast Region. The Mamu tribal group are the traditional owners of much of the land in the shire. 47% of the shire is in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. The Hinchinbrook Division was created on 11 November 1879 as one of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. On 28 October 1881, the Johnstone Division split away from it. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, Johnstone Division became the Shire of Johnstone on 31 March 1903. On 22 November 1910 part of Johnstone Shire became Shire of Eacham. In December 1932, the Johnstone Shire Hall was destroyed by fire. Despite the desire to build a replacement it was not until 1938 that the new building was completed.
The 1938 Johnstone Shire Hall is now listed on the Queensland Heritage Register. The election of councillors in May 1943 created a sensation with every elected councillor being a candidate of the Ratepayers Party, ousting 7 Labor Party councillors. In February 2007, the Johnstone Shire Council was sacked by the Queensland Local Government Minister, Andrew Fraser, claiming the shire council had become ineffective due to internal conflict, inappropriate behaviour and financial problems. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the Shire of Johnstone merged with the Shire of Cardwell to form the Cassowary Coast Region; the Shire of Cardwell included the following settlements: 1 - shared with Cairns Region2 - shared with Tablelands Region3 - shared with Cairns Region and Tablelands Region 1883 F. E. Nash 1904: Timothy Dempsey 1907: Charles Edward Jodrell 1908: John Harvey Payne 1922—1923: Leontine Joseph Duffy 1927: Robert David Bliss 1929—1943: Clarence Stanley Kopsen Page 1950: Andrew John Murray LaurieOther notable council members include: 1982—1985: Vicky Kippin, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Mourilyan University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Johnstone Shire
Shire of Cardwell
The Shire of Cardwell was a local government area of Queensland. It was located on the Coral Sea coast about halfway between the cities of Townsville; the shire, administered from the town of Tully, covered an area of 3,062.2 square kilometres, existed as a local government entity from 1884 until 2008, when it amalgamated with the Shire of Johnstone to form the Cassowary Coast Region. The shire had responsibility for some Great Barrier Reef islands, including Dunk Island, Goold Island and Hinchinbrook Island; the area's economy is based on agriculture, in particular sugar and bananas, tourism. Part of the Wet Tropics of Queensland and Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Sites are located in Cardwell Shire; the Hinchinbrook Division was created on 11 November 1879 as one of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. On 18 January 1884, part of the Hinchinbrook Division was separated to create the new Cardwell Division. In 1892, the Cardwell Divisional Board built the Cardwell Divisional Board Hall at 51 Victoria Street, Cardwell.
At that time, Cardwell was regarded as the major town in the division. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, Cardwell Division became the Shire of Cardwell on 31 March 1903; the divisional board hall became known as the Cardwell Shire Council Chambers. To commemorate those who served in World War I, an honour board was erected in the Shire Council Chambers in 1922. Composed of marble, it lists 2 nurses from the local community; the inclusion of nurses is such a memorial is uncommon. In 1929, the decision was taken to relocate the shire council's headquarters to the newer but more populous town of Tully; the first council meeting held in Tully was on 27 June 1929. A new shire chambers was built in 1930 on the south-east corner of Bryant and Morris Streets in Tully; the former shire chambers in Cardwell was used by the Queensland Country Women's Association and by the Returned Sailors' Soldiers' and Airmen's Imperial League of Australia. From 1989 to 2008, the building was used as a library.
It became the J. C. Hubinger Memorial Museum; the presence of the honour board means that the building has been the community focus for Anzac Day ceremonies throughout the years. Given its historical and cultural significance, the building was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 March 2013. In 1978, the shire chambers in Tully were replaced with the present council chambers. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the Shire of Cardwell merged with the Shire of Johnstone to form the Cassowary Coast Region; the Shire of Cardwell included the following settlements: 1884: James Thorn Senior 1902: Peter Smith 1903—1904: Johann Christian Hubinger 1908: Johann Christian Hubinger 1909: Mr Hubinger 1910: Mr Kennedy 1914: Mr Stamp 1915: Arthur Henry 1921—1924: Brice Henry 1924—1931: James Thorn 1931—1933: Julius August Winter 1933—1936: Chris Teitzel 1936—1940: Brice Henry 1940: P. White 1943—1954: Charles Dickinson 1985—1991: Atte Raccanello 2004—2008: Giuseppe GaleanoGladys Henry was the first female council member, serving between 1976 and 1982.
Jones, Dorothy. Council. Cardwell Shire story. Published for the Cardwell Shire Council the Jacaranda Press. ISBN 978-0-7016-0406-6. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Cardwell Shire