SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Shooting sports

Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy and speed in shooting — the art of using various types of ranged weapons referring to human-portable guns and bows/crossbows. Different disciplines of shooting sports can be categorized by equipment, shooting distances, time limits and degrees of athleticism involved. Shooting sports may involve both team and individual competition, team performance is assessed by summing the scores of the individual team members. Due to the noise of shooting and the high impact energy of the projectiles, shooting sports are conducted at either designated permanent shooting ranges or temporary shooting fields in the area away from settlements. Game shooting and target shooting has been limited to the upper-class and the gentry, with severe penalties for poaching; the National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom was founded in 1860 to raise the funds for an annual national rifle meeting "for the encouragement of Volunteer Rifle Corps and the promotion of Rifle-shooting throughout Great Britain".

Target shooting was a favorite sport in colonial America, with the New England Puritans testing their shooting skills for recreation and at militia training days. The Scotch Irish settlers on the frontier favored. Turkey shoots were popular after harvest time. Contestants would pay an entry fee, everyone who killed a tethered turkey at 110 yards for muskets or hundred and 65 yards for rifles could keep the bird. German gunsmith's in Pennsylvania began to manufacture Flintlock rifles in the 1720s, which became popular among hunters because of its long-range accuracy, it could be accurate to 200 yards. Along about 1820, percussion caps, the locks that ignited them, became available, nearly all new firearms began to be constructed using this ignition system. Many flintlock firearms were subsequently converted to the percussion system, a simple procedure that could be accomplished by local gunsmiths. Although percussion ignition did not add to the accuracy of the firearm, the time between when the firearm firing mechanism started the sequence that lead to the ignition of the propellant in the barrel, was shortened drastically.

This made getting smaller shot groups on the target more attainable as the possibility of the firearm moving off the aiming point after the shooter pressed the trigger was lessened. This shortened ignition time, referred to as “lock time” was a important factor in target shooting; the closed design of the percussion system materially improved reliability of the firearm in rainy or damp conditions. Many flintlock firearms were subsequently converted to percussion, a process that could be accomplished by most gunsmiths of the period; the faster “lock time” made hitting fast-moving aerial targets with a cloud of tiny lead pellets fired from a smooth-bore firearm a real possibility. Practicing for game hunting by shooting at artificial aerial targets launched from spring-powered launching devices became popular and led to the development of the modern Trap and Sporting Clays shooting sports. In 1831 a sportsman club in Cincinnati Ohio held a competitive shoot at pigeons and quail released from ground traps.

German ethnic communities set up athletic clubs and shooting clubs in the Midwestern states In the 1850-1917. Period Breach loading shotguns introduced in the 1860s, the knowledge of rifles by Civil War soldiers, made trap shooting popular. However, there was human humanitarian opposition to killing live birds—and the passenger pigeon was dying out—so glass or clay targets were used instead. Concerned over poor marksmanship during the American Civil War, veteran Union officers Col. William C. Church and Gen. George Wingate formed the National Rifle Association of America in 1871 for the purpose of promoting and encouraging rifle shooting on a "scientific" basis. In 1872, with financial help from New York state, a site on Long Island, the Creed Farm, was purchased for the purpose of building a rifle range. Named Creedmoor, the range opened in 1872, became the site of the first National Matches until New York politics forced the NRA to move the matches to Sea Girt, New Jersey; the popularity of the National Matches soon forced the event to be moved to its present, much larger location: Camp Perry.

In 1903, the U. S. Congress created the National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice, an advisory board to the Secretary of the Army, with a nearly identical charter to the NRA; the NBPRP participates in the National Matches at Camp Perry. In 1903, the NRA began to establish rifle clubs at all major colleges and military academies. By 1906, youth programs were in full swing with more than 200 boys competing in the National Matches. Today, more than one million youth participate in shooting sports events and affiliated programs through groups such as 4-H, the Boy Scouts of America, the American Legion, U. S. Jaycees, NCAA, The USA High School Clay Target League, the Scholastic Clay Target Program, National Guard Bureau, ROTC, JROTC. French pistol champion and founder of the modern Olympics, Pierre de Coubertin, participated in many of these early competitions; this fact contributed to the inclusion of five shooting events in the 1896 Olympics. Over the years, the events have been changed a number of times in order to keep up with technology and social standard

Harwich Redoubt

Harwich Redoubt is a circular fort built in 1808 to defend the port of Harwich, Essex from Napoleonic invasion. The Harwich Society opens it to the public; the Redoubt was built between 1808 and 1810 to protect the port of Harwich against the threat of Napoleonic invasion. It was part of the scheme that included the construction of 29 Martello Towers on the East Anglian coast; the Redoubt is of circular shape 200 ft in diameter, with a central parade ground of 85 ft diameter. Hoists lifted shells from the lower level to the gun emplacements, it is similar in design to earlier redoubts at Eastbourne. Though difficult to imagine as it is now surrounded by houses, when the Redoubt was built it was on a hill top with free views in all directions. A house was demolished to make way for the Redoubt, a large elm tree - used by ships as a navigational mark - was removed, it is said. Armed with ten 24-pounder cannon, the Redoubt was remodelled in order to accommodate heavy guns, as technology and the perceived threat changed.

In 1861-2, work was carried out to accommodate 68-pounder cannon, the emplacements were strengthened to withstand improved enemy artillery. Only a decade in 1872, three of the emplacements were altered to take enormous 12 ton RML guns. In 1903, three emplacements received 12 pounder QF guns. Despite this ongoing modernisation, the Redoubt never fired a shot in anger, it is probable that its strategic importance declined towards the end of the 19th century with the construction of the more powerful Beacon Hill Battery just to the south. In the 1920s the area around the Redoubt - kept clear to provide fields of fire - was bought by the Town Council; this land is used for allotments. The Redoubt itself was allowed to fall into disrepair; the Redoubt was taken back into military service during World War II, when it served as a detention centre for British troops awaiting trial. Examples of the graffiti left by the soldiers can still be seen in some of the rooms. Following World War II the Redoubt was used by the British Civil Defence organisation, who used it until they were disbanded.

That was the end of the Redoubt's military service. Following a listing as an Ancient Monument, the restoration of the Harwich Redoubt began in July 1969 and has continued until the present day; when restoration began, one of the 9-inch 12 ton RML guns was discovered buried in the moat - it had been pushed in when it became obsolete, as they were too large and solidly constructed to be broken up for scrap. Open as a museum, the Redoubt is the largest ancient monument in the UK being restored by a voluntary group. In addition to some of the original guns that armed the Redoubt, including the 9-inch RML, there are a number of other guns on display. Around the parade ground on the lower level, the various rooms are either fitted out in reconstruction of how they might have looked, or are used as display rooms for other exhibitions. Exhibitions include a large number of replica firearms. Battle re-enactments and other events are held during the summer months; the Redoubt - Harwich Society Detailed historical record about Harwich Redoubt Quick tour around Redoubt Fort with commentary

Kriegsschule (Wehrmacht)

A Kriegsschule was a general military school used for basic officer training and higher education in Germany starting in as early as the 17th century. There have been many Kriegsakademies,'Kriegsschulen', or Ritterakademies in Germany; the institutions were created to correct the defective education of the aristocracy because the knight order complained, "the young noblemen were too tired of schools and studies show that those who would choose to war over the necessity and the complaints are too fatigued and returned home."After the Seven Years' War, Frederick II was faced with the task of reorganizing and refreshing the army. Due to the war in all of the European countries, it became obvious that the education of the officers was lacking, it was believed that the experience of war taught all, necessary. After the war, the Germans recognized the importance of science education and new educational facilities were constructed. After the rise of a money economy and cities, mercenary troops and city-state militias appeared.

Mercenary leaders were taught by a kind of apprenticeship system. However, as Machiavelli had noted, the independent mercenary troops were militarily inefficient. Feudal monarchs, the bourgeoisie, wanted a more reliable military force and system of command. In 1765, Frederick II built the Académie des Nobles in Berlin. There young nobles were trained for civil service; the classes related to history, philosophy, geometry, grammar, drill and horseback riding. The students went either to the cadet schools; the twelve best graduates Frederick took to Potsdam to train in the higher art of war. These officers were the squad for staff officers. After the king died in 1786, this tradition continued as one of secondary education until 1801. Selected participants from the "Academy for young officers of infantry and cavalry," was formed. However, after the end of first year in June 1804 became a fixed organization as an institution; the training consisted of a three-year course. From 1 September to 31 March was taught in the school while the rest of the year the officers did their service in military units.

The overall management of the school was up to the Quartermaster General of the army. This academy was closed at the outbreak of the War of the Fourth Coalition and as a result of the defeat, it was not to be reopened. After the war of 1806/07 began in Prussia, the reforms of the military system began. By a cabinet order of 3 In May 1810, additional to the three Kriegsschulen were established to train officers; the Prussian Military Academy in Berlin was founded by Gerhard von Scharnhorst in October 1810 the Allgemeine Kriegsschule, for the Prussian state. The military college was for the training of staff officers, was in its original form until 1914; the Prussian Military Academy is distinguished from the military schools, which mediated genre-specific skills and weapons of the military academies, the cadets were preparing for the officer examination. The military school in Berlin was responsible for the training of officers in charge; the department offered a three-year course of nine months of lessons, while the other three months were devoted to in service activities or practical exercises.

The training included the military sciences, chemistry and languages. Admission to the course has been made subject to verification, from a previous three-year term; the number of participants was limited to 55. During the liberation war from 1813 to 1815, the military school was closed. In 1816 it was reopened, it was now separated from lower education and received the status of a university. Since 1 October 1859 it was called - by a cabinet order of 19 August 1858 - the Königlich Preußische Kriegsakademie or "Royal Prussian Military Academy." The Kriegsakademies were used in Prussian-German army until 1914. The Kriegsakademie moved locations several times within Berlin, it was housed in a building on Castle Road. They moved into a Schinkel on'Unter den Linden' extended by a rear building on Dorotheenstraße; this four-story brick building built in 1879-1883 consisted of an abutment. In the building, there were classrooms, offices, an area for war games, a library, stables, it was open until the outbreak of World World I.

From 1935 to 1939, the Academy was elsewhere. In the Krupp, it reopened; the Kriegsakademie was established by the military as a kind of university which encouraged higher education and military training in the army. In times it narrowed curriculum at the expense of general education subjects to more and more on the military sciences; the Kriegsakademie was open in principle to each officer, as participation was based on voluntary reporting. Acceptance conditions were based on a three-year prior service record, good health, in addition to being knowledgeable with scientific endeavors, special equipment, skills were needed and pass the entrance exam. Before the applicant could take the required entrance exam, had to confirm with the regimental commander the character and professional competence of the aspirant; this process was often used for social selection. In the Regiment, preparations were made for the entrance examination; as a rule, only graduates of t