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Short story

A short story is a piece of prose fiction that can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood. A dictionary definition is "an invented prose narrative shorter than a novel dealing with a few characters and aiming at unity of effect and concentrating on the creation of mood rather than plot."The short story is a crafted form in its own right. Short stories make use of plot and other dynamic components as in a novel, but to a lesser degree. While the short story is distinct from the novel or novella, authors draw from a common pool of literary techniques. Short story writers may define their works as part of the artistic and personal expression of the form, they may attempt to resist categorization by genre and fixed formation. Short stories have deep roots and the power of short fiction has been recognised in modern society for hundreds of years; the short form is, more natural to us than longer forms.

We are drawn to short stories as the well-told story, as William Boyd, the award-winning British author and short story writer has said: seem to answer something deep in our nature as if, for the duration of its telling, something special has been created, some essence of our experience extrapolated, some temporary sense has been made of our common, turbulent journey towards the grave and oblivion. In terms of length, word count is anywhere from 1,000 to 4,000 for short stories, however some have 20,000 words and are still classed as short stories. Stories of fewer than 1,000 words are sometimes referred to as "short short stories", or "flash fiction". 21st-century short story writers run into the thousands. Sales of short-story fiction are strong. In the UK sales jumped 45% in 2017, driven by collections from international names such as Alice Munro, new writers to the genre such as Tom Hanks, the revival of short story salons, such as those held by short fiction company, Pin Drop Studio. More than 690,000 short stories and anthologies were sold in the UK in 2017, generating £5.88 million, the genre's highest sales since 2010.

In 2012 Pin Drop Studio launched a short story salon held in London and other major cities. Short story writers who have appeared at the salon to read their short stories to a live audience include Ben Okri, Lionel Shriver, Elizabeth Day, A. L. Kennedy, William Boyd, Graham Swift, David Nicholls, Will Self, Sebastian Faulks, Julian Barnes, Evie Wylde and Claire Fuller. Prominent short story awards such as The Sunday Times Short Story Award and the Pin Drop Studio Short Story Award, attract hundreds of entries each year. Published and non-published writers take part. In 2013, Alice Munro was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature—her citation read "master of the contemporary short story." She said she hopes the award would bring readership for the short story, as well as recognize the short story on its own merit, rather than "something that people do before they write their first novel." Short stories have been cited with regard to other laureates as well, Paul Heyse in 1910 and Gabriel García Márquez in 1982.

Short stories are sometimes adapted for radio, TV and film: Radio dramas, as on NBC Presents: Short Story. A popular example of this is "The Hitch-Hiker", read by Orson Welles. Short films rewritten by other people, as feature-length films. Television specials, such as "12:01 PM", "Nightmare at 20,000 Feet", "The Lottery", "Button, Button". Determining what separates a short story from longer fictional formats is problematic. A classic definition of a short story is that one should be able to read it in one sitting, a point most notably made in Edgar Allan Poe's essay "The Philosophy of Composition". Interpreting this standard nowadays is problematic, because the expected length of "one sitting" may now be briefer than it was in Poe's era. Short stories have no set length. In terms of word count there is no official demarcation between an anecdote, a short story, a novel. Rather, the form's parameters are given by the rhetorical and practical context in which a given story is produced and considered, so that what constitutes a short story may differ between genres, countries and commentators.

Like the novel, the short story's predominant shape reflects the demands of the available markets for publication, the evolution of the form seems tied to the evolution of the publishing industry and the submission guidelines of its constituent houses. As a point of reference for the genre writer, the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America define short story length in the Nebula Awards for science fiction submission guidelines as having a word count of fewer than 7,500 words. Longer stories that cannot be called novels are sometimes considered "novellas" or novelettes and, like short stories, may be collected into the more marketable form of "collections" containing unpublished stories. Sometimes, authors who do not have the time or money to write a novella or novel decide to write short stories instead, working out a deal with a popular website or magazine to publish them for profit; the precursors of short story were legends, mythic tales, folk tales, fairy tales and anecdotes which were present in various ancient communities across the w

Renaissance Holiday

Renaissance Holiday is a studio album by the symphonic pop band Mannheim Steamroller. "Volte" – 2:22 "Ding Dong! Merrily On High" – 1:33 "Cos Colo Odo Sa" – 1:19 "Ballet" – 1:24 "I Saw Three Ships" – 1:26 "The King's Mistress" – 1:06 "In Dulci Jubilo" – 4:47 "En Avois/Tant Que Vivray" – 1:47 "Gigue" – 2:08 "Malle Sijmon" – 2:21 "Intrada" – 1:53 "Greensleeves" – 2:46 "Laura Suave" – 4:46 "Joseph Dearest, Joseph Mine" – 1:42 "Coventry Carol" – 1:46 "Wolseys Wilde" – 1:37 "New Yeeres Gift" – 1:19 "The Nymph's Dance/The Second Of Grays Inn" – 3:02 "There Is No Rose Of Such Virtue" – 1:18 "Lachrimae Antiquae" – 2:51 "Patapan/God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen" – 1:39 "Gagliarda" – 1:18 "Bouree" – 1:39 "Lo, How A Rose E'er Blooming" – 1:56 "Bateman's Masque" – 2:18 "M. George Whitehead and His Almand" – 1:45 "The Merry Bells of Speyer" – 1:22

Giovanna Sestini

Giovanna Sestini was a soprano opera singer who performed in her native Italy, in Portugal, from 1774 in London, where she lived for the rest of her life. For many years she was the popular prima buffa in comic opera at the King's Theatre in the Haymarket. In her years, she was known by her married name, Joanna Stocqueler. Giovanna Sestini was baptised 7 April 1749 in the Pieve di San Martino a Gangalandi in the small town of Lastra a Signa, near Florence, she was the daughter of Pietro and Maria Altomira, daughter of Dottore Eustachio Speramundi Fabbrini. She had a sister Anna a singer, a brother Vincenzo who became a renowned theatrical wardrobe master in London. Giovanna and Anna sang in opera buffa in various Italian cities between 1763 and about 1767; when recovering from the devastating 1755 Lisbon earthquake, Portuguese theatres recruited performers from Italy. These included Giovanna and Anna Sestini who sang in Italian opera at the new Teatro da Rua dos Condes in Lisbon from 1768 until 1774.

Giovanna was better paid as she took more demanding roles than her sister of whom nothing more is known. José Christiano Stocqueler was descended from a merchant and consul from Hamburg, Christian Stockler, who had married well in Portugal; the family moved in Court circles and José Christiano had been made a Knight of the Order of Christ at the age of nineteen. His family disapproved when he formed a liaison with a beautiful Italian opera singer, but he and Giovanna Sestini married and two sons were born before they moved to London. In 1774 there were difficulties in the Lisbon theatres and Giovanna Sestini entered a contract to be prima buffa at the King's Theatre in London for the coming season. With her husband and sons she took lodgings in Oxendon Street close to the Haymarket, her London debut was as La Cecchina in Niccolò Piccinni's La buona figliuola and she was acclaimed though in an advanced state of pregnancy. Her third son was born on New Year's Day 1775 and baptised Joseph Christian Stocqueler in a Roman Catholic ceremony at the Portuguese Embassy Chapel in Mayfair.

Sestini sang comic roles in Italian at the King's Theatre during many seasons until the theatre was destroyed by fire in 1789. She was at the Smock Alley Theatre in Dublin, in Italian opera in 1777–78, singing in English in 1784–85; when she first sang on the English stage at Covent Garden in 1782 the part of Lorenza in John O'Keeffe's The Castle of Andalusia was adapted to suit her broken English. As usual she received glowing reviews in the press, but again had to withdraw after five performances for the birth of her eighth and last child. Sestini had further engagements at Covent Garden and sang in the summer programmes at the Little Theatre or with Elizabeth Bannister at the Theatre Royal Haymarket. In all she sang over sixty operatic roles: her most frequent performance was as Violante in Giovanni Paisiello's La frascatana. Sestini augmented her income by singing at private concerts – including in 1775 for the Royal family, she performed at the Oxford Music Rooms, the Freemasons' Hall and the Pantheon in London, in 1792 at St Cecilia's Hall in Edinburgh.

This was her last professional engagement. Sestini's husband José Christiano Stocqueler became the London agent of the Royal Wine Company of Oporto. One of their sons, known as Master Sestini, performed at Charles Dibdin's Royal Circus in Blackfriars Road and Young Sestini sang in support of the Theatre Royal, Haymarket in 1787; the line "I am a Merry Andrew, Andrew is my name" has led to the erroneous suggestion that the Stocquelers had a son called Andrew. None of the Stocqueler children had a stage career as an adult. A grandson Joachim Hayward Stocqueler was a journalist, writer and rogue who used the name Siddons. Joanna Stocqueler died on 14 July 1814, two years after her husband, at their last home in Broad Street Buildings, Bishopsgate, in the City of London, they were both buried in the graveyard of St Pancras Old Church. Neither newspaper reports of her death nor her epitaph made any mention of Giovanna Sestini's distinguished career as a singer. Carpenter, Audrey T.. Giovanna Sestini: An Italian Opera Singer in Eighteenth-century London.

Kibworth Beauchamp, Leics. UK: Matador, an imprint of Troubador Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9781788038805