A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot. Shoes are used as an item of decoration and fashion; the design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture to culture, with appearance being tied to function. Additionally, fashion has dictated many design elements, such as whether shoes have high heels or flat ones. Contemporary footwear in the 2010s varies in style and cost. Basic sandals may be sold for a low cost. High fashion shoes made by famous designers may be made of expensive materials, use complex construction and sell for hundreds or thousands of dollars a pair; some shoes are designed for specific purposes, such as boots designed for mountaineering or skiing. Traditionally, shoes have been made from leather, wood or canvas, but in the 2010s, they are made from rubber and other petrochemical-derived materials. Though the human foot is adapted to varied terrain and climate conditions, it is still vulnerable to environmental hazards such as sharp rocks and temperature extremes, which shoes protect against.
Some shoes are worn as safety equipment, such as steel-soled boots which are required on construction sites. The earliest known shoes are sagebrush bark sandals dating from 7000 or 8000 BC, found in the Fort Rock Cave in the US state of Oregon in 1938; the world's oldest leather shoe, made from a single piece of cowhide laced with a leather cord along seams at the front and back, was found in the Areni-1 cave complex in Armenia in 2008 and is believed to date to 3500 BC. Ötzi the Iceman's shoes, dating to 3300 BC, featured brown bearskin bases, deerskin side panels, a bark-string net, which pulled tight around the foot. The Jotunheimen shoe was discovered in August 2006: archaeologists estimate that this leather shoe was made between 1800 and 1100 BC, making it the oldest article of clothing discovered in Scandinavia, it is thought that shoes may have been used long before this, but because the materials used were perishable, it is difficult to find evidence of the earliest footwear. By studying the bones of the smaller toes, it was observed that their thickness decreased 40,000 to 26,000 years ago.
This led archaeologists to deduce that wearing shoes resulted in less bone growth, resulting in shorter, thinner toes. These earliest designs were simple in design mere "foot bags" of leather to protect the feet from rocks and cold, they were more found in colder climates. Many early natives in North America wore a similar type of footwear, known as the moccasin; these are tight-fitting, soft-soled shoes made out of leather or bison hides. Many moccasins were decorated with various beads and other adornments. Moccasins were not designed to be waterproof, in wet weather and warm summer months, most Native Americans went barefoot; as civilizations began to develop, thong sandals were worn. This practice dates back to pictures of them in ancient Egyptian murals from 4000 BC. One pair found in Europe was made of papyrus leaves and dated to be 1,500 years old, they were worn in Jerusalem during the first century of the Common Era. Thong sandals were made from a wide variety of materials. Ancient Egyptian sandals were made from papyrus and palm leaves.
The Masai of Africa made them out of rawhide. In India they were made from wood. In China and Japan, rice straw was used; the leaves of the sisal plant were used to make twine for sandals in South America while the natives of Mexico used the Yucca plant. While thong sandals were worn, many people in ancient times, such as the Egyptians and Greeks, saw little need for footwear, most of the time, preferred being barefoot; the Egyptians and Hindus made some use of ornamental footwear, such as a soleless sandal known as a "Cleopatra", which did not provide any practical protection for the foot. The ancient Greeks viewed footwear as self-indulgent and unnecessary. Shoes were worn in the theater, as a means of increasing stature, many preferred to go barefoot. Athletes in the Ancient Olympic Games participated barefoot—and naked; the gods and heroes were depicted barefoot, the hoplite warriors fought battles in bare feet and Alexander the Great conquered his vast empire with barefoot armies. The runners of Ancient Greece are believed to have run barefoot.
The Romans, who conquered the Greeks and adopted many aspects of their culture, did not adopt the Greek perception of footwear and clothing. Roman clothing was seen as a sign of power, footwear was seen as a necessity of living in a civilized world, although the slaves and paupers went barefoot. Roman soldiers were issued with chiral footwear. Shoes for soldiers had riveted insoles to extend the life of the leather, increase comfortability, provide better traction; the design of these shoes designated the rank of the officers. The more intricate the insignia and the higher up the boot went on the leg, the higher the rank of the soldier. There are references to shoes being worn in the Bible. Starting around 4 BC, the Greeks began wearing symbolic footwear; these were decorated to indicate the status of the wearer. Courtesans wore leather shoes colored with white, lemon or yellow dyes, young woman betrothed or newly married wore pure white shoes; because of the cost to lighten leather, shoes of a paler shade were a symbol of wealth in the upper class.
The soles would be carved with a message so it would imprint on the ground. Cobblers became a not
The Rondanini Pietà is a marble sculpture that Michelangelo worked on from 1552 until the last days of his life, in 1564. Several sources indicate that there were three versions, with this one being the last; the name Rondanini refers to the fact that the sculpture stood for centuries in the courtyard at the Palazzo Rondanini in Rome. Certain sources point out that biographer Giorgio Vasari had referred to this Pietà in 1550, suggesting that the first version may have been underway at that time; the work is now in the Museum of Rondanini Pietà of Sforza Castle in Milan. This final sculpture revisited the theme of the Virgin Mary mourning over the emaciated body of the dead Christ, which he had first explored in his Pietà of 1499. Like his late series of drawings of the Crucifixion and the sculpture of the Deposition of Christ intended for his own tomb, it was produced at a time when Michelangelo's sense of his own mortality was growing, he had worked on the sculpture all day, just six days before his death.
The Rondanini Pietà was begun before The Deposition of Christ was completed in 1555. In his dying days, Michelangelo hacked at the marble block until only the dismembered right arm of Christ survived from the sculpture as conceived; the elongated Virgin and Christ are a departure from the idealised figures that exemplified the sculptor's earlier style, have been said to bear more of a resemblance to the attenuated figures of Gothic sculpture than those of the Renaissance. Some suggest that the elongated figures are reminiscent of the style used in Mannerism, it has been suggested that the sculpture should not be considered unfinished, but a work in a continuous process of being made visible by the viewer as he or she moves around to see it from multiple angles. South African visual artist Marlene Dumas based her 2012 painting Homage to Michelangelo on the Rondanini Pietà
Metropolis Pt. 2: Scenes from a Memory is the fifth studio album and first concept album by American progressive metal band Dream Theater, released on October 26, 1999 through Elektra Records. It was recorded at BearTracks Studios in Suffern, New York, where the band had recorded their second studio album Images and Words and the EP A Change of Seasons; the album is the sequel to "Metropolis—Part I:'The Miracle and the Sleeper'", a song featured on the band's 1992 album Images and Words. It was the first album to feature Jordan Rudess on keyboards, the last with its closing track not the longest until A Dramatic Turn of Events. For the album's twentieth anniversary, the band performed the album live in its entirety throughout the Distance over Time Tour. Fans had requested a sequel to the first part of the song "Metropolis—Part I" from Images and Words, but the band had not yet been able - nor had they intended - to make one; the name "Part I" was added by Petrucci as a joke. With the sessions for Falling Into Infinity, the band recorded a 21-minute instrumental demo of "Metropolis Pt. 2", but this did not make it onto that album.
The demo, which included several musical citations from "Metropolis—Part I" and featured many motifs that would appear on Metropolis Pt. 2: Scenes from a Memory, was however different from the finished album version in most part. After participating with keyboardist Jordan Rudess in Liquid Tension Experiment, a supergroup composed of various members of famous progressive rock bands, Mike Portnoy and John Petrucci found themselves writing music and working together with Rudess quite easily, they convinced the rest of the band to offer Rudess the position of full-time keyboardist for the band's upcoming album. He accepted, current keyboardist Derek Sherinian was fired from the band via a conference call between the four members in New York and him in Los Angeles. After his departure, the band went back to BearTracks Studios in Suffern, New York to record their new album the site of recording for Images and Words. After the commercial failure of Falling Into Infinity, their record label gave the band free rein over their new album's direction, which led the band to finish the story.
The final version of the story became a concept album, dealing with the story of a man named Nicholas and the discovery of his past life, which involves love and infidelity as Victoria Page, as such was inspired by the 1991 film Dead Again, more so than the original "Metropolis—Part I". Following the album's release, the band embarked on an extensive world tour, at a show in New York City the band hired actors to perform the narrative elements of the album whilst they played; the performance was recorded and was released in 2001 as the Metropolis 2000 Live DVD. In 2011 the album was released on LP for the first time to celebrate Record Store Day. In 2019, the twentieth anniversary of the release of Metropolis Pt. 2: Scenes from a Memory, Dream Theater performed it live in its entirety alongside material from its new album, Distance over Time. Metropolis Pt. 2: Scenes from a Memory opens to Nicholas, a troubled man going through past life regression therapy. In a hypnotic trance induced by his hypnotherapist, he begins to see a girl named Victoria Page and a life that feels strangely familiar, despite the fact that he has never been here.
He learns that she was murdered, that he was Victoria in a past life. He begins to believe. Nicholas is able to recall that Victoria began distancing herself from her lover Julian Baynes because of his drinking and gambling addictions. Nicholas assumes that Julian murdered her out of jealousy and killed himself, a story backed up by a newspaper article covering the events, which cites a witness' testimony. However, Nicholas begins to doubt this series of events, converses with an older man, more familiar with the case, he realizes. The second act begins by describing Julian's addictions to cocaine and gambling, which drives Victoria away from him. Edward feels guilty about deceiving his brother, but decides that his love for Victoria is greater than his guilt, he seduces her when she is vulnerable following her breakup. After visiting Edward's old house, Nicholas believes he has solved the mystery: Julian had tried to beg Victoria for forgiveness, when rebuffed, killed both her and Edward, positioned himself as the witness in the newspaper article.
Nicholas comes to terms with what has happened, bids farewell to Victoria. The hypnotherapist ends