Aga is a town located in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 October 2018, the town had an estimated population of 10,632, a population density of 12 persons per km²; the total area of the town was 952.89 square kilometres. Aga is located in northeastern Niigata Prefecture. Covering 6.8% in area of the entire prefecture, Aga is the second largest municipality in Niigata after Jōetsu. The Agano River flows through the town. Niigata Prefecture Shibata Agano Gosen Sanjō Fukushima Prefecture Kitakata Tadami Nishiaizu Kaneyama Aga has a Humid climate characterized by warm, wet summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall; the average annual temperature in Aga is 12.8 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1715 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 26.3 °C, lowest in January, at around 0.5 °C. Per Japanese census data, the population of Aga has declined over the past 40 years; the area of present-day Aga was part of ancient Echigo Province, was part of the territories held by Aizu Domain under the Edo period Tokugawa shogunate.
After the Meiji restoration, the area was organised as part of Niigata. The town of Aga was established on April 1, 2005 in a merger of the towns of Kamikawa and Kanose and the villages of Mikawa, Tsugawa, all from Higashikanbara District; the local economy is dominated by agriculture. The Kamikawa area of Aga is famous for its Koshihikari rice, used to make sake in two local breweries, which are among the main employers of the district; the Mikawa area is famous for mushrooms, is host to a mushroom park where people can either pick their own mushrooms or choose from a wide variety of locally-grown produce. Aga has seven public elementary schools and three public middle school operated by the town government; the town has one public high school operated by the Niigata Prefectural Board of Education. JR East - Ban'etsu West Line Toyomi - Hideya - Kanose - Tsugawa - Mikawa - Igashima - Higashi-Gejō Ban-etsu Expressway National Route 49 National Route 459 Kosegasawa Cave, Jōmon period archaeological site Muroya Cave, Jōmon period archaeological site Media related to Aga, Niigata at Wikimedia Commons Official Website
Hard disk drive
A hard disk drive, hard disk, hard drive, or fixed disk, is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rotating disks coated with magnetic material. The platters are paired with magnetic heads arranged on a moving actuator arm, which read and write data to the platter surfaces. Data is accessed in a random-access manner, meaning that individual blocks of data can be stored or retrieved in any order and not only sequentially. HDDs are a type of non-volatile storage, retaining stored data when powered off. Introduced by IBM in 1956, HDDs became the dominant secondary storage device for general-purpose computers by the early 1960s. Continuously improved, HDDs have maintained this position into the modern era of servers and personal computers. More than 200 companies have produced HDDs though after extensive industry consolidation most units are manufactured by Seagate and Western Digital. HDDs dominate the volume of storage produced for servers.
Though production is growing sales revenues and unit shipments are declining because solid-state drives have higher data-transfer rates, higher areal storage density, better reliability, much lower latency and access times. The revenues for SSDs, most of which use NAND exceed those for HDDs. Though SSDs have nearly 10 times higher cost per bit, they are replacing HDDs in applications where speed, power consumption, small size, durability are important; the primary characteristics of an HDD are its performance. Capacity is specified in unit prefixes corresponding to powers of 1000: a 1-terabyte drive has a capacity of 1,000 gigabytes; some of an HDD's capacity is unavailable to the user because it is used by the file system and the computer operating system, inbuilt redundancy for error correction and recovery. There is confusion regarding storage capacity, since capacities are stated in decimal Gigabytes by HDD manufacturers, whereas some operating systems report capacities in binary Gibibytes, which results in a smaller number than advertised.
Performance is specified by the time required to move the heads to a track or cylinder adding the time it takes for the desired sector to move under the head, the speed at which the data is transmitted. The two most common form factors for modern HDDs are 3.5-inch, for desktop computers, 2.5-inch for laptops. HDDs are connected to systems by standard interface cables such as SATA, USB or SAS cables; the first production IBM hard disk drive, the 350 disk storage, shipped in 1957 as a component of the IBM 305 RAMAC system. It was the size of two medium-sized refrigerators and stored five million six-bit characters on a stack of 50 disks. In 1962, the IBM 350 was superseded by the IBM 1301 disk storage unit, which consisted of 50 platters, each about 1/8-inch thick and 24 inches in diameter. While the IBM 350 used only two read/write heads, the 1301 used an array of heads, one per platter, moving as a single unit. Cylinder-mode read/write operations were supported, the heads flew about 250 micro-inches above the platter surface.
Motion of the head array depended upon a binary adder system of hydraulic actuators which assured repeatable positioning. The 1301 cabinet was about the size of three home refrigerators placed side by side, storing the equivalent of about 21 million eight-bit bytes. Access time was about a quarter of a second. In 1962, IBM introduced the model 1311 disk drive, about the size of a washing machine and stored two million characters on a removable disk pack. Users could interchange them as needed, much like reels of magnetic tape. Models of removable pack drives, from IBM and others, became the norm in most computer installations and reached capacities of 300 megabytes by the early 1980s. Non-removable HDDs were called "fixed disk" drives; some high-performance HDDs were manufactured with one head per track so that no time was lost physically moving the heads to a track. Known as fixed-head or head-per-track disk drives they were expensive and are no longer in production. In 1973, IBM introduced a new type of HDD code-named "Winchester".
Its primary distinguishing feature was that the disk heads were not withdrawn from the stack of disk platters when the drive was powered down. Instead, the heads were allowed to "land" on a special area of the disk surface upon spin-down, "taking off" again when the disk was powered on; this reduced the cost of the head actuator mechanism, but precluded removing just the disks from the drive as was done with the disk packs of the day. Instead, the first models of "Winchester technology" drives featured a removable disk module, which included both the disk pack and the head assembly, leaving the actuator motor in the drive upon removal. "Winchester" drives abandoned the removable media concept and returned to non-removable platters. Like the first removable pack drive, the first "Winchester" drives used platters 14 inches in diameter. A few years designers were exploring the possibility that physically smaller platters might offer advantages. Drives with non-removable eight-inch platters appeared, drives that used a 5 1⁄4 in form factor.
The latter were intended for the then-fl
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; the chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames; the oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium. Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals; because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, studies continue.
Of aluminium isotopes, only 27Al is stable. This is consistent with aluminium having an odd atomic number, it is the only aluminium isotope that has existed on Earth in its current form since the creation of the planet. Nearly all the element on Earth is present as this isotope, which makes aluminium a mononuclidic element and means that its standard atomic weight equates to that of the isotope; the standard atomic weight of aluminium is low in comparison with many other metals, which has consequences for the element's properties. All other isotopes of aluminium are radioactive; the most stable of these is 26Al and therefore could not have survived since the formation of the planet. However, 26Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic ray protons; the ratio of 26Al to 10Be has been used for radiodating of geological processes over 105 to 106 year time scales, in particular transport, sediment storage, burial times, erosion. Most meteorite scientists believe that the energy released by the decay of 26Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.55 billion years ago.
The remaining isotopes of aluminium, with mass numbers ranging from 21 to 43, all have half-lives well under an hour. Three metastable states are known, all with half-lives under a minute. An aluminium atom has 13 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 3s23p1, with three electrons beyond a stable noble gas configuration. Accordingly, the combined first three ionization energies of aluminium are far lower than the fourth ionization energy alone. Aluminium can easily surrender its three outermost electrons in many chemical reactions; the electronegativity of aluminium is 1.61. A free aluminium atom has a radius of 143 pm. With the three outermost electrons removed, the radius shrinks to 39 pm for a 4-coordinated atom or 53.5 pm for a 6-coordinated atom. At standard temperature and pressure, aluminium atoms form a face-centered cubic crystal system bound by metallic bonding provided by atoms' outermost electrons; this crystal system is shared by some other metals, such as copper. Aluminium metal, when in quantity, is shiny and resembles silver because it preferentially absorbs far ultraviolet radiation while reflecting all visible light so it does not impart any color to reflected light, unlike the reflectance spectra of copper and gold.
Another important characteristic of aluminium is its low density, 2.70 g/cm3. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight and malleable with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness, it is nonmagnetic and does not ignite. A fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation; the yield strength of pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has stiffness of steel, it is machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic structure. Aluminium has a stacking-fault energy of 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper, both thermal and electrical, while having only 30% of copper's density. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin and a critical magnetic field of about 100 gauss.
Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits. Aluminium's corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the bare metal is exposed to air preventing further oxidation, in a process termed passivation; the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts in the presence of dissimilar metals. In acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, in alkaline ones to form aluminates—protective passivation under these conditions is negligible; because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium. However, because
Mizuho Financial Group
Mizuho Financial Group, Inc. abbreviated as MHFG, or called Mizuho, is a banking holding company headquartered in the Ōtemachi district of Chiyoda, Japan. The name "mizuho" means "abundant rice" in Japanese and "harvest" in the figurative sense. Upon its founding, it was the largest bank in the world by assets, it holds assets in excess of $1.8 trillion US dollars through its control of Mizuho Bank and other operating subsidiaries. The company's combined holdings form the second largest financial services group in Japan, its banking businesses rank second in Japan after Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group and the 14th in the world by total assets as of December 2017. It is the 90th largest company in the world according to Forbes rankings as of May 2017, its shares have a primary listing on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Mizuho offers a range of financial services, including banking, securities and asset management services, employing more than 56,000 people throughout 880 offices. Mizuho was established as Mizuho Holdings, Inc. by the merger of Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank, Fuji Bank, the Industrial Bank of Japan in 2000.
The earliest history of the companies that formed the Mizuho group was Yasuda-ya, founded as a private company in 1864. In 1872 the Dai-Ichi Bank, Ltd. was established as the first bank in Japan to be established under the nation’s newly minted National Bank Act of 1872. In 1897 the Nippon Kangyo Bank, Ltd. and the Industrial Bank of Japan, Limited were next established as governmental institutions. In 1912 Yasuda-was incorporated and renamed Yasuda Bank, in a process where Yasuda absorbed the assets and business of seventeen different Japanese banking institutions. In 1948 Yasuda Bank was itself renamed the Fuji Bank, Limited. Over the coming years, Fuji Bank would serve as the major financier for post-war Japanese economic growth, working with other major banks as partners when it was at risk of over-extending its funds. In 1950 the Nippon Kangyo Bank and IBJ were re-privatized after serving as semi-public banks for decades, following a recommendation from the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers General Douglas MacArthur and the United States during the post-World War II economic reforms.
In 1971 the Dai-ichi Bank and the Nippon Kangyo Bank merged to form the Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank, Limited. Mizuho itself was created from the remnants of these mergers, in 1999 DKB, Fuji and IBJ announce an agreement to consolidate the three banks' operations; this resulted in the establishment of the holding company named Mizuho Holdings, Inc in the year 2000. In 2002 DKB, Fuji and IBJ were and combined into two banks, Mizuho Bank, Ltd. and Mizuho Corporate Bank, Ltd. Mizuho traded under the ticker symbol MHHD on the London Stock Exchange; the merger resulted in the world’s first trillion-dollar bank, with its $1.2 trillion in assets surpassing the next largest bank by about $480 billion. The move has been considered to have formed one of the first “mega-institutions” in the financial industry, beginning a trend in the industry of large-scale bank mergers referred to as the “consolidation movement” during the 2000s. Though while other mega-institutions were composed of one major player and several minor ones, Mizuho was composed of three equal institutions in terms of their size and influence.
It remained the largest mega-bank in the world until 2005. The name “Mizuho” means “new and rich harvest of rice” in Japanese; the original structure saw the founding of the Mizuho Bank, focusing on individuals and SMEs, the Mizuho Corporate Bank, which focuses on corporate entities. The initial strategy of the company was to expand its lending operations with individuals and SMEs, begin to offer fee-based services including securitizations and acquisitions support, security-based investment banking, syndicated loans. At the time, Mizuho controlled about 50% of the syndicated loans market. Mizuho launched one of the first Internet-based securities products in 2000. In 2003, Mizuho Financial Group, Inc. took over the operations of Mizuho Holdings. On October 1, 2005, all subsidiaries of Mizuho Holdings were transferred to the direct control of Mizuho Financial Group. Mizuho Holdings, no longer a bank holding company, was renamed Mizuho Financial Strategy, which now focuses on providing advisory services.
Mizuho Financial Group was in turn listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the stock symbol MFG in 2006. Mizuho, through its operations in New York, became involved in the subprime mortgage crisis and lost 7 billion dollars on the sale of collateralized debt obligations backed by subprime mortgages, it is the Asian bank. In 2012 Mizuho Financial Group acquire 100% of the assets from Brazilian bank Banco WestLB do Brasil S. A. In 2014 the company underwent a board of directors reform in order to streamline its corporate culture into a more of a single identity, although its original board founded in 2002 was consistent with Japanese banking protocols. In 2016 they opened their global transactions banking headquarters in Singapore, have offices for this unit in China, Hong Kong, Tokyo and New York City; that year they began a partnership with Cognizant, to develop block-chain methods of securing the banks private records. Mizuho splits its business into four distinct divisions, on a global basis: Mizuho is active in retail banking with 515 branches and over 11,000 automated teller machines.
Mizuho Bank is the only bank, other than Japan Post Bank, to have branches in every prefecture in Japan. It serves over 26 million Japanese households, 90,000 SME customers, 2500 corporations, retail brokerage clients u
Electronics comprises the physics, engineering and applications that deal with the emission and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the invention of the vacuum tube, which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, diodes, integrated circuits and sensors, associated passive electrical components, interconnection technologies. Electronic devices contain circuitry consisting or of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; the nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible. Electronics is used in information processing, telecommunication, signal processing; the ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information-processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed electronic components into a regular working system, called an electronic system.
An electronic system may be a component of a standalone device. Electrical and electromechanical science and technology deals with the generation, switching and conversion of electrical energy to and from other energy forms; this distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device. Until 1950 this field was called "radio technology" because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters and vacuum tubes; as of 2018 most electronic devices use semiconductor components to perform electron control. The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid-state physics, whereas the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems come under electronics engineering; this article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics. Digital electronics Analogue electronics Microelectronics Circuit design Integrated circuits Power electronics Optoelectronics Semiconductor devices Embedded systems An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system.
Components are intended to be connected together by being soldered to a printed circuit board, to create an electronic circuit with a particular function. Components may be packaged singly, or in more complex groups as integrated circuits; some common electronic components are capacitors, resistors, transistors, etc. Components are categorized as active or passive. Vacuum tubes were among the earliest electronic components, they were solely responsible for the electronics revolution of the first half of the twentieth century. They allowed for vastly more complicated systems and gave us radio, phonographs, long-distance telephony and much more, they played a leading role in the field of microwave and high power transmission as well as television receivers until the middle of the 1980s. Since that time, solid-state devices have all but taken over. Vacuum tubes are still used in some specialist applications such as high power RF amplifiers, cathode ray tubes, specialist audio equipment, guitar amplifiers and some microwave devices.
In April 1955, the IBM 608 was the first IBM product to use transistor circuits without any vacuum tubes and is believed to be the first all-transistorized calculator to be manufactured for the commercial market. The 608 contained more than 3,000 germanium transistors. Thomas J. Watson Jr. ordered all future IBM products to use transistors in their design. From that time on transistors were exclusively used for computer logic and peripherals. Circuits and components can be divided into two groups: digital. A particular device may consist of circuitry that has a mix of the two types. Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits. Analog circuits use a continuous range of voltage or current as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits; the number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge because a'circuit' can be defined as anything from a single component, to systems containing thousands of components.
Analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in analog circuits such as mixers, etc. Good examples of analog circuits include vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers and oscillators. One finds modern circuits that are analog; these days analog circuitry may use digital or microprocessor techniques to improve performance. This type of circuit is called "mixed signal" rather than analog or digital. Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have elements of both linear and non-linear
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, focused on integrated clinical practice and research. It employs more than 4,500 physicians and scientists, along with another 58,400 administrative and allied health staff; the practice specializes in treating difficult cases through tertiary destination medicine. It is home to the ranked Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine in addition to many of the largest, best regarded residency education programs in the United States, it has more than 3,000 full-time research personnel. William Worrall Mayo settled his family in Rochester in 1864 and opened a sole proprietorship medical practice that evolved under his sons and Charlie Mayo, into Mayo Clinic. Today, in addition to its flagship hospital in Rochester, Mayo Clinic has major campuses in Arizona and Florida; the Mayo Clinic Health System operates affiliated facilities throughout Minnesota and Iowa. Mayo Clinic is ranked number 1 in the United States on the 2018–2019 U. S. News & World Report Best Hospitals Honor Roll, maintaining a position at or near the top for more than 27 years.
It has been on the list of "100 Best Companies to Work For" published by Fortune magazine for fourteen consecutive years, has continued to achieve this ranking through 2017. In 1863, William Worrall Mayo came to Rochester, from Salford in Lancashire, England, as part of his appointment as an examining surgeon for the military draft board during the American Civil War; the city was to his liking, his wife and children joined him in early 1864. On January 27, 1864, William Worrall Mayo advertised in the Rochester City Post the opening of a private medical partnership "over the Union Drug Store on Third Street" with "all calls answered by day or night". Both of W. W. Mayo's sons, William James Mayo and Charles Horace Mayo grew up in Rochester and, when old enough, both attended medical school. William graduated in 1883 and joined his father's practice, with Charles joining after he completed his training in 1888. On August 21, 1883, a tornado struck Rochester, causing at least 37 deaths in the area and over 200 injuries.
One-third of the town was destroyed. The relief efforts began with a temporary hospital being established at Rommell's Hall, the doctors Mayo as well as other local doctors, were extensively involved in treating the injured who were brought there for help. Mother Alfred Moes and the Sisters of Saint Francis were called in to act as nurses despite having been trained as teachers and with little if any medical experience. After the crisis subsided, Moes approached W. W. Mayo about establishing a hospital in Rochester. Mayo agreed to work in the hospital and soon other local doctors agreed as well. On September 30, 1889, Saint Mary's Hospital was opened by the Sisters. W. W. Mayo, 70 years old, was one of the consulting physicians at the hospital, his two sons began performing surgeries at the hospital. In 1892, W. W. Mayo asked Augustus Stinchfield, whom he considered to be the best doctor in the area, to join the practice. After Stinchfield agreed, W. W. Mayo retired at the age of 73 and the practice continued to grow.
The founders of Mayo Clinic are the Mayo brothers Will and Charlie, Graham, Henry Plummer, Millet and Balfour. These early founders and partners shared in the profits of the private group practice, while other staff hired by the partners were salaried. W. W. Mayo died in 1911 and in 1919 the remaining founders, with the exception of Graham, created the Mayo Properties Association, their private practice became a not-for-profit entity; the founders gave the Clinic furnishings to this newly formed association. The integrated practice model developed by Plummer created a foundation for what would grow into Mayo Clinic; as the private practice grew, it required additional space. In 1914, the partners planned and built a new clinic building. Ellerbe Architects are the architect of record for the 1914 Mayo "Red" building, as well as for the 1922 Mayo Institute of Experimental Medicine, the 1927 Plummer building, the 1954 Mayo Clinic building, the 2002 Gonda building. In 1914, under the guidance of Henry Plummer, the new building allowed the integrated group medical practice concept to be expressed.
Many innovative medical systems and equipment were incorporated into the building design. Plummer worked with Frederic Maass, of Maass & McAndrew, to design and fabricate many of the building systems innovations like the steam sterilization rooms, metal surgical tools and equipment, pneumatic tube system, knee operated sinks, a state of the art HVAC system; the air exchange rate for the building was three minutes. One intriguing innovation was the Rookwood fountain in the main lobby, designed to clean and humidify air from the outside, it heated and humidified air in the winter, provided cool air in the summer. To fight infection, steam sterilizer rooms were designed to hold much of the operating rooms metal surgical furniture and equipment; these and other aseptic procedures helped bring the overall patient infection rates down. Until 1919 the Mayo Clinic was operated as a for-profit medical practice. In 1919, the Mayo brothers donated the clinic property and significant amounts of their wealth to develop the Mayo Properties Association.
The Association became the Mayo Clinic Foundation. The result of this was that the Mayo Clinic became a non-profit medical practice in 1920. In 1928, the Plummer Building was completed wit