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Shortages in Venezuela

Shortages in Venezuela of regulated food staples and basic necessities have been widespread following the enactment of price controls and other policies under the government of Hugo Chávez and exacerbated by the policy of withholding United States dollars from importers under the government of Nicolás Maduro. The severity of the shortages has led to the largest refugee crisis recorded in the Americas; the Maduro administration has denied the extent of the crisis. The United Nations and the Organization of American States have stated that the shortages have resulted in unnecessary deaths in Venezuela and urged the government to accept humanitarian aid. Though The New York Times asserts that the Maduro administration and its economic irresponsibility has directly caused a lack of food, Maduro has stated that the country is fine in terms of access to food. There are shortages of milk, coffee, oil, precooked flour, toilet paper, personal hygiene products and medicines. By January 2017, the shortage of medicines reached 85%, according to the Pharmaceutical Federation of Venezuela.

Hours-long lines have become common, those who wait in them are sometimes disappointed. Some Venezuelans have resorted to eating wild garbage. On 9 February 2018 a group of United Nations Special Procedures and the Special Rapporteurs on food, adequate housing and extreme poverty issued a joint statement on Venezuela, declaring that much of its population is starving and going without in a situation that they do not believe will end. Since the 1990s, food production in Venezuela has dropped continuously, with Hugo Chávez's Bolivarian government beginning to rely upon imported food using the country's then-large oil profits. In 2003, the government created CADIVI, a currency control board charged with handling foreign exchange procedures to control capital flight by placing currency limits on individuals; such currency controls have been determined to be the cause of shortages according to many economists and other experts. However, the Venezuelan government blamed other entities such as the Central Intelligence Agency and smugglers for shortages, has stated that an "economic war" had been declared on Venezuela.

During the presidency of Chávez, Venezuela faced occasional shortages owing to high inflation and government financial inefficiencies. In 2005, Chávez announced the initiation of Venezuela's own "great leap forward", following the example of Mao Zedong's Great Leap Forward. An increase in shortages began to occur that year as 5% of items became unavailable according to the Central Bank of Venezuela. In January 2008, 24.7% of goods were reported to be unavailable in Venezuela, with the scarcity of goods remaining high until May 2008, when there was a shortage of 16.3% of goods. However, shortages increased again in January 2012 to nearly the same rate as in 2008. Following Chávez's death and the election of his successor Nicolás Maduro in 2013, shortage rates continued to increase and reached a record high of 28% in February 2014. Venezuela stopped reporting its shortage data after the rate stood at 28%. In January 2015, the hashtag #AnaquelesVaciosEnVenezuela was the number one trending topic on Twitter in Venezuela for two days, with Venezuelans posting pictures of empty store shelves around the country.

In August 2015, American private intelligence agency company Stratfor used two satellite images of Puerto Cabello, Venezuela's main port used for importing goods, to show how severe shortages had become in Venezuela. One image from February 2012 showed the ports full of shipping containers when the Venezuelan government's spending was near a historic high before the 2012 Venezuela presidential election. A second image from June 2015 shows the port with many fewer containers, since the Venezuelan government could no longer afford to import goods, as oil revenues dropped. At the end of 2015, it was estimated. By May 2016, experts feared that Venezuela was entering a period of famine, with President Maduro encouraging Venezuelans to cultivate their own food. In January 2016, it was estimated, that the food scarcity rate was between 50% and 80%; the newly elected National Assembly, composed of opposition delegates, declared a national food crisis a month in February 2016. Many Venezuelans began to suffer from shortages of common utilities, such as electricity and water, because of the prolonged period of mishandling and corruption under the Maduro government.

By July 2016, Venezuelans desperate for food moved to the Colombian border. Over 500 women stormed past Venezuelan National Guard troops into Colombia looking for food on 6 July 2016. By 10 July 2016, Venezuela temporarily opened its borders, closed since August 2015, for 12 hours. Over 35,000 Venezuelans traveled to Colombia for food within that period. Between 16–17 July, over 123,000 Venezuelans crossed into Colombia seeking food; the Colombian government set up. Around the same time in July 2016, reports of desperate Venezuelans rummaging through garbage for food appeared. By early 2017, priests began telling Venezuelans to label their garbage so needy individuals could feed on their refuse. In March 2017, despite having the largest oil reserves in the world, some regions of Venezuela began having shortages of gasoline with reports that fuel imports had begun; the government continued to deny there was a humanitarian crisis, instead saying there was less availability of food. Yván Gil, vice minist


Folksamhuset is a high-rise office building at Skanstull on Södermalm and was erected in 1959 as the head office for the insurance company Folksam. Designed by Nils Einar Eriksson, Folksamhuset is 79 metres and 23 stories tall, making it the ninth-tallest building in Sweden; the building, located on the southern toll of the historical city centre, was created as a vertical accent intended to counterbalance the large scale traffic routes and bridges passing in front of it: Skansbron and Johanneshovsbron. As one of the components in this urban superstructure, it serves as a landmark underlining the main southern approach to Stockholm, together with other large-scale structures such as the Globe Arena, Söder Torn; the façades of the building are dressed up in blasted slabs of light grey marble, referred to as Ekebergsmarmor in Sweden. At the base of the building is a terrace with green areas; the interior office-spaces, the design of Yngve Tegnér, were inspired by large-scale industrial production.

List of tallest buildings in Sweden Wærn, Rasmus. "Norra innerstaden". Guide till Stockholms arkitektur. Stockholm: Arkitektur Förlag AB. p. 151. ISBN 91-86050-41-9

KMS (hypertext)

KMS, an abbreviation of Knowledge Management System, was a commercial second generation hypermedia system created as a successor for the early hypermedia system ZOG. KMS was developed by Don McCracken and Rob Akscyn of Knowledge Systems, a 1981 spinoff from the Computer Science Department of Carnegie Mellon University; the purpose of KMS was to let many users collaborate in creating and sharing information within large, shared hypertext, from the beginning, the system was designed as a true multi-user system. As a spatial hypermedia system, KMS was intended to represent all forms of explicit'knowledge artifacts' such as presentations, documents and software programs, as well as common forms of electronic communication; the central element in the KMS data model is that of screen-sized pages interconnected by links. The user had the option of switching between a view of a single frame or two side-by-side half-screen views. Frames are always fixed-size, meaning scrolling is not needed; the frame model is spatial rather than character based, so that text and images may always be placed anywhere in the frame overlapping one another.

Another way to say this is that empty space in the frame denotes space, not just the absence of content. Frames being fixed in size scrolling as a form of interaction is eliminated opting instead for larger aggregates such as documents and programs to be structured as hierarchies of hypermedia nodes; this flexibility makes it possible to create a document, run programs from a tree of frames starting at any frame. In KMS, links are embedded in frames, they may go from any text item, graphical entity, or image in the source frame to any destination frame. In addition to links, frame items can have actions, allowing the use to activate programs that extend the intrinsic functionality of the system. A major distinction between KMS and current web practices is the distinction between regular items and "Annotation Items". Annotation items have the connotation of being peripheral or meta-level, relative to the rest of the contents, making it easy as to what was regular content versus just notes to oneself or comments by others.

Annotation items with links thus have the connotation of being arbitrary cross-references and thus are not seen by users, more agents, as part of the hierarchical structure of the hypertext. Another major distinction between KMS and current web practices is the elimination of a separate editor mode. Navigation and editing functionality is always directly available and users can edit any frame for which they have permission. Authors can protect frames from inadvertent editing by themselves. Older versions of frames are saved in'comet-like' linked list so one can see the history for any individual frame. KMS contained a script programming language which enabled developers and users to extend the system beyond its current functionality. In keeping with the KMS philosophy of'Everything a frame' so programs are represented as hierarchies of frames. KMS was written in Pascal and C 300,000 lines of code in size. A more modern, Java-based follow-on to KMS is being developed at the Computer Science Department of the University of Waikato in New Zealand, by Rob Akscyn, one of the original developers of KMS.

Akscyn, Robert M. Communications of the ACM. 31: 820–35. Doi:10.1145/48511.48513

Damon Dunn

Damon Jerrel Dunn is an American politician, commercial real estate developer and former football player. Dunn was born in 1976 in Fort Texas to a 16-year-old mother, Ramona Dunn; when Dunn was three years old his father, Texas Longhorns starting wide receiver, Mike Lockett, was killed in a car accident. Dunn grew up in a trailer on his grandparents' farm. Dunn was an honor student in Sam Houston High School in Arlington, Texas and an All-State Texas football player. After high school Dunn attended Stanford University on a football scholarship after being recruited by Bill Walsh. Dunn ran track at Stanford. At Stanford Dunn was coached by Tyrone Willingham and Dunn has said he viewed him as a father figure, having grown up without a male role model in his life. While at Stanford Dunn set numerous records and was awarded a NCAA Academic Scholarship, All-Pac-10 Honors and Academic All-Pac-10 Honors, the National Football Foundation and College Hall of Fame Award. During his career at Stanford Dunn participated as an associate pastor in the Jerusalem Baptist Church, where he managed youth ministries.

Dunn graduated from Stanford in 1998 with a degree in public policy. He was not picked in the 1998 NFL Draft; the season after he graduated from Stanford, Dunn was on the practice squad of the National Football League team Jacksonville Jaguars. Dunn played for the Cleveland Browns in 1999; the next year, Dunn played in the Berlin Thunder of NFL Europe, the New York Jets of the NFL, the Browns in 2000. In 2001, Dunn played for the XFL team Los Angeles Xtreme. Dunn joined Dallas Cowboys training camp before the 2001 NFL season, he left the NFL after being injured there. After retiring from the NFL, Dunn and a former Stanford roommate became partners in an Irvine, California-based real estate business, which developed several shopping centers. In 2009, Dunn announced that he would run for California Secretary of State challenging incumbent Democrat Debra Bowen; the Los Angeles Sentinel quoted Dunn: "There are a lot of African Americans that are conservative fiscally, but we don't have the welcoming face in the Republican Party."In March 2010, notorious "birther" Orly Taitz qualified to run for the office of California Secretary of State.

At the same time, she unsuccessfully challenged the eligibility of her Republican Party primary opponent, claiming that he was pretending to be a Republican. While playing for the Jacksonville Jaguars, Dunn had registered to vote as a Democrat in 1999 but that registration expired in 2005. On May 12, 2010, Pamela Barnett filed a lawsuit in the Sacramento County Superior Court alleging that Dunn was not eligible to run for Secretary of State; the San Francisco Chronicle endorsed Dunn for the June 2010 primary. Ronnie Lott, a Hall of Fame NFL player, endorsed Dunn the following month. Taitz was defeated by Dunn in the June 8 primary by a margin of about three to one, losing by over 900,000 votes. On June 17, 2010, Taitz filed a lawsuit in the Orange County Superior Court contesting the election results, again alleging Dunn's ineligibility. On March 17, 2011, the judge ruled against Taitz. On May 1, 2012, a California Court of Appeal affirmed the superior court's ruling. In 2014 Dunn ran for Mayor of Long Beach.

He qualified for the runoff by finishing second in the primary election, faced Robert Garcia on June 3. Dunn lost the election to Robert Garcia, former vice-mayor on June 3, 2014. While in the NFL, Dunn worked with the Make-a-Wish Foundation visiting kids with terminal diseases. Dunn started the Fighting Giants Ministry that ministers to children with life changing injuries. Dunn has worked with St. Augustine Soup Kitchen, the Cops-N-Kids program and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Dunn served as president of his local Fellowship of Christian Athletes chapter and has spoken nationally at FCA events. Dunn is a licensed Baptist minister and a member of Antioch Church of Long Beach, he lives in California. Career statistics and player information from Pro-Football-Reference

Aparajitha Balamurukan

Aparajitha Balamurukan is an Indian female academic and professional squash player, a regular member of the Indian squash team. She achieved her highest career PSA ranking of 77 in August 2010 during the 2010 PSA World Tour. Aparajitha was raised in Chennai, her father Balamurukan was a prominent businessman. She took the interest on the sport of squash at the age of eight, she joined the Professional Squash Association in 2009 at the age of 15 and took part in the 2009 PSA World Tour. She signed for a coaching camp in squash basic training at the ICL Academy. Aparajitha completed her MBA degree while playing squash, she received her maiden opportunity to represent India at the 2012 Women's World Team Squash Championships and was part of the team which reached quarterfinals. She represented India at the 2014 Asian Games and claimed a silver medal in the women's team event. In the same year, she competed at the 2014 World University Squash Championship; however her career rankings dropped below 100 after 2014 despite a promising start to her career in 2009.

At the 2019 Women's Asian Individual Squash Championships, she reached third round of the event and lost to Hong Kong's Liu Tsz Ling. Aparajitha Balamurukan at Squash Info Aparajitha Balamurukan at PSA

Arthur Roberts (cricketer)

Arthur Wilson Roberts was an English cricketer. Roberts was a right-handed batsman, he was born in Malegaon, Bombay Presidency and educated at Rossall School in Lancashire, England. Roberts made his debut in county cricket for Oxfordshire in the 1896 Minor Counties Championship, he played a further match for Oxfordshire in the following season. He appeared in 2 Minor Counties Championship matches for Buckinghamshire in 1902. Roberts made his first-class debut for Gloucestershire against Hampshire in 1908 County Championship, he played 28 first-class matches for Gloucestershire, the last coming against Somerset in the 1913 County Championship. In those 28 first-class matches, he scored 727 runs at a batting average of 17.73, with a 3 half centuries and a high score of 90. His highest score came against Somerset in 1911. A part-time bowler, Roberts took 11 wickets for Gloucestershire at a bowling average of 36.00, with best figures of 2/20. He played a single first-class match for an England XI against Hambledon in a commemorative match at the Broadhalfpenny Down ground, home to the original Hambledon Club.

In this match he was dismissed for 11 in the England XI's first-innings by Jack Newman, while in their second-innings he scored 69 runs before being dismissed by the same bowler. With the ball he took that of Guy Bignell, he died in Hastings, Sussex on 27 June 1961. He survived his brother, who had played first-class cricket but was killed in the First World War by 45 years. Arthur Roberts at ESPNcricinfo Arthur Roberts at CricketArchive