Martin Charles Scorsese is an American filmmaker and historian, whose career spans more than 50 years. Scorsese's body of work addresses such themes as Italian and Sicilian-American identity, Roman Catholic concepts of guilt and redemption, machismo, modern crime, gang conflict. Many of his films are known for their depiction of violence and liberal use of profanity. Part of the New Hollywood wave of filmmaking, he is regarded as one of the most significant and influential filmmakers in cinematic history. In 1990, he founded The Film Foundation, a nonprofit organization dedicated to film preservation, in 2007 he founded the World Cinema Foundation, he is a recipient of the AFI Life Achievement Award for his contributions to the cinema, has won an Academy Award, a Palme d'Or, Cannes Film Festival Best Director Award, Silver Lion, Grammy Award, Golden Globes, BAFTAs, Directors Guild of America Awards. He has directed works such as the crime film Mean Streets, the vigilante-thriller Taxi Driver, the biographical sports drama Raging Bull, the black comedies The King of Comedy, After Hours, the religious epic drama The Last Temptation of Christ, the crime film Goodfellas, the psychological thriller Cape Fear and the crime film Casino, some of which he collaborated on with actor and close friend Robert De Niro.
Scorsese has been noted for his successful collaborations with actor Leonardo DiCaprio, having directed him in five films, beginning with Gangs of New York and most The Wolf of Wall Street. Their third film together, The Departed, won Scorsese the Academy Award for Best Director in addition to the film winning the award for Best Picture, their collaborations have resulted in numerous Academy Award nominations for both as well as them winning several other prestigious awards. Scorsese's other film work includes the biographical drama The Aviator, the psychological thriller Shutter Island, the historical adventure drama Hugo and the religious epic Silence, his work in television includes the pilot episodes of the HBO series Boardwalk Empire and Vinyl, the latter of which he co-created. With eight Best Director Oscar nominations, he is the most nominated living director and is tied with Billy Wilder for the second-most nominations overall; as a fan of rock music, he has directed several documentaries on the subject, including The Last Waltz, No Direction Home, Shine a Light, George Harrison: Living in the Material World.
Scorsese was born on November 1942, in New York City's Queens borough. His family moved to Little Italy, his father, Charles Scorsese, mother, Catherine Scorsese, both worked in New York's Garment District. His father was a clothes presser and an actor, his mother was a seamstress and an actress, his father's parents emigrated from Polizzi Generosa, in the province of Palermo and his maternal grandparents were from Palermo from Ciminna. Scorsese was raised in a devoutly Catholic environment; as a boy, he had asthma and could not play sports or do any activities with other children, so his parents and his older brother would take him to movie theaters. As a teenager in the Bronx, Scorsese rented Powell and Pressburger's The Tales of Hoffmann from a store that had one copy of the reel. Scorsese was one of only two people who rented that reel. Scorsese has cited Victor Mature as his favorite actors during his youth, he has spoken of the influence of the 1947 Powell and Pressburger film Black Narcissus, whose innovative techniques impacted his filmmaking.
Enamored of historical epics in his adolescence, at least two films of the genre, Land of the Pharaohs and El Cid, appear to have had a deep and lasting impact on his cinematic psyche. Scorsese developed an admiration for neorealist cinema at this time, he recounted its influence in a documentary on Italian neorealism, commented on how Bicycle Thieves alongside Paisà, Open City inspired him and how this influenced his view or portrayal of his Sicilian roots. In his documentary, Il Mio Viaggio in Italia, Scorsese noted that the Sicilian episode of Roberto Rossellini's Paisà, which he first saw on television alongside his relatives, who were themselves Sicilian immigrants, made a significant impact on his life, he acknowledges owing a great debt to the French New Wave and has stated that "the French New Wave has influenced all filmmakers who have worked since, whether they saw the films or not." He has cited filmmakers including Satyajit Ray, Ingmar Bergman, Michelangelo Antonioni, Federico Fellini as a major influence on his career.
His initial desire to become a priest attending preparatory seminary but failing after the first year while attending Cardinal Hayes High School in the Bronx gave way to cinema and Scorsese enrolled in NYU's Washington Square College, where he earned a B. A. in English in 1964. He went on to earn his M. F. A. from NYU's School of the Arts in 1966, a year after the school was founded. Scorsese attended New York University's Tisch School of the Arts making the short films What's a Nice Girl Like You Doing in a Place Like This? and It's Not Just You, Murray!. His most famous short of the period is the darkly comic The Big Shave; the film is
Shutter Island (film)
Shutter Island is a 2010 American neo-noir psychological thriller film directed by Martin Scorsese and written by Laeta Kalogridis, based on Dennis Lehane's 2003 novel of the same name. Leonardo DiCaprio stars as U. S. Marshal Edward "Teddy" Daniels, investigating a psychiatric facility on Shutter Island after one of the patients goes missing. Mark Ruffalo plays his partner officer, Ben Kingsley is the facility's lead psychiatrist, Michelle Williams is Daniels' wife. Released on February 19, 2010, the film received favorable reviews from critics, was chosen by National Board of Review as one of the top ten films of 2010 and grossed over $294 million worldwide. In 1954, U. S. Marshals Edward "Teddy" Daniels and his new partner Chuck Aule travel to the Ashecliffe Hospital for the criminally insane on Shutter Island in Boston Harbor, they are investigating the disappearance of patient Rachel Solando, incarcerated for drowning her three children. Their only clue is a cryptic note found hidden in Solando's room: "The law of 4.
They arrive. Daniels and Aule find the staff confrontational. Dr. John Cawley, the lead psychiatrist, refuses to turn over records, they learn that Solando's doctor Lester Sheehan left the island on vacation after Solando disappeared, they are given access to the hospital, but they are told that Ward C is off limits and that the lighthouse has been searched. While being interviewed, one patient secretly writes the word "RUN" in Daniels' notepad. Daniels starts to have migraine headaches from the hospital's atmosphere and experiences waking visions of his involvement in the Dachau liberation reprisals, he has disturbing dreams of his wife Dolores Chanal, killed in a fire set by a local arsonist named Andrew Laeddis. In one instance, she tells him that Solando is still on the island somewhere—as is Laeddis, who everyone claims was never there to begin with. Daniels explains to Aule that locating Laeddis was an ulterior personal motive for taking the case. During their investigation and Aule find that Solando has abruptly resurfaced with no explanation as to her former whereabouts or how she escaped.
This prompts Daniels to break into the restricted Ward C. There he encounters a patient in solitary confinement. Noyce warns him that the doctors are performing questionable experiments on the patients, some of whom are taken to the lighthouse to be lobotomized. Noyce warns Daniels that everyone else on the island is playing an elaborate game designed for Daniels—including his partner Aule. Daniels is determined to investigate the lighthouse, they become separated while climbing the cliffs toward it, Daniels sees what he believes to be Aule's body on the rocks below. By the time he climbs down, the body has disappeared, but he finds a cave where he discovers a woman in hiding who claims to be the real Rachel Solando, she states that she is a former psychiatrist at the hospital who discovered the experiments with psychotropic medication and trans-orbital lobotomy in an attempt to develop mind control techniques. Before she could report her findings to the authorities, she was forcibly committed to Ashecliffe as a patient.
Daniels returns to the hospital, but finds no evidence of Aule being there. Daniels is convinced. Cawley explains that Daniels is Andrew Laeddis, their "most dangerous patient" incarcerated in Ward C for murdering his manic depressive wife Dolores Chanal after she drowned their children. Edward Daniels and Rachel Solando are anagrams of Dolores Chanal. According to Cawley, the events of the past several days have been designed to break Laeddis' conspiracy-laden insanity by allowing him to play out the role of Daniels; the hospital staff were part of the test, including Dr. Sheehan posing as Aule and a nurse posing as Rachel Solando; the migraines that Laeddis suffered were withdrawal symptoms from his medication, as were the hallucinations of the "real Rachel Solando". Overwhelmed, Laeddis faints. Laeddis awakens in the hospital under watch of Sheehan; when questioned, he tells the truth in a coherent manner, which satisfies the doctors as a sign of progression. Cawley notes that they had achieved this state nine months before but Laeddis had regressed, further warns that this will be his last chance to redeem himself.
Some time Laeddis relaxes on the hospital grounds with Dr. Sheehan, but he calls him "Chuck" and says that they need to leave the island. Sheehan shakes his head to an observing Cawley. Laeddis asks Dr. Sheehan if it is worse to die as a good man. With Sheehan looking at him in surprise and shock, Laeddis calmly gets up and walks towards the orderlies, they leave together to the lobotomy procedure. The rights to Dennis Lehane's novel Shutter Island were first optioned to Columbia Pictures in 2003. Columbia did not act on the option and it lapsed back to Lehane who sold it to Phoenix Pictures. Phoenix hired Laeta Kalogridis and together they developed the film for a year. Director Martin Scorsese and actor Leonardo DiCaprio were both attracted to the project. Production began on March 6, 2008. Lehane's inspiration for the hospital and island setting was Long Island in Boston Harbor, which he had visited during the Blizzard of 1978 as a child with his uncle and family. Shutter Island was filmed in Massachusetts
A striptease is an erotic or exotic dance in which the performer undresses, either or in a seductive and sexually suggestive manner. The person who performs a striptease is known as a "stripper" or exotic dancer. In Western countries, the venues where stripteases are performed on a regular basis are now called strip clubs, though they may be performed in venues such as pubs and music halls. At times, a stripper may be hired to perform at a bachelorette party. In addition to providing adult entertainment, stripping can be a form of sexual play between partners; this can be done as an impromptu event or – for a special occasion – with elaborate planning involving fantasy wear, special lighting, practiced dance moves, or unrehearsed dance moves. Striptease involves a sensuous undressing; the stripper may prolong the undressing with delaying tactics such as the wearing of additional clothes or putting clothes or hands in front of just undressed body parts such as the breasts or genitalia. The emphasis is on the act of undressing along with sexually suggestive movement, rather than the state of being undressed.
In the past, the performance finished as soon as the undressing was finished, though today's strippers continue dancing in the nude. The costume the stripper wears before disrobing can form part of the act. In some cases, audience interaction can form part of the act, with audience urging the stripper to remove more clothing, or the stripper approaching the audience to interact with them. Striptease and public nudity have been subject to legal and cultural prohibitions and other aesthetic considerations and taboos. Restrictions on venues may be through venue licensing requirements and constraints and a wide variety of national and local laws; these laws vary around the world, between different parts of the same country. H. L. Mencken is credited with coining the word ecdysiast – from "ecdysis", meaning "to molt" – in response to a request from striptease artist Georgia Sothern, for a "more dignified" way to refer to her profession. Gypsy Rose Lee, one of the most famous striptease artists of all time, approved of the term.
The origins of striptease as a performance art are disputed and various dates and occasions have been given from ancient Babylonia to 20th century America. The term "striptease" was first recorded in 1932, though "stripping", in the sense of women removing clothing to sexually excite men, seems to go back to at least the late 19th century. There is a stripping aspect in the ancient Sumerian myth of the descent of the goddess Inanna into the Underworld. At each of the seven gates, she removed a piece of jewelry; as long as she remained in hell, the earth was barren. When she returned, fecundity abounded; some believe this myth was embodied in the dance of the seven veils of Salome, who danced for King Herod, as mentioned in the New Testament in Matthew 14:6 and Mark 6:21-22. However, although the Bible records Salome's dance, the first mention of her removing seven veils occurs in Oscar Wilde's play of'Salome', in 1893. In ancient Greece, the lawgiver Solon established several classes of prostitutes in the late 6th century BC.
Among these classes of prostitutes were the auletrides: female dancers and musicians, noted for dancing naked in an alluring fashion in front of audiences of men. In ancient Rome, dance featuring stripping was part of the entertainments at the Floralia, an April festival in honor of the goddess Flora. Empress Theodora, wife of 6th-century Byzantine emperor Justinian is reported by several ancient sources to have started in life as a courtesan and actress who performed in acts inspired from mythological themes and in which she disrobed "as far as the laws of the day allowed", she was famous for her striptease performance of "Leda and the Swan". From these accounts, it appears that the practice was new, it was, however opposed by the Christian Church, which succeeded in obtaining statutes banning it in the following century. The degree to which these statutes were subsequently enforced is, of course. What is certain is that no practice of the sort is reported in texts of the European Middle Ages.
An early version of strip-tease became popular in England at the time of the Restoration. A strip tease was incorporated into the Restoration comedy The Rover, written by Aphra Behn in 1677; the stripper is a man. The concept of strip-tease was widely known, as can be seen in the reference to it in Thomas Otway's comedy The Soldier's Fortune, where a character says: "Be sure they be lewd, stripping whores". Strip-tease became standard fare in the brothels of 18th century London, where the women, called'posture girls', would strip naked on tables for popular entertainment. Strip-tease was combined with music, as in the 1720 German translation of the French La Guerre D'Espagne, where a galant party of high aristocrats and opera singers has resorted to a small château where they entertain themselves with hunting and music in a three-day turn: The dancers, to please their lovers the more, dropped their clothes and danced naked the nicest entrées and ballets. An Arabic custom, first noted by French colonialists and described by the French novelist Gustave Flaubert may have influenced the French stri
Belmont Books known as Belmont Productions, was an American publisher of genre fiction paperback originals founded in 1960. It specialized in science fiction and fantasy, with titles appearing from 1961 through 1971; the company published books by such notable authors as Philip K. Dick, Philip José Farmer, Lin Carter, Robert Bloch, Frank Belknap Long, Gardner Fox. Belmont was owned by the same company. Belmont was formed by John L. Goldwater, Louis Silberkleit, Maurice Coyne, the co-founders of Archie Comics, who ran the pulp magazine publisher Columbia Publications; when Columbia was shut down in 1960, Goldwater and Coyne formed Belmont Books. According to the son of one of the founders, the name of the company came from Belmont Park, as the owners were fans of horse racing. Belmont's initial offerings were four titles — a Western, a mystery, a science fiction book, a detective book. Once they got going, Belmont published about 12 titles per month, with print runs of between 30,000–70,000 copies.
Rather than bookstores, their books were sold in railroad stations, bus terminals, drug stores, the lobbies of office buildings and hotels. From 1962–1965, Belmont published a number of science fiction anthologies, all edited by Ivan Howard, that featured content from the pulp magazines Science Fiction, Future Fiction, Science Fiction Quarterly, Dynamic Science Fiction, all of, published by Belmont co-owner Louis Silberkleit. Beginning in 1963, Belmont published nine updated The Shadow novels; the first one, Return of The Shadow, was by Walter B. Gibson; the remaining eight, published from 1964–1967, were written by Dennis Lynds under the pen name "Maxwell Grant." From 1969 to 1970, Belmont published a series of sword and sorcery novels by Gardner Fox, featuring the barbarian character Kothar. The firm merged with Tower Publications in 1971, forming Belmont Tower, under which name it continued publishing from 1971 through 1980. Michael Avallone: Shock Corridor — novelization of the screenplay of Samuel Fuller's film, written by one of the era's most ubiquitous and distinctive paperback pulpsmiths.
This tie-in title itself earned a share of cult fandom. Tales of the Frightened, edited by Boris Karloff — though based on the recordings by Karloff of the same title, featuring his image on the book cover, contained stories written by AvalloneRobert Bloch: House of the Hatchet More Nightmares — Belmont #L92-530 Terror — Belmont L92-537 Yours Truly, Jack the Ripper — Belmont #L92-527 Horror 7 — Belmont #90–275 The Living Demons — Belmont #B50-787 Ladies Day / This Crowded Earth — "A Belmont Double". U. S. T. Series: The Copulation Explosion Easy Ride The Lady Takes It All Off Ivan Howard: Escape to Earth — includes three stories from Future Fiction The Weird Ones — includes three stories from Future Fiction 6 and the Silent Scream — includes three stories from Science Fiction Novelets of Science Fiction — anthology containing L. Sprague de Camp's short story "The Galton Whistle" as well as four stories from Dynamic Science Fiction and four from Future Fiction Rare Science Fiction — includes three stories from Science Fiction Quarterly and four stories from Science Fiction Way Out — six of the seven stories are from Dynamic Science Fiction from the first issue Masters of Science Fiction — includes four stories from Science Fiction Things — includes three stories from Future Fiction Now and Beyond — includes four stories from Science Fiction and four from Future FictionLaurence Janifer: The Final Fear Damon Knight: The Metal Smile Lloyd Kropp: The Drift — reprint of 1969 original Frank Belknap Long: The Horror Expert The Hounds of Tindalos — story collection.
And Others Shall Be Born — bound with The Thief of Thoth by Lin Carter Lest Earth Be Conquered — reissued as The Androids Robert Payne: The Back of the Tiger Don Rico: Lorelei Joseph Ross: The Best of Amazing David Saunders: M Squad: The Chicago Cop Killer The Shadow: Return of The Shadow, by Walter B. Gibson The Shadow Strikes, by Dennis Lynds writing as Maxwell Grant Beware Shadow, by Dennis Lynds writing as Maxwell Grant Cry Shadow, by Dennis Lynds writing as Maxwell Grant The Shadow's Revenge, by Dennis Lynds writing as Maxwell Grant Mark of The Shadow, by Dennis Lynds writing as Maxwell Grant Shadow Go Mad, by Dennis Lynds writing as Maxwell Grant Night of The Shadow, by Dennis Lynds writing as Maxwell Grant The Shadow, Destination: Moon, by Den
Eugene Barton Evans was an American actor who appeared in numerous television series, made-for-television movies, feature films between 1947 and 1989. Evans was born in Holbrook, but reared in Colton, California, his acting career began while he was serving in the United States Army during World War II. He performed with a theatrical troupe of GIs in Europe. Evans appeared in dozens of films and television programs, he specialized in playing tough guys such as cowboys, sheriffs and sergeants. Evans appeared in numerous films produced and written by Samuel Fuller. In his memoirs A Third Face, Fuller described meeting Evans when casting his Korean War film The Steel Helmet. Fuller threw an M1 Garand rifle at Evans, who caught it and inspected it as a soldier would have done. Evans had been a United States Army engineer in World War II. Fuller kept Evans and refused John Wayne for the role and fought to keep him despite Robert L. Lippert and his partner wanting Larry Parks for the role. Fuller would not return until Evans was reinstated.
Evans appeared in Fuller's Fixed Bayonets!, Hell and High Water, Shock Corridor and lost 30 pounds to play the lead in Park Row. Evans portrayed the authoritarian but wise father, Rob McLaughlin, on the 1956-1957 television series My Friend Flicka, he next co-starred in 1958 as Major Al Arthur in Damn Citizen, a film based on the life of crusading State Police superintendent Francis Grevemberg of Louisiana. In 1960, Evans was cast as Otis Stockert in "The Frontiersman" on the Western series Wichita Town; that same year, he was cast as Boone Hackett in the episode "Die Twice" of the Western series Johnny Ringo. He was cast in 1960 as army sergeant Dan Phillips in the episode "The Quota" of Riverboat, another Western series. In the storyline, Phillips shanghais Grey Holden and a crew member of the river vessel Enterprise to meet the army's "quota" for new recruits. In 1961, Evans guest-starred as Sheriff Tom Wilson in "Incident on the Road Back" in Rawhide, he was cast as Walter Kopek, an undercover agent of the United States Treasury Department in the 1963 episode "The Moonshiners" of GE True, hosted by Jack Webb.
In this episode's plot, Kopek moves against a bootlegging operation in Florida run by the mobster Bill Munger. Evans was cast as the historical Winfield Scott Stratton, a miner in Colorado, in the 1964 episode, "Sixty-seven Miles of Gold" on the.syndicated anthology series, Death Valley Days, hosted by Stanley Andrews. James Best and Jack Albertson played Pearlman, respectively. In the story line, Stratton strikes it rich. In 1966, Evans appeared on the drama series Perry Mason as Sheriff "Moose" Dalton in "The Case of the Scarlet Scandal", he starred as well in Peopletoys in 1974 with Leif Garrett, in the fall of 1976, Evans starred on the adventure series Spencer's Pilots. In January 1979, Evans appeared as Garrison Southworth in one episode of Dallas, he guest-starred in 10 episodes of Gunsmoke. In 1965, Evans guest-starred as Jake Burnett in the episode "Vendetta" of The Legend of Jesse James. Two years he appeared as Deedricks in the episode "Breakout" of Custer. In January 1982, Evans performed in the role of war reporter Clayton Kibbee in an episode of CBS's M*A*S*H titled "Blood and Guts".
He appeared on stage in the late 1980s as the gruesome Papa in the stage production Papa Is All, directed by playwright Tommy F. Scott in Jackson, Tennessee. Evans retired to a farm in Tennessee following his role in the original film version of Walking Tall. Evans died at age 75 of heart failure at Jackson-Madison County General Hospital in Jackson, Tennessee on April 1, 1998, he was interred at Highland Memorial Gardens located in Jackson. Gene Evans on IMDb
Roosevelt Island is a narrow island in New York City's East River. It lies between Manhattan Island on Long Island, to its east, it is politically part of the borough of Manhattan, New York County. Running from the equivalent of East 46th to 85th Streets on Manhattan Island, it is about 2 miles long, with a maximum width of 800 feet, a total area of 147 acres. Together with Mill Rock, Roosevelt Island constitutes Manhattan's Census Tract 238, which has a land area of 0.279 sq mi, had a population of 9,520 as of the 2000 United States Census. It had a population of 11,661 as of the 2010 United States Census; the island was called Minnehanonck by the Lenape and Varkens Eylandt by New Netherlanders, during the colonial era and as Blackwell's Island. It was known as Welfare Island when it was used principally for hospitals, from 1921 to 1973, it was renamed Roosevelt Island in 1973. Roosevelt Island is owned by the city but was leased to New York state's Urban Development Corporation for 99 years in 1969.
Most of the residential buildings on Roosevelt Island are rental buildings. There is a cooperative named Rivercross and a condominium building named Riverwalk. One rental building has left New York State's Mitchell-Lama Housing Program, though current residents are still protected, it is now called Roosevelt Landings. There are attempts to privatize three other buildings, including the cooperative. In 1637, Dutch Governor Wouter van Twiller purchased the island known as Hog Island, from the Canarsie Indians. After the English defeated the Dutch in 1666, Captain John Manning seized the island, which became known as Manning's Island, twenty years Manning's son-in-law, Robert Blackwell, became the island's new owner and namesake. In 1796, Blackwell's great-grandson Jacob Blackwell constructed the Blackwell House, the island's oldest landmark, New York City's sixth oldest house, one of the city's few remaining examples of 18th-century architecture. Through the 19th century, the island housed a prison.
In 1828, the City of New York purchased the island for $32,000, four years the city erected a penitentiary on the island. By 1839, the New York City Lunatic Asylum opened, including the Octagon Tower, which still stands but as a residential building; the asylum, designed by Alexander Jackson Davis, at one point held 1,700 inmates, twice its designed capacity. In 1852, a workhouse was built on the island to hold petty violators in 220 cells; the Smallpox Hospital, designed by James Renwick, Jr. opened in 1856, two years the Asylum burned down and was rebuilt on the same site. In 1861, prisoners completed construction of Renwick's City Hospital, which served both prisoners and New York City's poorer population. In 1877, the hospital opened a School of Nursing, the fourth such training institution in the nation. During the impeachment process of New York State Supreme Court Justice George G. Barnard in 1872, the first charge that the New York City Bar Association brought against Barnard was that he discharged at least 39 prisoners from the Blackwell's Island penitentiary before their sentence was expired.
In 1872, the Blackwell Island Light, a 50-foot Gothic style lighthouse added to the National Register of Historic Places, was built by convict labor on the island's northern tip under Renwick's supervision. Seventeen years in 1889, the Chapel of the Good Shepherd, designed by Frederick Clarke Withers, opened. By 1895, inmates from the Asylum were being transferred to Ward's Island, patients from the hospital there were transferred to Blackwell's Island; the Asylum was renamed Metropolitan Hospital. However, the last convicts were not moved off the island until 1935, when the penitentiary on Rikers Island opened; the 20th century was a time of change for the island. The Queensboro Bridge started construction in 1900 and opened in 1909. In 1921, Blackwell's Island was renamed Welfare Island after the City Hospital on the island. In 1930, a vehicular elevator to transport cars and passengers on Queensboro Bridge started to allow vehicular and trolley access to the island. In 1939, Goldwater Memorial Hospital, a chronic care facility, with a thousand beds in 7 buildings on 9.9 acres.
Thirteen years Bird S. Coler Hospital, another chronic care facility and three years after the Coler Hospital's opening, Metropolitan Hospital moved to Manhattan, leaving the Lunatic Asylum buildings abandoned; the same year, 1955, the Welfare Island Bridge from Queens opened, allowing automobile and truck access to the island and the only non-aquatic means in and out of the island. As late as August 1973, another passenger elevator ran from the Queens end of the bridge to the island. More changes came in the latter half of the century. In 1968, the Delacorte Fountain, opposite the headquarters of the United Nations, opened. Mayor John V. Lindsay named a committee to make recommendations for the island's development in the same year. A year the New York State Urban Development Corporation signed a 99-year lease for the island, architects Philip Johnson and John Burgee created a plan for apartment buildings housing 20,000 residents. In 1973, Welfare Island was renamed Roosevelt Island in