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Shoreditch

Shoreditch is a district in the East End of London, divided between the London boroughs of Hackney and Tower Hamlets. It has been known as an entertainment quarter since the 16th century, today hosts a number of pubs and bars; the area straddles Old Street, Shoreditch High Street and west of Brick Lane, includes Shoreditch Church and Hoxton Square. It lies to the north and north east of the City of London and Spitalfields, south and west of Bethnal Green. Early spellings of the name include Soredich, Sordig and other variants. Toponymists are agreed that the name derives from Old English "scoradīc", i.e. "shore-ditch", the shore being a riverbank or prominent slope. A suggestion made by Eilert Ekwall in 1936 that the "ditch" might have been one leading to the "shore" of the Thames continues to enjoy widespread currency. Other scholars, have challenged this interpretation on the grounds that the City of London lies between Shoreditch and the Thames. A variant spelling used by John Stow in 1598, Sewers Ditche, raises the possibility that the name might have referred to a drain or watercourse.

The area was once boggy, the name might bear some relation to the headwaters of the Walbrook, which rose in the vicinity of Curtain Road. Folk etymology holds that the place was named "Shore's Ditch", after Jane Shore, the mistress of Edward IV, supposed to have died or been buried in a ditch in the area; this legend is commemorated today by a large painting, at Haggerston Branch Library, of the body of Shore being retrieved from the ditch, by a design on glazed tiles in a shop in Shoreditch High Street showing her meeting Edward IV. However, the area was known as Shoreditch long before Jane Shore lived: the Survey of London, for example, lists some 26 deeds dating from between c.1148 and 1260 which use some version of the name. In another theory now discredited, antiquarian John Weever claimed that the name was derived from Sir John de Soerdich, lord of the manor during the reign of Edward III. Though now part of Inner London, Shoreditch was an extramural suburb of the City of London, centred on Shoreditch Church at the old crossroads where Shoreditch High Street and Kingsland Road are crossed by Old Street and Hackney Road.

Shoreditch High Street and Kingsland Road are a small sector of the Roman Ermine Street and modern A10. Known as the Old North Road, it was a major coaching route to the north, exiting the City at Bishopsgate; the east–west course of Old Street–Hackney Road was probably a Roman Road, connecting Silchester with Colchester, bypassing the City of London to the south. Shoreditch Church is of ancient origin, it is featured in the famous line "when I grow rich say the bells of Shoreditch", from the English nursery rhyme "Oranges and Lemons". Shoreditch was the site of a house of canonesses, the Augustinian Holywell Priory, from the 12th century until its dissolution in 1539; this priory was located between Shoreditch High Street and Curtain Road to east and west, Batemans Row and Holywell Lane to north and south. Nothing remains of it today. In 1576, James Burbage built the first playhouse in England, known as "The Theatre", on the site of the Priory. William Shakespeare's early plays were first performed in Shoreditch, at The Theatre and at the nearby Curtain Theatre, built the following year and 200 yards to the south.

Romeo and Juliet was first performed here, gaining "Curtain plaudits", Henry V was performed within "this wooden O" and an early version of Hamlet was first staged in Shoreditch. Shakespeare's Company moved the timbers of "The Theatre" to Southwark at the expiration of the lease in 1599, in order to construct the Globe; the Curtain continued performing plays in Shoreditch until at least 1627. The suburb of Shoreditch was attractive as a location for these early theatres because, like Southwark, it was outside the jurisdiction of the somewhat puritanical City fathers. So, they drew the wrath of contemporary moralists, as did the local "base tenements and houses of unlawful and disorderly resort" and the "great number of dissolute and insolent people harboured in such and the like noisome and disorderly houses, as namely poor cottages, habitations of beggars and people without trade, inns, taverns, garden-houses converted to dwellings, dicing houses, bowling alleys, brothel houses". During the 17th century, wealthy traders and French Huguenot silkweavers moved to the area, establishing a textile industry centred to the south around Spitalfields.

By the 19th century, Shoreditch was the locus of the furniture industry, now commemorated in the Geffrye Museum on Kingsland Road. These industries declined in the late 19th century. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Shoreditch was a centre of entertainment to rival the West End and had many theatres and music halls: The National Standard Theatre, 2/3/4 Shoreditch High Street. In the late 19th century this was one of the largest theatres in London. In 1926, it was converted into a cinema called The New Olympia Picturedrome; the building was demolished in 1940. Sims Reeves, Mrs Marriott and James Anderson all appeared here.

Heinrich Gattineau

Heinrich Gattineau was a German economist, Sturmabteilung leader, director of IG Farben and defendant during the Nuremberg trials. Gattineau was born in Bucharest, the son of Julius Gattineau, a German dentist who had established a practice in Romania; the young Gattineau was educated in Switzerland before being sent to high school in Munich studying economics at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, completing his doctorate in 1929. He took a minor role in local politics, serving with the right-wing Bund Oberland in 1923, he married Dr. Wera Fritzsche, with whom he had five children, in 1929. Gattineau was employed by IG Farben from 1928, becoming head of commercial policy and public relations at the firm in 1931. During the growth of the Nazi Party it was not uncommon for Adolf Hitler to attack IG Farben in his speeches due to the presence of some Jewish executives in prominent positions. Fearing the growth of Hitler and the potential ramifications for the business Carl Duisberg called upon Gattineau, his press secretary at the time, to open contact with the Nazis.

Gattineau enlisted the aid of Karl Haushofer, under whom he had studied at university for a time, after Haushofer vouched for the German credentials of the IG Farben leaders to Hitler the attacks ceased for around a year. In September 1932 Gattineau, along with Heinrich Bütefisch, had held a meeting with Hitler at which they discussed the issue of producing synthetic oil, something Hitler felt crucial to end German energy dependence and to ensure his plans for secret rearmament would remain secret were he to be elected. By this time Carl Bosch was providing the Nazi Party with funding. Gattineau's role within IG Farben had grown as in 1932 he had been appointed as head of the newly established Department of Economic Policy, an arm of the finance section of IG Farben the purpose of, to monitor legal, foreign policy and taxation issues that might impact on the relationship between the company and the government; as soon as Hitler came to power Gattineau applied for Nazi Party membership but he was told he would have to wait as the party was unwilling at least, to accept a rush of business executives whom it felt were only seeking membership for reasons of expediency.

Nonetheless Gattineau took up a part-time role with the SA in an attempt to prove his Nazi credentials. He rose swiftly through the ranks holding the role of Standartenführer by 1934 and being recognised as one of Ernst Röhm's main advisers on economic issues. Gattineau's closeness to Röhm proved his undoing and as the Night of the Long Knives got under way on 30 June 1934 he was dragged from his bed and taken into Gestapo custody under the trumped up charges that he had diverted money from IG Farben to Röhm in order to fund the supposed plot, used as justification for the massacre of SA members that ensued, he was interrogated for several hours and feared execution but was released from custody. The reason for his release is uncertain, it may have been the case that Gattineau, as an SA hobbyist, was not considered important enough for the executioners. Gattineau resigned from the SA but faced anger at IG Farben where his superior Erwin Selck attempted to secure his dismissal or deployment away from the company's main Unter den Linden Berlin offices to the provinces.

Bosch rejected this move but, in order to reduce Gattineau's public role, made his Wipo subordinate to Ilgner's operations and before long Gattineau answered to Ilgner with his press duties. Despite coming close to being executed Gattineau was admitted to full membership of the Nazi Party in 1935, he spent much of the Second World War in Bratislava as a director of Dynamit-Nobel-Fabrik and other Czechoslovakian chemical companies, brought under the IG Farben umbrella by the Nazis. In 1947 Gattineau was one of 24 executives indicted for war crimes by the United States as part of what became known as the IG Farben trial, he was however released. He secured a number of boardroom positions in the corporate world following the trial. Diarmuid Jeffreys, Hell's Cartel: IG Farben and the Making of Hitler's War Machine, Bloomsbury, 2009

Isabelle Olsson (figure skater)

Isabelle Olsson is a Swedish figure skater. She is a two-time medalist on the ISU Challenger Series – having won silver at the 2014 Ice Challenge and gold at the 2015 Denkova-Staviski Cup – and a four-time Swedish national medalist, she has won twelve other senior international medals and reached the free skate at three ISU Championships. Isabelle Olsson was born on 15 April 1993 in Sweden; the daughter of Susanne and Ulf Olsson, she has a twin brother, a sister, older by one and a half years. Her sister is their mother coaches figure skating. Olsson debuted on the ISU Junior Grand Prix series in 2008. In the 2009–10 season, she won a bronze medal at JGP Lake Placid and the Swedish national junior title, she was selected to represent Sweden at the 2011 World Junior Championships in Gangneung, South Korea. Her placement of 13th in the short program allowed her to advance to the free skate where she ranked 24th, dropping her to 24th overall. Olsson ended her junior career after competing at a pair of JGP events in October 2011.

The following month, she made her senior international debut, placing fifth at the Crystal Skate of Romania. In February 2012, she won bronze medals at The Nordics. In the 2012–13 season, Olsson won silver medals at the International Cup of Nice and Ice Challenge, followed by gold at the Warsaw Cup and bronze at the Swedish Championships; the following season, she repeated as the national bronze medalist and was sent to the 2014 European Championships, where Sweden was allowed three ladies' entries. Ranked 22nd in the short program and 15th in the free skate, she finished 16th overall at Europeans, which took place in January in Budapest, Hungary. In March 2014, she won gold at the International Challenge Cup in The Hague, Netherlands. Olsson competed at three 2014–15 ISU Challenger Series events, winning silver at the 2014 Ice Challenge, she was awarded the bronze medal at the Swedish Championships. In the 2015–16 season, Olsson scored personal bests in the free skate and combined score to win the gold medal at a Challenger Series event, the 2015 Denkova-Staviski Cup, with a margin of 1.01 over silver medalist Angelīna Kučvaļska.

She was invited to compete at her first-ever Grand Prix event, 2015 Skate Canada International, as a replacement for Elene Gedevanishvili, who withdrew from the event. After winning the silver medal at the Swedish Championships, she was named in the Swedish team to the 2016 European Championships in Bratislava, Slovakia. There she qualified for the final after placing 23rd in the short program, she placed 24th in overall. GP: Grand Prix.