Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s
Mallotus is a genus of the spurge family Euphorbiaceae first described as a genus in 1790. Two species are found in tropical Madagascar. All the other species are found in East Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, eastern Australia, certain islands of the western Pacific. Mallotus macrofossils have been recovered from the late Zanclean stage of Pliocene sites in Pocapaglia, Italy. Mallotus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Endoclita malabaricus; the Kamala tree has hairs of whose seed capsule which are the source of a yellow dye and herbal remedy. Moved to other genera
The Pothigai Hills known as the Shiva Jothi Parvath, Agasthiyar Mountain, Southern Kailash is a 1,866-metre -tall peak within Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu is in the southern part of the Western Ghats of South India. However peak lies in the border of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.. Ancient tradition holds the mountains of Pothigai to be where the sage Agastiyar provided the first grammar for the Tamil language; this grammar was further fine tuned by one of his disciples in the Tolkāppiyam. The area contains several important natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including forests containing threatened species of significant value to science and conservation; the western slope is located in the Thiruvananthapuram District of Kerala state, eastern slope of Pothigai hills is in the Tirunelveli District, southern slope is located in Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu. At 1,866 meters, it is the highest peak in the rugged Ashambu hills, which have one of the richest concentrations of biodiversity in the Western Ghats.
The area is known for its extensive views, waterfalls, ancient temples, the river Tamirabarani, the lifeline of the region. Agastyamalai is home to the Kanikkaran people, one of the oldest surviving hunter-gatherer tribes in the world; the Agasthiyar malai include the Indian Ecoregions of South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests above 500 metres, South Western Ghats montane rain forests above 1,000 metres and shola-grasslands complex on peaks above 1,600 metres. These hills are noted as the habitat for at least 2,000 species of medicinal plants, of which at least 50 are rare and endangered species. There are wild relatives of jackfruit, cardamom and banana. Endangered mammals here include the Bengal tiger, Indian elephant, lion-tailed macaques, Nilgiri tahr and the vulnerable gaur, sloth bear, Malabar spiny dormouse and Nilgiri marten. There are Jerdon's palm civet, gray slender loris, great pied hornbills and king cobras. Ecotourism is popular in the area; the Pothigai hills are mentioned as Potiyil, Potiyal and Potalaka in historical sources in relation to the river Tamraparni and the ancient Sage Agastya.
At the mountains, Tamil was created by Agastya, according to Kamban and Villiputturar, while Kancipuranam and Tiruvilaiyatarpuranam assert Lord Shiva taught Agastya Tamil just as he had taught Panini Sanskrit. Tamil Hindu tradition holds that Lord Shiva and Lord Murugan taught Agastya the Tamil language, who constructed a Tamil grammar, at Pothigai mountains. According to the Tambraparni Mahatmyam, an ancient account of the river from its rise to its mouth, a string of red lotus flowers from sage Agastya at Agastya Malai, Pothigai hills, transformed itself into a damsel at the sight of Lord Siva, forming the river at the source and giving it its divine name, Tamraparni; the shrine to Agastiyar at the Pothigai hill source of the Tamraparni river is mentioned in both Ilango Adigal's Silappatikaram and Chithalai Chathanar's Manimekhalai epics, in relation to blessings sought by Sugriva and his army from the Ramayana. Peraciriyar states that Agastiyar taught this grammar to Tolkappiyar, one of his twelve disciples, at Pothigai hills, who wrote Tolkāppiyam, although mentions that some scholars believe Tolkappiyar based the Tamil grammar on other forms no longer extant.
Paripāṭal of the Eṭṭuttokai anthology speaks of "vaynta Potiyin munivan", the famous sage of Poti". In Naccinarkiniyar's commentaries, quoting lines of Nakkeerar, Agastiyar is associated with the Pothigai mountains and pure Tamil. In Sundarar's Tevaram, the Pothigai mountains are mentioned. Following the establishment of Siddhar Gnana Koodam, traveling the world to spread his knowledge, Agastya returned to Agastya Mala, the point on the Pothigai hills where he merged into the cosmos. A temple dedicated to him is built here, close to the Papanasam Falls, on the banks of the Thamirabarani River. Pilgrims believe Sage Agastya gives appearances to sincere devotees. Tamil Buddhist tradition developed in Chola literature, such as in Buddamitra's Virasoliyam, states Agastya learnt Tamil from the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. A Buddhist text, refers to Avalokitesvara as "Potalagirinivasini"; the author of the Silappatikaram, utilizing the word "Potiyil" for the hills, hails the southern breeze that emanates from the hills that blows over the kingdom of the Pandyans of Madurai and Korkai that own it.
Chithalai Chathanar's Manimekhalai describes a river flowing on the slope of Potiyil mountain where the Buddhist monks observed meditation. The author utilized the word "Potiyil" for Buddhist pallis. In fellow Sangam work Kuṟuntokai of the Eṭṭuttokai anthology, a Buddhist vihara under a Banyan tree is described at the top of the mountain. A comment that God had disappeared from the mountain was found in Ahananuru, from whose inaccessible top the stream of clear waters flows down with noise in torrents, the fact that old men assembled and played dice in the dilapidated temple is described in Purananuru; the Japanese scholar Shu Hikosaka on the basis of his study of Buddhist scriptures, ancient Tamil literature, as well as field survey, proposes the hypothesis that, the ancient mount Potalaka, the residence of Avalokiteśvara described in the Gaṇḍavyūha Sūtra and Xuanzang’s Records, is the real mountain Pothigai situated at Ambasamudram in Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu. Shu says that mount Potiyil/Potalaka has been a sacred place for the people of South India from time immemorial.
Munnar is a town and hill station located in the Idukki district of the southwestern Indian state of Kerala. Munnar is situated at around 1,600 metres in the Western Ghats mountain range. Munnar is called the "Kashmir of South India" and is a popular honeymoon destination; the tradition that Col Arthur Wellesley to be the Duke of Wellington, leading a British detachment from Vandiperiyar to Bodinayakanur over the High Range and into the Coimbatore plains to cut off Tippu Sultan's retreat from Travancore, was the first Englishman in the High Range appears to be belied by the dates involved. If the story is a dozen years too early for Wellesley, it is quite possible that some other officer in General Meadow's Army may have had that distinction. No record of that pioneering mountain crossing has been traced. What is available is a record of the surveying of this terrain in 1816-17 by Lt Benjamin Swayne Ward, son of Col Francis Swayne Ward to whom we owe many of the early views of Madras and South India Now available in lithprints.
Ward and his assistant Lt Eyre Connor were on orders to map the unexplored country between Cochin and Madurai and so they followed the Periyar into the mountains and headed north into what at that time was described as "the dark impenetrable forests of the High Range". They lost men to at least one elephant charge, suffered agony from leech bites and once ran so short of food that a deer run down and being feasted on by wild dogs was manna for the party and their jungle guides; the subsequent report by Ward and Connor was to lead to the Periyar Dam project, completed only in the 1890s,but for the present they were more pre occupied getting into the mountains that they could see towering in the distance from Bodi. On 14 October 1817, "the weather having improved the ascent into the High Range began", their first major camp was at a flat promontory at 6000 feet. And this was afterwards to be known as Top Station. Moving north, they saw to their south the Cardamom Hills, a slope 45 miles long and 30 wide from the heights above Bodi stretching into Travancore.
To their north there appeared to be grasslands on high rock peaks. And in front of them, "an outstanding mountain, shaped like an elephant’s head". On 8 November, they established camp at the confluence of three rivers, which they judged to be the centre of the district, from Munnar, as it came to be known, they surveyed the area, discovered the ancient village of Neramangalam in ruins but surmised that it might well have been from here that ivory and peacock feathers and cardamom, sandalwood and other timber went to the lands to the West across the Arabian Sea", it was to be nearly 50 years that Sir Charles Trevelyan, Governor of Madras, instructed Col Douglas Hamilton to explore the hill country in the western part of the Madras Presidency, requesting special advice on the feasibility of establishing sanatoria for the British in the South and of developing revenue- earning projects without endangering the environment, as had happened in Ceylon where coffee had destroyed not only the rain forest but paddy cultivation in the north – central rice bowl of ancient Ceylon.
Marching south along the Anamallai, Hamilton saw "the grandest and most extensive I have beheld. Separating the plateau from Anaimudi was a deep, thickly forested ravine – called Inaccessible Valley and, detouring it, they began the climb from the east to the peak. On our return, we followed an elephant path for several miles, the gradient of this path was wonderful, these sagacious animals avoiding every steep or difficult ascent, except at one hill, cleverly zigzagged, owing to masses of sheer rock preventing a regular incline being taken." It was to be 15 years before another report came in. But this was more significant from the viewpoint of this history, for though it came as a result of the shikar expeditions of the ever-exploring John Daniel Munro, he was an opener – up of land and a pioneering planter first and a shikari second. Reporting on the High Range in 1877, he wrote, "Exclusive of the low Unjenaad valley, not above 3100 feet, the area within these boundaries may be estimated at 200 square miles with an elevation over 5000 ft … Much of this is worthless land, but there is a good deal fit for cultivation … Coffee … would succeed well at a somewhat lower elevation, Tea and Cinchona would grow miles available for these purposes, there being the great inducement of a good climate, it will doubtless not be many years before these fine hills get occupied".
And Munro, who always had a long – range view of things, indeed proved right again. Mention has been made of the journey into these hills by Henry Turner and his half – brother ‘Thambi’ A W Turner, the concessions that Munro Superintendent of the Cardamom Hills for the Raja of Travancore, got them from the Raja, the Society the three of them formed in 1879 with Rs 450,000 capital; the agreement they entered into with the Rajah read in part: "Th
Brahmagiri (hill), Karnataka
For other places with the same name, see Brahmagiri Brahmagiri, is a mountain range in the Western Ghats of south India. It is situated on the border between Kodagu district in Karnataka state in the north and Wayanad district of Kerala state on the south. Brahmagiri Hill, at 1608 m height, is a scenic tourist attraction; the top of Brahmagiri Hill has a lot of wildlife. Thirunelli Temple, dedicated to Lord Vishnu, lies on the Kerala side of Brahmagiri; this temple is known as the Kasi of the South. The temple includes 30 granite pillars. According to legend, the temple was constructed by Lord Brahma himself. Pakshipathalam at an altitude of 1740 m is another attraction on the Kerala side. Pakshipathalam has a cave, said to have been used by rishis in ancient times. On the Karnataka side it is known by the name of Munikal cave. Iruppu Falls of the Lakshmana Tirtha River lies on the Karnataka side of Brahmagiri. According to legend, when Rama and Lakshmana were searching for Sita, they became thirsty.
Lakshmana shot an arrow into the Brahmagiri from. Rama is said to have dedicated a Shiva Kshethra known as Rajeshwara Temple on the banks of river Lakshmana Tirtha; the Lakshmana Tirtha river flows into the Kaveri River. One Jain Temple is present here built by Kadamba dynasty. Nishani Motte is a peak in Brahmagiri range of hills. Brahmagiri can be reached from Kutta. From Karnataka side, trek to Brahmagiri from Irupu Falls is 9 km and to Munikal Caves is 7 km. Trekkers need to seek the permission of Range Forest Officer at Srimangala. Brahmagiri is about 11 km from Tirunelli; the Periya ghat road connects Mananthavady to Thalassery. The Thamarassery mountain road connects Calicut with Kalpetta; the Kuttiady mountain road connects Vatakara with Mananthavady. The Palchuram mountain road connects Iritty with Mananthavady; the road from Nilambur to Ooty is connected to Wayanad through the village of Meppadi. The nearest railway station is at Mysore and the nearest airports are Kozhikode International Airport-120 km, Bengaluru International Airport-290 km, Kannur International Airport, 58 km.
Pakshi Pathalam is a trekking site some seven kilometers from Thirunelli temple near Kattikkkulam. There is an ancient cave on the hillock with plenty of birds. Brahmagiri Explore and Download GPS track of Irpu - Narimale - Munikal Caves - Brahmagiri Trek
Ilex, or holly, is a genus of about 480 species of flowering plants in the family Aquifoliaceae, the only living genus in that family. The species are evergreen or deciduous trees and climbers from tropics to temperate zones worldwide; the genus Ilex includes about 480 species, divided into three subgenera: Ilex subg. Byronia, with the type species Ilex polypyrena Ilex subg. Prinos, with 12 species Ilex subg. Ilex, with the rest of the speciesThe genus is widespread throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the world, it includes species of trees and climbers, with evergreen or deciduous foliage and inconspicuous flowers. Its range was more extended in the Tertiary period and many species are adapted to laurel forest habitat, it occurs from sea level to more than 2,000 metres with high mountain species. It is a genus of evergreen trees with smooth, glabrous, or pubescent branchlets; the plants are slow-growing with some species growing to 25 m tall. The type species is the European holly Ilex aquifolium described by Linnaeus.
Plants in this genus have simple, alternate glossy leaves with a spiny leaf margin. The inconspicuous flower is greenish white, with four petals, they are dioecious, with male and female flowers on different plants. The small fruits of Ilex, although referred to as berries, are technically drupes, they range in color from red to brown to black, green or yellow. The "bones" contain up to ten seeds each; some species produce fruits parthenogenetically, such as the cultivar'Nellie R. Stevens'; the fruits ripen in winter and thus provide winter colour contrast between the bright red of the fruits and the glossy green evergreen leaves. Hence the cut branches of I. aquifolium, are used in Christmas decoration. The fruits are slightly toxic to humans, can cause vomiting and diarrhea when ingested. However, they are an important food source for birds and other animals, which help disperse the seeds; this can have negative impacts as well. Along the west coast of North America, from California to British Columbia, English holly, grown commercially, is spreading into native forest habitat, where it thrives in shade and crowds out native species.
It has been placed on the Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board's monitor list, is a Class C invasive plant in Portland. Ilex in Latin means the evergreen oak. Despite the Linnaean classification of Ilex as holly, as late as the 19th century in Britain, the term Ilex was still being applied to the oak as well as the holly – due to the superficial similarity of the leaves; the name "holly" in common speech refers to Ilex aquifolium stems with berries used in Christmas decoration. By extension, "holly" is applied to the whole genus; the origin of the word "holly" is considered a reduced form of Old English holen, Middle English Holin Hollen. The French word for holly, derives from the Old Low Franconian *hulis. Both are related to Old High German hulis, huls, as are Low German/Low Franconian terms like Hülse or hulst; these Germanic words appear to be related to words for holly in Celtic languages, such as Welsh celyn, Breton kelen and Irish cuileann. Several Romance languages use the Latin word acrifolium "sharp leaf", so Italian agrifoglio, Occitan grefuèlh, etc.
The phylogeography of this group provides examples of various speciation mechanisms at work. In this scenario ancestors of this group became isolated from the remaining Ilex when the Earth mass broke away into Gondwana and Laurasia about 82 million years ago, resulting in a physical separation of the groups and beginning a process of change to adapt to new conditions; this mechanism is called allopatric speciation. Over time, survivor species of the holly genus adapted to different ecological niches; this led to an example of ecological speciation. In the Pliocene, around five million years ago, mountain formation diversified the landscape and provided new opportunities for speciation within the genus; the fossil record indicates that the Ilex lineage was widespread prior to the end of the Cretaceous period. Based on the molecular clock, the common ancestor of most of the extant species appeared during the Eocene, about 50 million years ago, suggesting that older representatives of the genus belong to now extinct branches.
The laurel forest covered great areas of the Earth during the Paleogene, when the genus was more prosperous. This type of forest extended during the Neogene, more than 20 million years ago. Most of the last remaining temperate broadleaf evergreen forests are believed to have disappeared about 10,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene. Many of the then-existing species with the strictest ecological requirements became extinct because they could not cross the barriers imposed by the geography, but others found refuge as a species relict in coastal enclaves and coastal mountains sufficiently far from areas of extreme cold and aridity and protected by the oceanic influence; the genus is distributed throughout the world's different climates. Most species make their home in the tropics and subtropics, with a worldwide distribution in temperate zones; the greatest diversity of species is found in Southeast Asia. Ilex mucronata the type species of Nemopanthus, is native to eastern North America.
Nemopanthus was treated as a separate genus with eight species. Of the family Aquifoliaceae, now transferred to Ilex on molecular data. In Europe the genus is represented by a single species, th
Kodagu is an administrative district in Karnataka, India. Before 1956, it was an administratively separate Coorg State, at which point it was merged into an enlarged Mysore State, it occupies an area of 4,102 square kilometres in the Western Ghats of southwestern Karnataka. In 2001 its population was 548,561, 13.74% of which resided in the district's urban centres, making it the least populous of the 30 districts in Karnataka. Kodagu is home to the native speakers of the Kodava language; the district is bordered by Dakshina Kannada district to the northwest, Kasargod district of Kerala to the west, Hassan district to the north, Mysore district to the east, Kannur district of Kerala to the southwest, the Wayanad district of Kerala to the south. Kodagu is located on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, it has a geographical area of 4,102 km2. The district is bordered by Dakshina Kannada district to the northwest, Hassan district to the north, Mysore district to the east, Kasaragod district in west and Kannur district of Kerala to the southwest, Wayanad district of Kerala to the south.
It is a hilly district, the lowest elevation of, 120 metres above sea-level. The highest peak, rises to 1,750 metres, with Pushpagiri, the second highest, at 1,715 metres; the main river in Kodagu is the Kaveri, which originates at Talakaveri, located on the eastern side of the Western Ghats, with its tributaries, drains the greater part of Kodagu. The district is divided into the three administrative talukas: Madikeri Virajpet Somwarpet Two members of the legislative assembly are elected from Kodagu to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly, one each from the Madikeri and Virajpet. M P Appachu Ranjan represents the Madikeri constituency while K. G. Bopaiah represents the Virajpet constituency. Kodagu part of the Kodagu-Dakshina Kannada constituency, is now part of the Kodagu-Mysore Lok Sabha parliamentary constituency. Shri Pratap Simha, from the Bharatiya Janata Party, represents Kodagu-Mysore Parliamentary constituency; the Codava National Council and Kodava Rashtriya Samiti are campaigning for autonomy to Kodagu district.
The Kodavas were the earliest inhabitants and agriculturists in Kodagu, having lived there for centuries. Being a warrior community as well, they carried arms during times of war and had their own chieftains; the Haleri dynasty, an offshoot of the Keladi Nayakas, ruled Kodagu between 1600 and 1834. The British ruled Kodagu from 1834, after the Coorg War, until India's independence in 1947. A separate state until in 1956 Kodagu was merged with the Mysore State. In 1834, the East India Company annexed Kodagu into British India, after deposing Chikka Virarajendra of the Kodagu kingdom, as'Coorg'; the people accepted British rule peacefully. British rule led to the establishment of educational institutions, introduction of scientific coffee cultivation, better administration and improvement of the economy. According to the 2011 census of India, Kodagu has a population of 554,762 equal to the Solomon Islands or the US state of Wyoming; this ranks it 539 out of 640 districts in India in terms of population.
The district has a population density of 135 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 1.13%. Kodagu has a sex ratio of 1019 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 82.52%. Kodava Takk is the spoken language native to Kodagu. Are Bhashe, a dialect of Kannada, is native to Sulya in Dakshina Kannada. Both use Kannada script for literature. According to Karnataka Kodava Sahitya Academy, apart from Kodavas, their related groups, the Amma Kodavas, the Kodava Peggade and the Kodava Maaple, 18 other smaller-numbered ethnic groups speak Kodava Takk in and outside the district including the Iri, the Koyava, the Banna, the Kodagu Madivala, the Kodagu Hajama, the Kembatti Poleya and the Meda. Less frequent are Tulu speakers Billavas, Bunts, Goud Saraswat Brahmins. Among other Kodava speaking communities are: cultivators from Malabar. All these groups speak the Kodava language and conform to Kodava customs and dress; the Arebhashe gowdas, or Kodagu Gowdas, Tulu Gowdas, are an ethnic group of Dakshina Kannada and Kodagu.
They live in Sulya and in parts of Somwarpet, Kushalanagar and Madikeri. Guddemane Appaiah Gowda along with many other freedom fighters from different communities revolted against the British in an armed struggle which covered entire Kodagu and Dakshina Kannada; this was one of the earliest freedom movements against the British called "Amara Sulliada Swantantrya Sangraama" started in 1837. Kodagu is home to a sizeable population of Muslims; those Muslims who are of South Western Indian origins are known as the maaple, either Malayalam speaking in Kerala and Kodava speaking in Kodagu. Kodava Hindus converted into Islam were called Jamma Maaple; some of the Kodava maaple have married with Tulu Bearys. A number of Muslims from the Malabar coast (