A short film is any motion picture not long enough in running time to be considered a feature film. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences defines a short film as "an original motion picture that has a running time of 40 minutes or less, including all credits". In the United States, short films were termed short subjects from the 1920s into the 1970s when confined to two 35mm reels or less, featurettes for a film of three or four reels. "Short" was an abbreviation for either term. The rare industry term "short subject" carries more of an assumption that the film is shown as part of a presentation along with a feature film. Short films are screened at local, national, or international film festivals and made by independent filmmakers with either a low budget or no budget at all, they are funded by film grants, nonprofit organizations, sponsor, or personal funds. Short films are used for industry experience and as a platform to showcase talent to secure funding for future projects from private investors, a production company, or film studios.
All films in the beginning of cinema were short, sometimes running only a minute or less. It was not until the 1910s; the first set of films were presented in 1894 and it was through Thomas Edison's device called a kinetoscope. It was made for individual viewing only. Comedy short films were produced in large numbers compared to lengthy features such as D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation. By the 1920s, a ticket purchased a varied program including a feature and several supporting works from categories such as second feature, short comedy, 5–10 minute cartoon and newsreel. Short comedies were popular, came in a serial or series. Animated cartoons came principally as short subjects. All major film production companies had units assigned to develop and produce shorts, many companies in the silent and early sound era, produced or only short subjects. In the 1930s, the distribution system changed in many countries. Instead of the cinema owner assembling a program of their own choice, the studios sold a package centered on a main and supporting feature, a cartoon and little else.
With the rise of the double feature, two-reel shorts went into decline as a commercial category. Hal Roach, for example, moved Laurel and Hardy full-time into feature films after 1935, halved his popular Our Gang films to one reel. By the 1940s, he had moved out of short films altogether. Shorts include George O'Hanlon's Joe McDoakes movies, the animated work of studios such as Walt Disney Productions, Warner Bros. Cartoons. By the mid-1950s, with the rise of television, the commercial live-action short was dead, The Three Stooges being the last major series of 2-reelers, ending in 1959. Short films had become a medium for student and specialty work. Cartoon shorts had a longer life, due in part to the implementation of lower-cost limited animation techniques. Despite being popular, they declined in this period. Warner Bros. one of the most prolific of the golden era, shut down its studio permanently in 1969. The Pink Panther was the last regular theatrical cartoon short series, having begun in 1964 and ended in 1980.
By the 1960s, the market for animated shorts had shifted to television, with existing theatrical shorts being syndicated to television. A few animated shorts continue within mainstream commercial distribution. For instance, Pixar has screened a short along with each of its feature films during its initial theatrical run since 1995. Since Disney acquired Pixar in 2006, Disney has produced animated shorts since 2007 with the Goofy short How to Hook Up Your Home Theater and produced a series of live action ones featuring The Muppets for viewing on YouTube as viral videos to promote the 2011 movie of the same name. DreamWorks Animation produces a short sequel to include in the special edition video releases of major features, are of a sufficient length to be broadcast as a TV special, a few films from the studio have added theatrical shorts as well. Warner Bros. includes old animated shorts from its considerable library, connected only thematically, on the DVD releases of classic WB movies. In 2010 and 2012 Warner Bros. released new Looney Tunes shorts before family films.
Shorts International and Magnolia Pictures organize an annual release of Academy Award-nominated short films in theatres across the US, UK, Canada and Mexico throughout February and March. Shorts are broadcast as filler when a feature film or other work doesn't fit the standard broadcast schedule. ShortsTV was the first television channel dedicated to short films. However, short films rely on festival exhibition to reach an audience; such movies can be distributed via the Internet. Certain websites which encourage the submission of user-created short films, such as YouTube and Vimeo have attracted large communities of artists and viewers. Sites like FILMSshort, Short of the Week, Short Central and some apps showcase curated shorts. Short films are a typical first stage for new filmmakers, but professional actors and crews still choose to create short films as an alternative form of expression. Amateur filmmaking has grown in popularity; the lower production costs of short films mean that short films can cover alternative subject matter as com
Ruth Kerr Jakoby is a US neurosurgeon, member of the Manhattan Project. Ruth Kerr Jakoby was born on September 1929, in Palo Alto, California, she completed medical school at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1956. She completed her residency through George Washington University in 1959. Dr. Jakoby opened her own private practice in 1959. Just two years after completing her residency, she became the first female Diplomate of the American Board of Neurological Surgery in 1961. In 1964, she would become a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons. Dr. Jakoby served as the Chief of the Spinal Cord Injury Service at the VA Hospital in Houston, Texas from 1977-1979. While serving as the Chief, she taught at Baylor College of Medicine as an Associate Professor of Neurosurgery. Through her experiences in medicine, Dr. Jakoby became interested in the legal issues related to the medical field, she attended Northern Virginia Law School, she obtained her J. D. degree in 1986. In 1989 she went on to become the Dean of the Antioch School of Law.
Dr. Jakoby focuses on "antitrust issues and mergers of medical and educational institutions." Jakoby has two sons and Robert
Frank Ullrich is a German former biathlete and current trainer of the German national team. Biathlon was in Ullrich's family, his first appearance was in 1967 at the GDR Children Championships. In 1972, he placed second over 5 km at the Spartakiad, in 1975 he became Youth World Champion in relay, he won a bronze medal at the 1976 Winter Olympics with the 4 × 7.5 km relay team. At the 1980 Winter Olympics he won 3 medals with silvers in the 20 km individual and the 4 × 7.5 km relay and a gold medal in the 10 km sprint, an event he dominated at world level between 1978 and 1981. In 1982 his wife died, soon after which he switched to training, he undertook a period of study at the National Academy for Body Culture and in 1987, became the trainer of the East German national team, following German reunification, national trainer for the sprint. Speaking to Ullrich's dominance in the World Cup though he retired in the mid-80s, only five male biathletes have surpassed him in terms of World Cup victories.
Sven Fischer won his 17th World Cup victory on 18 March 2000, Ole Einar Bjørndalen won his on 12 January 2001, Raphaël Poirée won on 18 January 2002, whilst Emil Hegle Svendsen won on 2 December 2010 and Martin Fourcade won on 12 January 2013. All results are sourced from the International Biathlon Union. 4 medals *Sprint was added as an event in 1980. 14 medals *During Olympic seasons competitions are only held for those events not included in the Olympic program. 17 victories *Results are from UIPMB and IBU races which include the Biathlon World Cup, Biathlon World Championships and the Winter Olympic Games. Frank Ullrich at BiathlonWorld.com and BiathlonResults.com from IBU