Shogi known as Japanese chess or the Game of Generals, is a two-player strategy board game native to Japan. In the same family as chess, shatranj and xiangqi, it is the most popular chess variant in Japan. Shōgi means general's board game. Shogi was the earliest chess variant to allow captured pieces to be returned to the board by the capturing player; this drop rule is speculated to have been invented in the 15th century and connected to the practice of 15th century mercenaries switching loyalties when captured instead of being killed. The earliest predecessor of the game, originated in India in the 6th century. Shogi in its present form was played as early as the 16th century, while a direct ancestor without the drop rule was recorded from 1210 in a historical document Nichūreki, an edited copy of Shōchūreki and Kaichūreki from the late Heian period. Two players face each other across a board composed of rectangles in a grid of 9 ranks by 9 files yielding an 81 square board. In Japanese they are called Sente 先手 and Gote 後手, but in English are conventionally referred to as Black and White, with Black the first player.
The board is nearly always rectangular, the rectangles are undifferentiated by marking or color. Pairs of dots mark the players' promotion zones; each player has a set of 20 flat wedge-shaped pentagonal pieces of different sizes. Except for the kings, opposing pieces are undifferentiated by color. Pieces face forward by having the pointed side of each piece oriented toward the opponent's side – this shows who controls the piece during play; the pieces from largest to smallest are: 1 king 1 rook 1 bishop 2 gold generals 2 silver generals 2 knights 2 lances 9 pawnsSeveral of these names were chosen to correspond to their rough equivalents in international chess, not as literal translations of the Japanese names. Each piece has its name written on its surface in the form of two kanji in black ink. On the reverse side of each piece, other than the king and gold general, are one or two other characters, in amateur sets in a different color. Following is a table of the pieces with English equivalents.
The abbreviations are used for game notation and when referring to the pieces in speech in Japanese. English speakers sometimes refer to promoted bishops as horses and promoted rooks as dragons, after their Japanese names, use the Japanese term tokin for promoted pawns. Silver generals and gold generals are referred to as silvers and golds; the characters inscribed on the reverse sides of the pieces to indicate promotion may be in red ink, are cursive. The characters on the backs of the pieces that promote to gold generals are cursive variants of 金'gold', becoming more cursive as the value of the original piece decreases; these cursive forms have these equivalents in print: 全 for promoted silver, 今 for promoted knight, 仝 for promoted lance, 个 for promoted pawn. Another typographic convention has abbreviated versions of the original values, with a reduced number of strokes: 圭 for a promoted knight, 杏 for a promoted lance, the 全 as above for a promoted silver, but と for tokin; the suggestion that the Japanese characters have deterred Western players from learning shogi has led to "Westernized" or "international" pieces which use iconic symbols instead of characters.
Most players soon learn to recognize the characters, however because the traditional pieces are iconic by size, with more powerful pieces being larger. As a result, Westernized pieces have never become popular. Bilingual pieces with both Japanese characters and English captions have been developed as have pieces with animal cartoons; each player sets up friendly pieces facing forward. In the rank nearest the player: the king is placed in the center file; that is, the first rank isorIn the second rank, each player places: the bishop in the same file as the left knight. In the third rank, the nine pawns are placed one per file. Traditionally, the order of placing the pieces on the board is determined. There are two used orders, the Ōhashi order 大橋流 and the Itō order 伊藤流. Placement sets pieces with multiples from left to right in all cases, follows the order: king gold generals silver generals knightsIn ito, the player now places: 5. Pawns 6. Lances 7. Bishop 8. Rook In ohashi, the player now places: 5.
Lances 6. Bishop 7. Rook 8. Pawns A furigoma 振り駒 ` piece toss' is used to decide. One of the players tosses five pawns. If the number of tokins facing up is higher than unpromoted pawns the player who tossed the pawns plays gote 後手'white'. Among amateur tournaments, the higher-ranked player or defending champion performs the piece toss. In professional games, the furigoma is done on the behalf of the higher-ranked player/champion by the timekeeper who kneels by the side of the higher-ranked player and tosses
The American Legend AL3C-100 and American Legend AL11C-100 are new design American light-sport aircraft inspired by the Piper J-3 Cub and Super Cub. The Legend Cub is built along the lines of the original Piper Cub with modern materials and instruments; the aircraft is a high-wing, tandem seat monoplane with conventional landing gear. The fuselage is constructed with welded steel tubing with doped Superflite aircraft fabric. In April 2015 the Super Legend design was further developed with the addition of a greater number of carbon fibre components, including doors, the propeller spinner and the wingtip bows. Avionic upgrades include Garmin G3X avionics and a FreeFlight Systems 1201 WAAS GPS sensor, Trig Mode S and 1090ES ADS-B Out transponder. Diesel Engine In July of 2015, American Legend Aircraft and Superior Air Parts announced that the 100-horsepower Gemini turbo-charged diesel engine would be available in 2016 as an option throughout the American Legend product line; the engine burns available Jet A and/or diesel fuel.
Power and weight are said to be comparable to the existing Continental O-200 avgas engine, but with a 20% lower fuel burn. AL11C-100 Designed to resemble a Piper PA-11 Cub Special with an enclosed cowling. AL3C-100 Designed to resemble a Piper J-3 Cub with cylinders exposed through the cowling. AL11J-120 Powered with a 120 hp Jabiru 3300 engine. AL18 Super Legend Lycoming IO-233 powered variant designed to resemble a Piper PA-18 Super Cub. Kevlar and carbon fiber floats certified for aircraft in 2015. 2015 Super Legend re-engined with Lycoming YO-233 115hp variant accepting 100LL AvGas and Automotive Fuel. Texas Sport Cub Homebuilt kit. Data from ManufacturerGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 1 Length: 22 ft 5 in Wingspan: 35 ft 6 in Height: 6 ft 7 in Empty weight: 835 lb For American Light Sport Aircraft Gross weight: 1,320 lb Fuel capacity: 22 U. S. gallons Powerplant: 1 × Continental O-200 4-cylinder horiz. Opposed, 100 hp Performance Maximum speed: 94 kn Cruise speed: 84 kn Stall speed: 30 kn Range: 274 nmi Service ceiling: 15,000 ft Rate of climb: 700 ft/min Aircraft of comparable role and era CubCrafters CC11-100 Sport Cub S2 Piper Cub Rans S-21 Outbound Official website
Ernest Benjamin'Tich' Utting was an Australian rules footballer who played for the Collingwood Football Club and Hawthorn Football Club in the Victorian Football League. Utting started his league career with Collingwood but struggled to get game time in what was a strong side, although he managed to top their goalkicking in 1920 with 23 goals. After four years he left the club and joined Hawthorn who were in the Victorian Football Association, he was a member of Hawthorn's inaugural VFL side. The Club Champion in 1927 and 1929, Utting was the first Hawthorn footballer to play 100 VFL games. Playing in the back pocket, he polled well in the Brownlow Medal during his career and finished in the top 10 on three occasions, he left the senior side at the end of 1932 but captained the seconds side in 1933, winning the Gardiner Medal for the league's best and fairest player. Utting died at his home in Hawthorn in 1948. Ern Utting's playing statistics from AFL Tables
Keystone Ore was an American standardbred horse, the son of Bye Bye Bird. He was trained and driven by Stanley Dancer, was honored as United States Harness Horse of the Year in 1976. In 1976, Keystone Ore won the $200,000 Cane Pace held on August 21 at Yonkers Raceway, in front of a crowd of 24,458 fans, with his time of 1:57.2 in the mile distance setting the record for a 3-year-old pacer at that distance. Raven Hanover, driven by George Sholty ¾ of a length behind the lead, with Windshield Wiper 1¼ lengths behind second. Keystone Ore won the Little Brown Jug, the second leg of the Triple Crown of Harness Racing for Pacers, with a time of 1:57.4 in a raceoff against Armbro Ranger, who had won the first division of the race at the half-mile track at the Delaware County Fairgrounds in front of a crowd of 39,709, the second-largest attendance at the event. Keystone Ore had won the second division in a time of 1:57 for the mile, the combined time of 3:54.4 broke a record for age and gait on a half-mile track, set by Bret Hanover in 1965.
Favored to win the Messenger Stakes and sweep the Triple Crown, Keystone Ore fell to Windshield Wiper, who finished three-quarters of a length ahead of Keystone Ore. Both Keystone Ore and Windshield Wiper had started in the second tier of the 11-horse race and were hemmed in on the rail. On the backstretch for the second time, both horses found room to the outside around the stretch turn with Windshield Wiper pulling away in the last 50 yards. Keystone Ore had beaten Windshield Wiper in 13 of their races, but lost when the two competed against each other at Freehold Raceway in a race held two weeks before the Messenger Stakes. Keystone Ore finished the season with earnings of $469,302, a win in the Messenger would not only have earned the Triple Crown but would have put the horse just short of the single-season harness horse earnings record of $558,009 set by Albatross in 1971
The Central American pine-oak forests ecoregion, in the tropical and subtropical coniferous forests biome, is found in Central America and Chiapas state of southern Mexico. The Central American pine-oak forests occupy an area of 111,400 square kilometres, extending along the mountainous spine of Central America, extending from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas in Mexico's Chiapas state through the highlands of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras to central Nicaragua; the pine-oak forests lie between 600–1,800 metres elevation, are surrounded at lower elevations by tropical moist forests and tropical dry forests. Higher elevations above 1,800 metres are covered with Central American montane forests; the Central American pine-oak forests are composed of many species characteristic of temperate North America including oaks, pines and cypress. Ecoregions of Central America Trees of Central America World Wildlife Fund, ed.. "Central American pine-oak forests". WildWorld Ecoregion Profile. National Geographic Society.
Archived from the original on 2010-03-08
See Menominee RiverThe Menomonee River is one of three primary rivers in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Named after the Menomonee Indians, the word was given to the Menomonee people by the Chippewa people, in the Chippewa language means "rice eaters" referring to the abundant wild rice that once grew along its shores in the Menomonee Valley. A tributary of the Milwaukee River, it is the most industrialized within the Milwaukee River Basin; the Menomonee River is 33.0 miles long, with a watershed that covers 140 square miles of urban landscape and is home to a population of more than 336,670 people. This includes portions of Washington, Ozaukee and Milwaukee counties. A large swath of the river has been channelized and industrialized as it runs through the Menomonee Valley; this has become a primary source of pollution for the river. Its estuary empties into Lake Michigan from the Milwaukee River near the Milwaukee harbor, along with the Kinnickinnic River to the south. Menomonee River at Milwaukee Riverkeeper Menomonee River at Great Lakes Tributary Modeling Program Menomonee Valley Partners