President's Choice known as PC, is a Canadian private label or store brand owned by Loblaw Companies Limited. President's Choice includes a wide variety of grocery and household products, in addition to financial services and cell phone service. President's Choice products are available across the company's various retail banners, which include Loblaws, Loblaw Great Food, Dominion, No Frills, Real Canadian Superstore, Provigo, Extra Foods, Your Independent Grocer, Atlantic Superstore, Zehrs Markets, Valu-mart, Shoppers Drug Mart, Wholesale Club; the first President's Choice products began appearing on Loblaw store shelves in 1984, but the concept was born somewhat by accident the year before as the company went to market with a new high quality ground coffee. Dave Nichol, president of Loblaws Supermarkets, was on the lookout for new products to add to the company's line-up of No Name generics and had begun offering gourmet items in the familiar, unbranded yellow packaging, his Louisiana buyers had discovered a new high-grade coffee, around the time some of the leading national brands had downgraded the quality of their store coffee.
Toronto designer Don Watt was asked to come up with packaging – the only stipulation being that it had to be yellow, the same as No Name. Watt recalled how President's Blend Gourmet Coffee went on sale in time for Christmas: It goes on the shelf and becomes the number-one selling item in the grocery section, and Nichol, always listening to the consumer, said, "Well, I guess the consumer is telling us that we should be trading up. Why don't you take your President's Blend idea and figure out how to do a package? Because we've got a lot of yellow in the store, so the only comment I'm telling you is don't make it yellow." While Loblaw kept the "President’s Blend" label, the name was otherwise too product specific. Since the new line would be endorsed by Nichol, an associate suggested "President's Choice" as a brand name that could be used across a wide range of items. According to Watt, "PC was chosen because it was the president's'choice', it wasn’t the absolute best that you would find in a gourmet deli or something – it was the best value, the best quality, the best relative to the competition."
In fact, Dave Nichol's association with the product line would extend to every aspect of marketing, including the President's Choice logo, Nichol's own handwriting. In developing a line of store brand products, Loblaw looked to one of Great Britain's leading merchandisers for inspiration. "Nichol remembered seeing how London retailer Marks & Spencer had featured its own brand, St. Michael, not only less expensive but higher in quality than the leading brands." For Nichol, private labels represented not only a marketing opportunity, in addition to higher margins, but a way of becoming less dependent on the big name national brands. "I started off running Loblaws like every other retailer in North America, getting people in the store by giving Coke and Tide away below cost."Loblaw, in fact, had a long history of offering in-house products. Founded by Toronto grocers Theodore Pringle Loblaw and J. Milton Cork in 1919, Loblaw Groceterias Co. Limited featured many of its own products, individually branded under a variety of labels such as Pride of Arabia Coffee and Jack & Jill Peanut Butter.
While Loblaw Groceterias' innovative self-serve format produced rapid growth throughout its early years, by the 1970s Loblaw Companies Limited was struggling to revitalize its operations and recapture market share. As newly appointed CEO, W. Galen Weston earmarked $40 million for product development. With a major corporate rebranding underway, Weston commented there was no point redesigning product packaging if the consumer found the quality inside, which had disappointed, no better than before; some of the first President's Choice products included Belgian biscuits, chocolate chip cookies, passion fruit sorbet. The advent of PC coincided with the appearance of a new marketing tool called Dave Nichol's Insider's Report, first published in November 1983. Described as a cross between Mad and Consumer Reports that combined "zaniness and food tips in a comic book format", the newspaper supplement was a quirky, tongue-in-cheek product review modelled after flyers from California supermarket chain Trader Joe's.
As the popularity of President's Choice grew, along with the number of products, the Insider's Report became devoted to the promotion of the line. With its cover shot of Nichol alongside Georgie Girl, his favourite French bulldog, Dave Nichol's Insider's Report was written in the first person, with Nichol telling his readers all about his latest food related finds and product quests, he would relate production development stories: I approached technicians at one of Canada's leading dairies and asked them to make a passion fruit sorbet for Loblaws that would be so good that I could put my name on it and proudly call it "President's Choice". They set to work. A long and determined search produced five tons of concentrate in Brazil and we had it flown here to ensure that we’d meet our deadlines. After many batches were sampled, we came up with a product that I'm proud to put my name on. Nichol and his product developers travelled extensively in search of new ideas. One such overseas excursion bought them to the boardroom of one of Europe's leading biscuit makers: During our visit to their plant in Belgium, we discovered that Delacre is the world's largest producer of tinned assortments of premium biscuits.
So and there we put i
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Brampton is a city in the Canadian province of Ontario. Situated in Southern Ontario, it is a suburban city in the Greater Toronto Area and the seat of Peel Region; the city has a population of 593,638 as of the Canada 2016 Census. Brampton is Canada's ninth-most populous municipality, the seventy-seventh largest city in North America and the third most populous city in the Greater Golden Horseshoe Region, behind Toronto and Mississauga. Brampton was incorporated as a village in 1853 with 50 residents, taking its name from the market town of Brampton, in Cumbria, England. In 1873, with 2,000 residents, Brampton was incorporated as a town; the city was once known as "The Flower Town of Canada", a title based on its large greenhouse industry. Today, Brampton's major economic sectors include advanced manufacturing, retail administration, logistics and communication technologies and beverage, life sciences, business services. Mass immigration has increased Brampton's population from 10,000 in the 1950s to over 600,000 today.
Prior to the 1800s, all real business in Chinguacousy Township took place at Martin Salisbury's tavern. One mile distant at the corner of Main and Queen streets, now the recognised centre of Brampton, William Buffy's tavern was the only significant building. At the time, the area was referred to as "Buffy's Corners". By 1834, John Elliott laid out the area in lots for sale, calling it "Brampton", soon adopted by others. In 1853, a small agricultural fair was set up by the newly initiated County Agricultural Society of the County of Peel, was held at the corner of Main and Queen streets. Grains, produce and dairy products were up for sale. Horses and cattle, along with other lesser livestock, were sold at market; this agricultural fair became the modern Brampton Fall Fair. In that same year Brampton was incorporated as a village. In 1866, the town became the county seat and the location of the Peel County Courthouse, built in 1865-66. Edward Dale, an immigrant from Dorking, established a flower nursery in Brampton shortly after his arrival in 1863.
Dale's Nursery became the town's largest and most prominent employer, developed a flower grading system, established a global export market for its products. The company chimney was a town landmark, until Brampton Town Council allowed it to be torn down in 1977. At its height, the company had 140 greenhouses, was the largest cut flower business in North America, producing 20 million blooms and introducing numerous rose and orchid varietals and species to the market, it spurred the development of other nurseries in the town. Forty-eight hothouse flower nurseries once did business in the town. In January 1867, Peel County separated from the County of York, a union which had existed since 1851. By 1869, had a population of 1800. A federal grant had enabled the village to found its first public library in 1887, which included 360 volumes from the Mechanic's Institute. In 1907, the library received a grant from the Carnegie Foundation, set up by United States steel magnate and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, to build a new, expanded library.
The Carnegie libraries were built on the basis of communities coming up with matching funds and guaranteeing maintenance. In 1902, Sir William J. Gage purchased a 3.25 acres part of the gardens and lawns of the Alder Lea estate, built on Main Street by Kenneth Chisolm in 1867 to 1870. Sir William donated 1.7 acres of the property to the town, with a specific condition that it be made into a park. Citizens donated the town used the funds to purchase extra land to ensure a larger park. A group of regional farmers in Brampton had trouble getting insurance from city-based companies. After several meetings in Clairville Hall, they decided to found the County of Peel Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Company. In 1955, when the company moved to its third and current location, 103 Queen Street West, it took the new name of Peel Mutual Insurance Company, it reigns as the longest-running company in modern Brampton. Harmsworth Decorating Centre was established in 1890, as Harmsworth and Son, operated out of the family's house on Queen Street West.
The current location was purchased on September 1, 1904, after a fire destroyed their original store. Purchased for $1,400, the 24 Main Street South location is the longest-operating retail business in what is now Brampton. In 1974, the two townships of Chinguacousy and Toronto Gore were incorporated into Brampton; the small pine added to the centre of the shield on the Brampton city flag represents Chinguacousy, honouring the Chippewa chief Shinguacose, "The Small Pine." After this merger, outlying communities such as Bramalea, Heart Lake and Professor's Lake, Snelgrove and Mayfield, were developed. In 1963, the town established The Flower Festival of Brampton, based on the Rose Festival of Portland, Oregon in the United States, it began to market itself as the Flower Town of Canada. In a revival of this theme, on 24 June 2002, the City Council established the "Flower City Strategy", to promote a connection to its flower-growing heritage; the intention was to inspire design projects and community landscaping to beautify the city, adopt a sustainable environmental approach, to protect its natural and cultural heritage.
The Rose Theatre was named in keeping with this vision and is to
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Shoppers Food & Pharmacy
Shoppers Food & Pharmacy known as Shoppers Food Warehouse, is a chain of 46 supermarkets located in the Baltimore and Washington, D. C. metropolitan areas. Shoppers has fresh produce, Swift Angus beef, Smithfield natural pork, all-natural chicken, Dietz & Watson delis, fresh seafood, steamed shrimp, as well as hot foods, full-service pharmacies. Shoppers is thought to have innovated several now-common supermarket features, such as warehouse shelving, open-bin bulk foods, large salad bars with hot prepared foods and specialized fans to keep produce fresh, "warehouse-sized" packaged products. Shoppers was one of the first chains to sell all of its produce by the pound, rather than by the item, now common; this prevented the "picked-over" selection of produce found in conventional supermarkets several days after a produce delivery. Shoppers Food & Pharmacy had its roots in a store opened in 1929 by founders Irving Herman and his younger brother, Kenneth Herman, at Vermont and V St. NW, Washington, D.
C. The earliest Jumbo Food Store was in operation as early as May 1952 at 3439 Benning Rd. N. E. Washington, D. C. and was the former River Terrace Super Market. The Herman brothers were joined by their brother-in-law, Sam Levin, a location in Seat Pleasant, Maryland, at 401 Eastern Ave opened shortly after. On October 1, 1958, the store at 2400 University Blvd. E. in the Adelphi Shopping Center opened in Adelphi and after being gutted by a fire in 1994, remained a Shoppers Food Warehouse until its closure in spring 2011. By January 1960, there were four Jumbo Food Store locations: 1551 Alabama Ave, S. E. at Stanton Rd. E.. Seat Pleasant, Md.. E.. By March 1967, five additional locations were in operation: 1919 Michigan Ave,. E. near Sears and Suitland Pkwy.. By 1969, the Alabama Ave store closed and eight stores remained. By 1978, the River Terrace, Michigan Ave. District Heights, Naylor Rd. S. E. stores were closed. On August 23, 1978, the last new Jumbo Food Store opened at Little River Turnpike and John Marr Drive, Virginia.
In 1978, Jumbo opened the first Shoppers Food Warehouse. The SFW at 3255 Little River Turnpike in the Brighton Mall, Virginia, opened in 1980. By 1983, there were three additional SFWs at Maryland. In 1985, when Jumbo / Shoppers became the third largest chain in the DC area, eight SFWs were in operation and four Jumbos. In 1986, there were 13 Jumbos / Shoppers locations with the Chantilly and Clinton, Maryland SFW locations opening that August. Levin died. By 1989, when the infamous Herbert Haft acquired half interest in the Jumbo Food Stores chain, 18 Shoppers Food Warehouse locations were in operation and the Jumbo Food Store name was gone; the two remaining Herman brothers opened the first Shoppers Food Warehouse in 1978 as a foray into the warehouse supermarket business. The original concept brought the Washington area its first non-membership chain in the area to offer an expanded selection of large-packaged products at a lower, bulk price. Shoppers eliminated all but two to three sizes of each product to allow a greater selection of different brands on a typical shelf and to further lower prices.
Using warehouse shelving and leaving packaged goods in their boxes on the shelves enabled a reduction of retail labor that allowed a much lower price to be passed to the consumer. Since changing hands from the company founders, it has developed into a more conventional supermarket model with more conventional pricing. With the success of the Shoppers format, all Jumbo stores were converted to Shoppers. In 1988, Irving and his son and vice president, Mike Herman, made the decision to retire, leaving Kenneth and his children in control of the corporation. In 1989, Irving sold 49 of his 50 percent of the company, leaving Kenneth with a majority 51 percent controlling stake in the company. Herbert Haft's Dart Group, whose holdings included Dart Drug, Crown Books, Trak Auto stores and Combined Properties Realty, purchased the minority share from Irving. Haft and the Herman brothers were long time acquaintances, having grown up and been schooled together in the same poor Jewish neighborhood of Washington, D.
C. Kenneth remained at the company as President and CEO, his son Robert Executive Vice President, took over as Chief Operating Officer, son Mitchel retained his post as Senior Vice President for Corporate Affairs, Kenneth's daughter and company spokesperson Sandra Perkins retained her position as Director of Marketing and Advertising. Another son, did not work in the family business. Under the control of Kenneth, Shoppers grew to twice its size in the following ten years. Dart acquired the remainder of the company in 1997 after exercising a complicated buy-sell agreement with the Herman family. Dart's intention was to force the Herman family into purchasing the shares of the company back after Dart experienced infighting amongst their board members and financial trouble with their retail chains; the final effect was the opposite.
Don Mills Centre
The Don Mills Centre was a shopping centre in Toronto, Canada. It was located on a 44-acre commercial site, at the southwest corner of Don Mills Road and Lawrence Avenue East in the planned community of Don Mills. There were at least 98 stores during the height of the mall's existence; the majority of the mall was closed and demolished in summer 2006 for redevelopment as the Shops at Don Mills. E. P. Taylor of Argus Corporation bought the land for a brewing plant, but decided to make the site the focal point of the 2,100 acre planned community. Initial construction of the Don Mills Centre began in 1954. In 1955, a strip plaza was opened with a Dominion Supermarket, Kofflers Drug Store, Brewers Retail and a dozen other retailers. Don Mills Centre was intended to serve the local community, centrally located within walking distance of many rental units built around the core of the community. By 1965, the Dominion supermarket had relocated into a larger store at the south end, Zellers moved in and an outdoor mall expanded to 65 stores.
In 1978, a major renovation was undertaken to enclose the mall. The mall was expanded from 400,000 to 462,000 square feet. After its closure in the 1990s, the lower level of the Eaton's store was converted to a Sears Canada outlet store, which closed; the store once again stood empty for some time until it was leased by a sporting goods store, National Sports. The store left the site after two years and was replaced by a patio furniture store and a used car dealership. Increased competition from other shopping malls and the closure of main anchor tenant T. Eaton Co. meant the exodus of many fashion retailers. The Shoppers Drug Mart opened in late April 2007, its 1000th store, the CIBC Branch opened at the same time; as of early October 2008, Jack Astor's had re-opened. The first phase of an urban village, the Shops at Don Mills, consisting of 100 retailers and services opened on April 22, 2009. Home Hardware, re-located to 49 The Donway West, on the south side of the Mall property, where The Beer Store, Blockbuster Video and Royal LePage Realty had long been located.
In June 2013, this series of buildings at 49 The Donway West was demolished. Shoppers Drug Mart and CIBC built new locations on the north-east corner of Lawrence Avenue East and The Donway West. Dominion and the Royal Bank Building are the only remainders of the old mall. Former anchor tenants of the Don Mills Centre included: Home Hardware Eaton's - became Sears Canada clearance centre and as National Sports Zellers - closed and demolished Dominion - now MetroBittner's Meat and Deli operated at Don Mills Plaza for many years. Spacing Votes: Don Mills Centre redevelopment stirs conflict October 26, 2006 Don Mills Friends: Concerned Residents for Maintaining the Indoor Mall Feisty Don Mills activist refuses to accept the writing on the mall Globe and Mail, December 16, 2006 Photos of Don Mills Centre prior to closure
Health, as defined by the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical and social well-being and not the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy. Health may be defined as the ability to adapt and manage physical and social challenges throughout life; the meaning of health has evolved over time. In keeping with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the body's ability to function. An example of such a definition of health is: "a state characterized by anatomic and psychological integrity. In 1948, in a radical departure from previous definitions, the World Health Organization proposed a definition that aimed higher: linking health to well-being, in terms of "physical and social well-being, not the absence of disease and infirmity". Although this definition was welcomed by some as being innovative, it was criticized as being vague, excessively broad and was not construed as measurable. For a long time, it was set aside as an impractical ideal and most discussions of health returned to the practicality of the biomedical model.
Just as there was a shift from viewing disease as a state to thinking of it as a process, the same shift happened in definitions of health. Again, the WHO played a leading role when it fostered the development of the health promotion movement in the 1980s; this brought in a new conception of health, not as a state, but in dynamic terms of resiliency, in other words, as "a resource for living". 1984 WHO revised the definition of health defined it as "the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for not the objective of living. Thus, health referred to the ability to recover from insults. Mental, intellectual and social health referred to a person's ability to handle stress, to acquire skills, to maintain relationships, all of which form resources for resiliency and independent living; this opens up many possibilities for health to be taught and learned. Since the late 1970s, the federal Healthy People Initiative has been a visible component of the United States’ approach to improving population health.
In each decade, a new version of Healthy People is issued, featuring updated goals and identifying topic areas and quantifiable objectives for health improvement during the succeeding ten years, with assessment at that point of progress or lack thereof. Progress has been limited to many objectives, leading to concerns about the effectiveness of Healthy People in shaping outcomes in the context of a decentralized and uncoordinated US health system. Healthy People 2020 gives more prominence to health promotion and preventive approaches and adds a substantive focus on the importance of addressing social determinants of health. A new expanded digital interface facilitates use and dissemination rather than bulky printed books as produced in the past; the impact of these changes to Healthy People will be determined in the coming years. Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences.
The term "healthy" is widely used in the context of many types of non-living organizations and their impacts for the benefit of humans, such as in the sense of healthy communities, healthy cities or healthy environments. In addition to health care interventions and a person's surroundings, a number of other factors are known to influence the health status of individuals, including their background and economic, social conditions and spirituality. Studies have shown. In the first decade of the 21st century, the conceptualization of health as an ability opened the door for self-assessments to become the main indicators to judge the performance of efforts aimed at improving human health, it created the opportunity for every person to feel healthy in the presence of multiple chronic diseases, or a terminal condition, for the re-examination of determinants of health, away from the traditional approach that focuses on the reduction of the prevalence of diseases. The context in which an individual lives is of great importance for both his health status and quality of their life It is recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society.
According to the World Health Organization, the main determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment and the person's individual characteristics and behaviors. More key factors that have been found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include the following: An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and different factors, including lifestyles, health care organization and health policy, one specific health policy brought into many countries in recent years was the introduction of the sugar tax. Beve