Shortstop, abbreviated SS, is the baseball or softball fielding position between second and third base, considered to be among the most demanding defensive positions. The position was assigned to defensive specialists who were poor at batting and were placed at the bottom of the batting order. Today shortstops are able to hit well and many are placed at the top of the lineup. In the numbering system used by scorers to record defensive plays, the shortstop is assigned the number 6. More hit balls go to the shortstop than to any other position, as there are more right-handed hitters in baseball than left-handed hitters, most hitters have a tendency to pull the ball slightly. Like a second baseman, a shortstop must be agile, for example. Like a third baseman, the shortstop fields balls hit to the left side of the infield, where a strong arm is needed to throw out a batter-runner before they reach the safety of first base. Doc Adams of the Knickerbockers created the concept of the shortstop position, according to baseball historian John Thorn and Baseball Hall of Fame researcher Freddy Berowski.
In the first five years the Knickerbockers played, the team fielded anywhere from eight to eleven players. The only infielders were the players covering each of the bases; the outfielders had difficulty throwing baseballs into the infield because of the balls' light weight. Adams's shortstop position, which he started playing at some time from 1849 to 1850, was used to field throws from the outfielders and throw to the three infielders. With the advent of higher-quality baseballs, Adams moved to the infield, since the distance the balls could travel increased. Adams had a long playing career with the Knickerbockers: he remained a player with the team until 1860. Unlike the pitcher and catcher, who must start every play in a designated area the shortstop and the other fielders can vary their positioning in response to what they anticipate will be the actions of the batter and runner once the play begins; the shortstop ordinarily is positioned near second base on the third-base side. Because right-handed hitters tend to hit the ball more toward third base, a shortstop will move closer to third base if the batter is batting right-handed, more toward first base if the batter is batting left-handed.
A shortstop has a strong throwing arm, because he has a long throw to first base, has less time in which to make a throw, given that the ground balls he fields have traveled far. A shortstop must be agile, because balls hit to or near the shortstop position are hit harder than to other infield positions. Shortstops are required to cover second base in double play situations when the ball is hit to the second baseman or first baseman, they cover second when a runner is attempting a stolen base, but only when a left-handed hitter is batting because the infield will respond to a left-handed batter by shifting toward first base, resulting in the shortstop being the infielder, closest to second base. Shortstops must cover third at various times, including the rotation play. Shortstops are given precedence on catching pop-ups in the infield as well, so they end up calling off other players many times, although on deep pop-ups they fall back when called off by an outfielder, they become the cutoff man on balls to any part of the outfield that are being directed towards third base and all balls to left and center field that are destined for second base.
Depending on the system the shortstop may cut balls from left field heading home. The emphasis on defense makes the position unusually difficult to fill. A strong shortstop did not have to be a good hitter; some of the weakest hitters in Major League Baseball have played the position, including Mario Mendoza, for whom George Brett popularized the eponymous Mendoza Line to describe a batting average below.200. Since the 1960s, such mediocre hitting has become rarer as teams demand players with ability to both field and hit. In practice, a marginal fielder as a shortstop who hits well can be moved to any other position second base or third base, whether early in their careers or due to diminished fielding range, slower reflexes, weaker throwing arms, increased risk of injury, or co-existence with another dominant shortstop, as with Ernie Banks, Cal Ripken Jr. Alex Rodríguez, Michael Young, or Miguel Tejada; the year in which the player was inducted is given in brackets after his name. John Henry Lloyd and Willie Wells were elected for their play in the Negro Leagues.
George Wright was elected as a pioneer, but starred as a shortstop in the 1860s and 1870s. Robin Yount started his career as a shortstop, moved to the outfield where he played his last nine seasons. Ernie Banks played shortstop for the first half of first base for the remainder. Ozzie Smith: 621 Glenn Wright: 601 Dave Bancroft: 598
Franz Manfred Wuketits was an Austrian biologist, university teacher and epistemologist. He wrote extensively on epistemology, the history and theory of biology, evolution theory, evolutionary ethics, evolutionary epistemology and sociobiology. Wuketits co-founded the Austrian citizen initiative "Mein Veto" which campaigns against state encroachment in areas of personal liberty and morality; the Initiative is well supported among Austria's large Intellectual class, includes among its financial backers the tobacco corporation BAT. Between 1973 and 1978 Wuketits studied zoology, paleontology and scientific theory at the University of Vienna, he received his doctorate in 1978, progressed, still at Vienna, to a habilitation qualification in 1980 with a paper entitled "Scientific theory with particular reference to the Life sciences"In 1982 he received national recognition in the form of the award of the Austrian Prize for Scientific Journalism. From 1987 till 2004 he was employed at the University of Graz where he taught the philosophy of biology.
He had guest professorships at several other universities including the Vienna University of Technology and, in Palma de Majorca, at the University of the Balearic Islands. Since 2002 he was on the board of the Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research in Lower Austria, he was a member of the scientific advisory board of the Giordano Bruno Foundation which has as its mission "Support of Evolutionary Humanism". He belongs to "Free Academy" in Berlin and to Vienna's Library Platform initiative. Other roles have included providing scientific input for the Kapfenberg Summer Academy till 2008. For many years he was a co-producer/editor of the journal of the "Gesellschaft für kritische Philosophie Nürnberg", Aufklärung & Kritik which promotes free thought and humanist philosophy, he was on the editorial/advisory board of publications. From 2005 until 2008 he was the editor of Bioscop, the journal of the Austrian Biologist Association; this list only complete. Wissenschaftstheoretische Probleme der modernen Biologie.
Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1978 Kausalitätsbegriff und Evolutionstheorie. Die Entwicklung des Kausalitätsbegriffes im Rahmen des Evolutionsgedankens. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1980 Biologie und Kausalität. Biologische Ansätze zur Determination und Freiheit. P. Parey, Berlin-Hamburg 1981 Grundriß der Evolutionstheorie. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1982 Biologische Erkenntnis: Grundlagen und Probleme. G. Fischer, Stuttgart 1983 Evolution, Ethik. Folgerungen aus der modernen Biologie. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1984 Zustand und Bewußtsein. Leben als biophilosophische Synthese. Hoffmann und Campe, Hamburg 1985 Schlüssel zur Biologie. ECON, Düsseldorf-Wien-New York 1986. Taschenbuchausgabe: Droemersche Verlagsanstalt Knaur, München 1990. Schlüssel zur Philosophie. ECON, Düsseldorf-Wien-New York 1987. Charles Darwin. Der stille Revolutionär. Piper, München-Zürich 1987 Evolutionstheorien. Historische Voraussetzungen, Kritik. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1988 Jenseits von Zufall und Notwendigkeit.
Biologische und kulturelle Evolution des Menschen. Edition Riannon, Basel 1988 Gene, Kultur und Moral. Soziobiologie – pro und kontra. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1990 Evolutionary Epistemology and Its Implications for Humankind. SUNY Press, Albany, N. Y. 1990 ISBN 0-7914-0285-1 Konrad Lorenz. Leben und Werk eines großen Naturforschers. Piper, München-Zürich 1990 Verdammt zur Unmoral? Zur Naturgeschichte von Gut und Böse. Piper, München-Zürich 1993 Die Entdeckung des Verhaltens. Eine Geschichte der Verhaltensforschung. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1995 Soziobiologie. Die Macht der Gene und die Evolution sozialen Verhaltens. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg 1997, ISBN 3-8274-0127-5. Naturkatastrophe Mensch. Evolution ohne Fortschritt. Patmos, Düsseldorf 1998. Aufl. 1998. Taschenbuchausgabe: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, München 2001. Eine kurze Kulturgeschichte der Biologie. Mythen, Gentechnik. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1998 Die Selbstzerstörung der Natur.
Evolution und die Abgründe des Lebens. Patmos, Düsseldorf 1999 Warum uns das Böse fasziniert. Die Natur des Bösen und die Illusionen der Moral. Hirzel, Stuttgart-Leipzig 1999 Evolution. Die Entwicklung des Lebens. C. H. Beck, München 2000. Humanität zwischen Hoffnung und Illusion. Warum uns die Evolution einen Strich durch die Rechnung macht. Kreuz, Stuttgart 2001 Der Affe in uns. Warum die Kultur an unserer Natur zu scheitern droht. Hirzel, Stuttgart/Leipzig 2002. Ausgerottet – ausgestorben. Hirzel, Stuttgart 2003. Darwin und der Darwinismus. C. H. Beck, München 2005. Bioethik. Eine kritische Einführung. C. H. Beck, München 2006. Der freie Wille. Die Evolution einer Illusion. Hirzel, Stuttgart 2007. Handbook of Evolution. 1. Aufl. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim 2007. 1500 S. in 3 Bd. ISBN 3-527-30622-6 Lob der Feigheit. Hirzel, Stuttgart 2008. ISBN 978-3-7776-1602-5 Wie viel Moral verträgt der Mensch? Eine Provokation. Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 2010. 224 S. ISBN 978-3-579-06754-4 Wie der Mensch wurde, was er
President Barack Obama submitted his fiscal year 2015 budget request on March 4, 2014. This budget proposal was one of several proposed budgets considered in the process of creating the 2015 United States federal budget. President Obama's proposed budget was for $3.9 trillion. President Obama's budget proposal was described as being full of "populist proposals" and as a "populist wish list." The proposal was not seen as a politically practical measure that would be used or taken by Congress. The White House described this budget as "a budget he would implement in an ideal world." The U. S. Constitution does not give the President a role in the appropriations or budgeting process. Instead, after World War I and under President Warren G. Harding, Congress passed the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 to establish an executive branch budgeting process, in reaction to growing spending; this law created the Bureau of the Budget and the General Accounting Office to assist in this process. The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 established budgeting rules for Congress itself.
Today, the United States budget process traditionally begins when the President submits a budget request to Congress. The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 requires the President to submit the budget to Congress for each fiscal year, the 12-month period beginning on October 1 and ending on September 30 of the next calendar year; the current federal budget law requires that the President submit his or her budget request between the first Monday in January and the first Monday in February. In recent times, the President's budget submission has been issued in the first week of February; the budget submission has been delayed, however, in some new presidents' first year when the previous president belonged to a different party. The President's budget is formulated over a period of months with the assistance of the Office of Management and Budget, the largest office within the Executive Office of the President; the budget request includes funding requests for all federal executive departments and independent agencies for the following year.
Budget documents include supporting documents and historical budget data and contains detailed information on spending and revenue proposals, along with policy proposals and initiatives with significant budgetary implications. In addition, each federal executive department and independent agency provides additional detail and supporting documentation on its own funding requests; the documents are posted on the OMB website. The budget the President submits is a request only. However, some people consider "the power to formulate and submit the budget... a vital tool in the President’s direction of the executive branch and of national policy." The President's budget request can influence the decisions made by Congress. President Obama's budget proposal is a "comprehensive assembly of the White House's policy proposals and economic projections."President Obama did not release his 2015 budget proposal until March 4, 2014, a delay he said was due to the need to wait for the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 to be agreed to in December 2013.
President Obama's budget proposal was described as being full of "populist proposals" and as a "populist wish list." Some of the populist programs include more spending on pre-school education, tax credits for childless low-income workers, more than $1 trillion in new and higher taxes. The President's proposal is considered a "playbook" for Democrats' "election-year themes of creating jobs and narrowing the income gap between rich and poor."According to Obama, his proposal adheres to the spending limits established by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, but he suggests an additional $55 billion worth of spending. President Obama's budget proposal only addresses about a third of the federal government's total estimated spending for fiscal year 2015; the federal government's total estimated spending would be $3.5 trillion, while Obama's budget only addresses $1.014 trillion. The difference is due to most government spending being non-discretionary spending for entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicaid.
The President's proposal calls for the United States Army to decrease in size to the smallest it has been since before World War II. The number of active-duty soldiers would drop from 490,000 today to 440,000 over the next five years. At the height of the Iraq War, there were about 570,000 soldiers. Obama's plan would get rid of the A-10 airplane; the total military budget would be about $496 billion, the same amount as fiscal year 2014. The United States Department of Defense is asking in its budget to have some bases closed in 2017 and have a smaller pay increase for the troops; the President's proposal "would raise $651 billion by limiting tax deductions for the nation's highest earners" and by adding a "Buffett tax" that would set up minimum tax levies on the highest-earning Americans. Obama's budget would increase the taxes on "large estates, financial institutions, tobacco products, airline passengers and managers of private investment funds."The budget includes a proposal to tax large banks with $56 billion in "financial crisis responsibility fees."
Obama proposes to increase from $500 to $1,000 the maximum earned income tax credit for childless low-income workers. Doing this would cost $116 billion over the next 10 years. Obama's proposal includes provisions involving universal pre-kindergarten, Head Start, more Race to the Top grants; the proposed funding would pay for 100,000 new public school teachers. He proposed capping the Public Service Loan Forgiveness pro