John Moore (British Army officer)
Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore, KB, was a British soldier and General, known as Moore of Corunna. He is best known for his training reforms and for his death at the Battle of Corunna. John Moore was born in Glasgow, the son of John Moore, a doctor and writer, and the older brother of Admiral Sir Graham Moore. He attended Glasgow High School, but at the age of eleven joined his father and Douglas and this included a two-year stay in Geneva, where Moores education continued. He joined the British Army in 1776 as an ensign in the 51st Regiment of Foot based in Minorca. He first saw action in 1778 during the American War of Independence as a lieutenant in the 82nd Regiment of Foot, from 1779-1781 he was garrisoned at Halifax, Nova Scotia. After the war, in 1783, he returned to Britain and in 1784 was elected to Parliament as the Member for Lanark Burghs, in 1787, he was made Major and joined the 60th briefly before returning to the 51st. In 1791 his unit was assigned to the Mediterranean and he was involved in campaigning in Corsica and was wounded at Calvi and he was given a Colonelcy and became Adjutant-General to Sir Charles Stuart.
Friction between Moore and the new British viceroy of Corsica led to his recall and posting to the West Indies under Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1796 and he participated in British efforts to repress the slave rebels until falling ill of yellow fever, upon which he returned to Britain. In 1798, he was made Major-General and served in the suppression of the republican rebellion raging in Ireland, although the rebellion was crushed with great brutality, Moore stood out from most other commanders for his humanity and refusal to perpetrate atrocities. In 1799, he commanded a brigade in the Helder Expedition and he recovered to lead the 52nd regiment during the British campaign in Egypt against the French, having become colonel of that regiment in 1801 on the death of General Cyrus Trapaud. Sir John Moore Barracks at Winchester, home of the Army Training Regiment, is called after him, when it became clear that Napoleon was planning an invasion of Britain, Moore was put in charge of the defence of the coast from Dover to Dungeness.
In 1804 Moore was knighted and promoted to Lieutenant-General, in 1806 he returned to active duty in the Mediterranean and in 1808 in the Baltic to assist the Swedish. Disagreements with Gustavus IV led to his being sent home where he was ordered to Portugal. When Napoleon arrived in Spain with 200,000 men, Moore drew the French northwards while retreating to his embarkation ports of A Coruña and he remained conscious, and composed, throughout the several hours. Like Lord Nelson he was wounded in battle, surviving long enough to be assured that he had gained a victory. He said to his old friend Colonel Anderson You know I always wished to die this way, I hope my country will do me justice. He asked Colonel Anderson to speak to his friends and mother but became too emotional to continue and he asked if his staff were safe and was assured that they were, and where his will could be found
Sir Michael Cathel Fallon KCB PC is a British Conservative politician and Member of Parliament for Sevenoaks. Since 2014, he has served as Secretary of State for Defence and he was previously Deputy Chairman of the Conservative Party. Fallon was born in Perth to Dr Martin Fallon OBE, a surgeon and he was educated at Craigflower Preparatory School near Dunfermline and at Epsom College, an independent boys school in Surrey. He read Classics and Ancient History at the University of St Andrews, as a student, Fallon was active in the European Movement and the Yes youth campaign in the 1975 referendum. After university he joined the Conservative Research Department, working first for Lord Carrington in the House of Lords until 1977, in 1979 he became Research Assistant to former MEP, Baroness Elles. In July 1982 he was selected as the Conservative Parliamentary Candidate for Darlington to fight the Darlington by-election on 24 March 1983, which was held after the Labour MP Ted Fletcher had died. Although he lost to Labours Ossie OBrien by 2,412 votes,77 days he defeated OBrien by 3,438 votes in the 1983 general election.
He remained MP for Darlington until the 1992 general election when he was defeated by Labours Alan Milburn by a margin of 2,798 votes. Thatcher appointed him Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for the Department for Education and he remained in that office until his 1992-general election defeat. Between 1992–97, Fallon set up a chain of children’s nurseries called Just Learning with funding from the British Dragons Den star Duncan Bannatyne, from 1999 he was a member of the Treasury Select Committee, and chairman of its Sub-Committee. He served as a 1922 Committee executive between 2005–07, in September 2012, he was sworn of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, upon his appointment as Minister for Business and Enterprise. Fallon has been a director at Tullett Prebon, a brokerage firm in the City of London. In January 2014, Fallon was appointed Minister for Portsmouth, subsequently being promoted to the Cabinet, on 15 July 2014, Fallon subsequently declined the opportunity to describe Miliband as a decent person and his comments embarrassed some Conservative supporters.
An Election Communication posted to his constituents states that Fallon has taken a close interest in issues, voting against gay marriage. He works closely with local churches when moral matters come before Parliament, according to The Daily Telegraph, Deputy Chairman of the Treasury Select Committee, claimed for mortgage repayments on his Westminster flat in their entirety. MPs are only allowed to claim for interest charges, between 2002 and 2004, Fallon regularly claimed £1,255 per month in capital repayments and interest, rather than the £700-£800 for the interest component alone. After his error was noticed by staff at the Commons Fees Office in September 2004, he asked and he repaid £2,200 of this over-claim, but was allowed to offset the remaining £6,100 against his allowance. Fallon has been married to Wendy Elisabeth Payne since 1986 and the couple have two sons, the family lives in Sundridge, Kent
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons of the United Kingdom is the lower house of the countrys parliament. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster, the full name of the house is, The Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. The House is a body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by first-past-the-post and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved, under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power. The Government is primarily responsible to the House of Commons and the prime minister stays in office only as long as he or she retains the support of a majority of its members. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance, by convention, the prime minister is answerable to, and must maintain the support of, the House of Commons.
Since 1963, by convention, the minister is always a member of the House of Commons. The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence, confidence and no confidence motions are sometimes phrased explicitly, for instance, That this House has no confidence in Her Majestys Government. Many other motions were considered confidence issues, even though not explicitly phrased as such, in particular, important bills that form a part of the Governments agenda were formerly considered matters of confidence, as is the annual Budget. Parliament normally sits for a term of five years. Subject to that limit, the minister could formerly choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament. By this second mechanism, the government of the United Kingdom can change without a general election. In such circumstances there may not even have been a party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim. A prime minister may resign if he or she is not defeated at the polls.
In such a case, the premiership goes to whoever can command a majority in the House of Commons, in practice this is usually the new leader of the outgoing prime ministers party. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no mechanism for electing a new leader, when Anthony Eden resigned as PM in 1957 without recommending a successor and it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the advice of ministers. By convention, all ministers must be members of the House of Commons or of the House of Lords, a handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament either in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Since 1902, all ministers have been members of the Commons
The Victoria Cross is the highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It is awarded for gallantry in the face of the enemy to members of the British armed forces and it was previously awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service. Since the first awards were presented by Queen Victoria in 1857 and these investitures are usually held at Buckingham Palace. The VC was introduced on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to honour acts of valour during the Crimean War, since then, the medal has been awarded 1,358 times to 1,355 individual recipients. Only 15 medals,11 to members of the British Army, the traditional explanation of the source of the metal from which the medals are struck is that it derives from Russian cannon captured at the Siege of Sevastopol. Some research has suggested a variety of origins for the material, research has established that the metal for most of the medals made since December 1914 came from two Chinese cannons that were captured from the Russians in 1855.
Owing to its rarity, the VC is highly prized and the medal has fetched over £400,000 at auction, a number of public and private collections are devoted to the Victoria Cross. The private collection of Lord Ashcroft, amassed since 1986, contains over one-tenth of all VCs awarded, following a 2008 donation to the Imperial War Museum, the Ashcroft collection went on public display alongside the museums Victoria and George Cross collection in November 2010. These are unique awards of honours system, assessed and presented by each country. In 1854, after 39 years of peace, Britain found itself fighting a war against Russia. The Crimean War was one of the first wars with modern reporting, before the Crimean War, there was no official standardised system for recognition of gallantry within the British armed forces. This structure was limited, in practice awards of the Order of the Bath were confined to officers of field rank. Brevet promotions or Mentions in Despatches were largely confined to those who were under the notice of the commanders in the field.
Other European countries had awards that did not discriminate against class or rank, France awarded the Légion dhonneur and The Netherlands gave the Order of William. There was a feeling among the public and in the Royal Court that a new award was needed to recognise incidents of gallantry that were unconnected with a mans lengthy or meritorious service. Queen Victoria issued a Warrant under the Royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856 that officially constituted the VC, the order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War. Queen Victoria had instructed the War Office to strike a new medal that would not recognise birth or class, the medal was meant to be a simple decoration that would be highly prized and eagerly sought after by those in the military services
Royal Gurkha Rifles
The Royal Gurkha Rifles is a rifle regiment of the British Army, forming part of the Brigade of Gurkhas. Unlike other regiments in the British army, soldiers are recruited from Nepal and their motto is, Better to die than live a coward. 2nd Battalion, Royal Gurkha Rifles, formed by renaming the 1st Bn, 3rd Battalion, Royal Gurkha Rifles, formed by renaming the 1st Bn, 10th Princess Marys Own Gurkha Rifles. The 3rd Battalion was amalgamated with the 2nd Battalion in 1996 as part of run down of British forces in Hong Kong, in December 1995, Lieutenant-Colonel Bijaykumar Rawat became the commanding officer of the 1st Battalion, the first Nepalese to become a battalion commander in the RGR. He oversaw the departure of the battalion from Hong Kong just before that citys transfer to Chinese control, during this tour, Cornet Harry Wales was attached for a period to the 1st Battalion as a Forward Air Controller. Under Army 2020, the regiment was intended to provide two light battalions, rotating between Brunei and the UK, with their higher unit as 11th Infantry Brigade.
However, in June 2015, the 2nd Battalion, based in the UK, was reassigned to part of 16 Air Assault Brigade. The two battalions of the RGR are formed as light role infantry, the first battalion is based at the British garrison in Brunei as part of Britains commitment to maintaining a military presence in Southeast Asia. The second battalion is based at Shorncliffe, near Folkestone in Kent as part of 16 Air Assault Brigade, a post on the Gurkha Brigade website in August 2016 noted that the RGR will grow in personnel size in the future. Corporal Dip Prasad Pun of the 1st battalion was awarded Conspicuous Gallantry Cross for an act of bravery during the War in Afghanistan in 2010 and he alone defended his outpost against a force of up to 30 Taliban fighters. He fired more than 400 rounds,17 grenades, and one mine and he even resorted to fighting with his machine gun tripod after his ammunition had run out
A mausoleuma is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph, a mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb, or the tomb may be considered to be within the mausoleum. A Christian mausoleum sometimes includes a chapel, the word derives from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the grave of King Mausolus, the Persian satrap of Caria, whose large tomb was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Historically, mausolea were, and still may be, however, smaller mausolea soon became popular with the gentry and nobility in many countries. In the Roman Empire, these were often ranged in necropoles or along roadsides, when Christianity became dominant, mausoleums were out of use. Later, mausolea became particularly popular in Europe and its colonies during the modern and modern periods. A single mausoleum may be permanently sealed, a mausoleum encloses a burial chamber either wholly above ground or within a burial vault below the superstructure.
This contains the body or bodies, probably within sarcophagi or interment niches, modern mausolea may act as columbaria with additional cinerary urn niches. Mausolea may be located in a cemetery, a churchyard or on private land, in the United States, the term may be used for a burial vault below a larger facility, such as a church. The Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles, for example, has 6,000 sepulchral and it is known as the crypt mausoleum. In Europe, these vaults are sometimes called crypts or catacombs. Mausoleum of Mohammed V Bourguiba mausoleum The Dr. John Garang De Mabior mausoleum in Juba, agostinho Netos Mausoleum in Luanda, Angola. Omar Bongos Mausoleum in Franceville, kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum Marien Ngouabis mausoleum and Pierre Savorgnan de Brazzas mausoleum in Brazzaville, The Republic of Congo. Mausoleum of the late president Felix Houphouet-Boigny in Yamoussoukro, Côte dIvoire, laurent Kabilas mausoleum in Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo. The pyramids of ancient Egypt and Nubian pyramids are types of mausolea, Abdel Nasser Mosque, is the Mausoleum of Gamal Abdel Nasser, in Cairo, Egypt.
Unknown Soldier Memorial Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania Al Hussein Mosque, Cairo – Holy Shrine and mausoleum, Qalawun Mausoleum is the Mausoleum of Qalawun, Located in Cairo, Egypt, it was regarded by scholars as the second most beautiful medieval mausoleum ever to be built. Jedars - thirteen ancient monumental Berber mausoleums located south of Tiaret, Late President Eyademas Family Mausoleum in Kara, Togo. Kamuzu Banda Mausoleum, in Lilongwe, Malawi, Dr. Bingu wa Mutharika, President of Malawi built a mausoleum in which his late first wife and Bingu himself are buried
1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards
1st The Queens Dragoon Guards is a cavalry regiment of the British Army. The regiment is part of the Royal Armoured Corps and is paired with the Royal Yeomanry, the current regiment was formed in 1959 by the amalgamation of 1st Kings Dragoon Guards and the 2nd Dragoon Guards. The regiment has spent much of its history based in Germany at various times and it served during the Aden Emergency in 1966 and 1967 and its squadrons were dispersed throughout the Middle East during that time. Perhaps the best known member in the 1970s was Captain Mark Phillips, one-time husband of The Princess Anne, in 2003 the regiment served in Iraq during the invasion of Iraq providing the reconnaissance and light armour support necessary to allow 3 Commando Brigades advance north to Basra. The regiment received a response from the people of Cardiff. That same year the unit was awarded with the Freedom of the City of Swansea. The regiment completed its tour of Afghanistan between October 2011 and April 2012. In May 2012, there was speculation that the unit would become a victim of the budget cuts.
As it was one of three regiments historically associated with and one that still largely recruits from Wales, there was much support from the Welsh public to keep the QDG. However, Ministry of Defence officials announced no such plan has been made, as part of the Army 2020 plans, most units based in Germany will return to the UK and the QDG moved to Robertson Barracks, Swanton Morley, Norfolk in June 2015. They have re-roled as light cavalry, using Jackal vehicles, the regiment operates in a light cavalry role and is now equipped with Jackal armoured fighting vehicles. Also the regiment adopted an Austrian military march, Radetzky March, the current Regimental March is Radetzky March and Rusty Buckles, the latter being the Regimental March of The Queens Bays. Other items of uniform draw on the regiments dual heritage, thus whilst the cap of 1st King’s Dragoon Guards is worn, full dress is still worn by some on ceremonial occasions, the 1st King’s Dragoon Guards tunic being paired with Queens Bays white-striped overalls.
The KDG red-plumed brass cavalry helmet is worn, together with pouch belts. Collections relating to 1st The Queens Dragoon Guards are displayed at Firing Line, HRH Prince Charles, The Prince of Wales, KG, KT, GCB, AK, QSO, ADC Regimental colonels were as follows, 1959–1961, Brig. John Gerard Edward Tiarks 1961–1964, Col. George William Charles Draffen, DSO 1964–1968, Col. Kenneth Edward Savill, DSO, DL 1968–1975, anthony William Allen Llewellyn-Palmer, DSO 1975–1980, Gen. Sir Jack Wentworth Harman, GCB, OBE, MC, ADCGen 1980–1986, desmond Hind Garrett Rice, CVO, CBE 1986–1991, Lt-Gen. Sir Maurice Robert Johnston, KCB, OBE 1991–1997, Maj-Gen, Robert William Ward, CB, MBE 1997–2002, Col. John Ievers Pocock, MBE 2002–2007, Col. Christopher David MacKenzie-Beevor, CBE 2007–, Lt-Gen
Chinese Labour Corps
The Chinese Labour Corps was a force of workers recruited by the British government in World War I to free troops for front line duty by performing support work and manual labour. In all, some 140,000 men served for both British and French forces before the war ended and most of the men were repatriated to China between 1918 and 1920. In 1916, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig requested that 21,000 labourers be recruited to fill the manpower shortage caused by casualties during World War I, recruiting labourers from other countries was not something unusual at that time. Other than the Chinese, there were Labour Corps serving in France from Egypt, India, Mauritius, Seychelles, as China was initially not a belligerent nation, her nationals were not allowed by their government to participate in the fighting. As a result, the stage of the recruiting business in China was somewhat sketchy. However, after China declared war against Germany and Austria–Hungary, on 14 August 1917, the scheme to recruit Chinese to serve as non-military personnel was pioneered by the French government.
A contract to supply 50,000 labourers was agreed upon on 14 May 1916, the British government signed an agreement with the Chinese authorities to supply labourers. The recruiting was launched by the War Committee in London in 1916 to form a Labour Corps of labourers from China to serve in France and to be known as the Chinese Labour Corps. A former railway engineer, Thomas J. Bourne, who had worked in China for 28 years, arrived at Weihaiwei on 31 October 1916 with instructions to establish and run a recruiting base. The Chinese Labour Corps comprised Chinese men who came mostly from Shandong Province, the first transport ship carrying 1,088 labourers sailed from the main depot at Weihaiwei on 18 January 1917. The journey to France took three months, most travelled to Europe via the Pacific and by Canada. The tens of thousands of volunteers were driven by the poverty of the region and Chinas political uncertainties, each volunteer received an embarkment fee of 20 yuan, followed by 10 yuan a month to be paid over to his family in China.
Two of the units commanders Colonel Bryan Charles Fairfax and Colonel R. L. Purdon had served with the 1st Chinese Regiment in the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, the Canadian government had restricted the arrival of all Asians and the CLC were secretly landed in Victoria, British Columbia. They were drilled in the old station at William Head. A total of about 140,000 Chinese workers served on the Western Front during, among them,100,000 served in the British Chinese Labour Corps. About 40,000 served with the French forces, and hundreds of Chinese students served as translators, by the end of 1917 there were 54,000 Chinese labourers with the British Imperial forces in France and Belgium. In March the Admiralty declared itself no longer able to supply the ships for transport, the men already serving in France completed their contracts. By the time of the Armistice, the Chinese Labour Corps numbered nearly 96,000, in May 1919,80,000 Chinese Labour Corps were still at work
Shorncliffe Redoubt is a British Napoleonic earthwork fort. The site is approximately 300 feet by 300 feet and is situated on the Kentish Coast in Sandgate, in 1793, the French revolution reached climax when the Revolutionary Government issued orders to execute King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. Two weeks later, on 1 February, the French republic declared war on Great Britain, at that time British land-based defences were woefully inadequate as Great Britain had always relied on the Royal Navy for its defence. Later further defences were added to the Kent Coast including the 28-mile-long Royal Military Canal, started in October 1804 and finished in June 1805, Martello Towers were built between 1805 and 1808 to bolster the defences. Colonel William Twiss, an engineer, designed the redoubt. The units stationed here during the Napoleonic wars greatly affected military history form this point onward, the light infantry trained at Shorncliffe were a new breed of soldier more akin to the soldiers of the modern British Army than their contemporaries.
Using the Shorncliffe Method, devised by Lt-Col Kenneth Mackenzie, the soldiers were taught to think for themselves, a high proportion of them were literate, which was unusual for the time. Moreover, in an age when many officers received no training and their battlefield tactics were the embryonic emergence of current military manoeuvres, often fighting in skirmish formation ahead of the British main battle line. In the Victorian era the Redoubt was converted to a dwelling for the camp Commandant, many of the bricks used in the construction of the house were reused from the original Redoubt building. There have been many different maps of the Redoubt through the ages as the site was reshaped and redesigned for different functions, the one aspect that has always remained the same is the earthwork outer walls. The only slight change made to these was on the side during the Victorian era where the wall was lowered so that the Commandant. The method of construction of the walls was totally different from that of earlier earthworks.
In earlier walls the earth was dug out and piled so that the wall would be formed. This would lead to the topsoil being at the bottom and the substrate being at the top. This method of construction was optimal before the use of cannon. The design of the Shorncliffe walls was different, and showed careful forethought, the turf was lifted and put to one side, followed by the topsoil. The stony substrate was used to create the core of the wall. Then a further layer of stony substrate was added another layer of top soil to cover it
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against British rule. For nearly 100 years, that rule had been presided over by the British East India Company, the rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Companys army in the garrison town of Meerut,40 miles northeast of Delhi. It erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions chiefly in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, though incidents of revolt occurred farther north and east. The rebellion posed a threat to British power in that region. On 1 November 1858, the British granted amnesty to all rebels not involved in murder, though they did not declare the hostilities formally to have ended until 8 July 1859. The rebellion is known by names, including the Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Revolt of 1857, the Indian Insurrection. Many Indians did rise against the British, very many fought for the British, after the outbreak of the mutiny in Meerut, the rebels very quickly reached Delhi, whose 81-year-old Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah Zafar, they declared the Emperor of Hindustan.
Soon, the rebels had captured large tracts of the North-Western Provinces. The East India Companys response came rapidly as well, with help from reinforcements, Kanpur was retaken by mid-July 1857, and Delhi by the end of September. However, it took the remainder of 1857 and the better part of 1858 for the rebellion to be suppressed in Jhansi, Lucknow. Other regions of Company controlled India—Bengal province, the Bombay Presidency, in the Punjab, the Sikh princes crucially helped the British by providing both soldiers and support. In some regions, most notably in Awadh, the took on the attributes of a patriotic revolt against European presence. However, the rebel leaders proclaimed no articles of faith that presaged a new political system, even so, the rebellion proved to be an important watershed in Indian- and British Empire history. India was thereafter administered directly by the British government in the new British Raj, on 1 November 1858, Queen Victoria issued a proclamation to Indians, which while lacking the authority of a constitutional provision, promised rights similar to those of other British subjects.
In the following decades, when admission to these rights was not always forthcoming, the victory was consolidated in 1764 at the Battle of Buxar, when the East India Company army defeated Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. After his defeat, the granted the Company the right to the collection of Revenue in the provinces of Bengal, Bihar. The Company soon expanded its territories around its bases in Bombay and Madras, the Anglo-Mysore Wars, in 1806, the Vellore Mutiny was sparked by new uniform regulations that created resentment amongst both Hindu and Muslim sepoys. After the turn of the 19th century, Governor-General Wellesley began what became two decades of accelerated expansion of Company territories and this was achieved either by subsidiary alliances between the Company and local rulers or by direct military annexation
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
The Commission is responsible for commemorating Commonwealth civilians who died as a result of enemy action during World War II. The Commission was founded by Fabian Ware and constituted through Royal Charter in 1917 named the Imperial War Graves Commission, the change to the present name took place in 1960. The Commission, as part of its mandate, is responsible for commemorating all Commonwealth war dead individually and equally, to this end, the war dead are commemorated by name on a headstone, at an identified site of a burial, or on a memorial. War dead are commemorated uniformly and equally, irrespective of military or civil rank, the Commission is currently responsible for the continued commemoration of 1.7 million deceased Commonwealth military service members in 153 countries. Since its inception, the Commission has constructed approximately 2,500 war cemeteries, the Commission is currently responsible for the care of war dead at over 23,000 separate burial sites and the maintenance of more than 200 memorials worldwide.
The Commission operates through the financial support of the member states, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, India. The current President of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission is Prince Edward, at the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Fabian Ware, a director of the Rio Tinto Company, found that he was too old, at age 45, to join the British Army. He used the influence of Rio Tinto chairman, Viscount Milner, the new Graves Registration Commission had over 31,000 graves of British and Imperial soldiers registered by October 1915 and 50,000 registered by May 1916. When municipal graveyards began to overfill Ware began negotiations with local authorities to acquire land for further cemeteries. Ware began with an agreement with France to build joint British, similar negotiations began with the Belgian government. As reports of the grave registration work became public, the Commission began to receive letters of enquiry, by 1917,17,000 photographs had been dispatched to relatives. In March 1915, the Commission, with the support of the Red Cross, began to dispatch photographic prints, the directorates work was extended beyond the Western Front and into other theatres of war, with units deployed in Greece and Mesopotamia.
As the war continued and others concerned about the fate of the graves in the post-war period. The National Committee for the Care of Soldiers Graves was created with the intention of taking over the work of the Directorate of Graves Registration, the government felt that it was more appropriate to entrust the work to a specially appointed body rather than to any existing government department. By early 1917, a number of members of the committee believed a formal imperial organisation would be needed to care for the graves. With the help of Edward, Prince of Wales, Ware submitted a memorandum to the Imperial War Conference in 1917 suggesting that an imperial organisation be constituted, the Commissions undertakings began in earnest at the end of the First World War. Once land for cemeteries and memorials had been guaranteed, the task of recording the details of the dead could begin. By 1918, some 587,000 graves had been identified, the scale, and associated high number of casualties, of the war produced an entirely new attitude towards the commemoration of war dead