Can't Get You Out of My Head
"Can't Get You Out of My Head" is a song recorded by Australian singer Kylie Minogue for her eighth studio album, titled Fever, which she released in 2001. The song was released in Australia by Parlophone as the lead single from the album on 8 September 2001, it was released on 17 September 2001 in the United Kingdom. In the United States, the single was released on 18 February 2002. Jointly written and produced by Cathy Dennis and Rob Davis, "Can't Get You Out of My Head" is a midtempo dance song which combines the genres of synth-pop and nu-disco, which lyrically details its narrator's obsession towards her lover; the song is famous for its "la la la" hook. In addition to acclaim from music critics, "Can't Get You Out of My Head" found commercial success on a large scale, it peaked at number one on the charts of Austria, France, Italy, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, every other European country excluding Finland. It topped the charts of Minogue's native Australia as well as New Zealand. In the United States, the song peaked at number seven on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart, becoming Minogue's biggest hit in the region since "The Loco-Motion".
"Can't Get You Out of My Head" reached number one in 40 countries across the globe. It was certified triple-platinum in Australia, double-platinum in the United Kingdom, gold in the United States, it became Minogue's first single to sell in excess of one million copies in the United Kingdom, where it stands as the 28th best-selling single of the millennium. As of 2013, the song was Minogue's highest selling single and one of the best-selling singles of all time, with worldwide sales exceeding five million; the accompanying music video for the song was directed by Dawn Shadforth, featured Minogue performing various dance routines in different futuristic backdrops. It became notable; the song has been performed by Minogue during all of her concert tours as of 2017, with the exception of the Anti Tour. Following its release, "Can't Get You Out of My Head" ranked on a number of decade-end lists compiled by magazines such as Rolling Stone, The Guardian, NME, it is considered to be Minogue's strongest commercial breakthrough in the United States and is said to have been the reason behind the success of its parent album Fever in the region.
"Can't Get You Out of My Head" is recognized as Minogue's signature song and was a defining point in her musical career. In 2012, the song was re-recorded for inclusion in Minogue's orchestral compilation album, The Abbey Road Sessions. In 2000, Minogue signed to the Parlophone Records label and released her seventh studio album, Light Years; the disco and Europop inspired album was a critical and commercial success, was certified four times-platinum in Minogue's native country Australia for shipment of 280,000 units, platinum in the United Kingdom for shipment of 300,000 units. "Spinning Around" was released as the lead single from the album, it was a commercial success, attaining a platinum certification in Australia for shipment of 70,000 units, a silver certification in the United Kingdom for shipment of 200,000 units. She promoted the album by embarking on the On a Night Like This tour. Minogue premiered "Can't Get You Out of My Head" by performing it during the tour, soon after, discussion regarding the song "quickly set online messageboards alight."
"Can't Get You Out of My Head" was chosen as the lead single from Minogue's eighth studio album, it was released on 8 September 2001 by Parlophone in Australia, while in the United Kingdom and other European countries it was released on 17 September. "Can't Get You Out of My Head" was jointly written and produced by Cathy Dennis and Rob Davis. Dennis and Davis had been brought together by British artist manager Simon Fuller, who wanted the duo to come up with a song for British pop group S Club 7; the song was recorded using Cubase music software. Davis began playing an acoustic guitar and ran a 125 beats per minute drum loop, on which Dennis, herself a singer who had enjoyed chart success in the United States, began singing the line "I just can't get you out of my head" in the key of D minor. After three and a half hours, the demo was recorded and the vocals were laid afterwards. Dennis called their recording setup for the song, "the most primitive set-up you could imagine! Different producers work in different ways.
But it's good to be reminded. A song is about melody and lyrics and being able to take something away in your memory, going to haunt you." She regarded their production as a "very natural and fluid process," saying: "We know how hard we work sometimes to write songs and spend months picking them to pieces, but this was the easiest process, the chemicals were all happy and working together."But after Fuller heard the demo, he felt it was wrong for S Club 7 and rejected it. Davis met with Minogue's A&R executive, Jamie Nelson. After hearing the demo cassette of the song, Nelson booked it for Minogue to record that year. Nelson was impressed by the "vibe" of the song and felt it would please the "danceheads." Although Davis was under the impression that the recording deal would be called off Minogue became enthusiastic to record the song after hearing 20 seconds of the demo. The whole song, including Minogue's vocals, were recorded at Davis's home studio in Surrey; the music, excluding the guitar part, was programmed using Korg Triton workstation via MIDI.
Dennis remarked: "Even though Kylie wasn't the first artist to be offered the song
Better the Devil You Know
"Better the Devil You Know" is a song by Australian singer and songwriter Kylie Minogue, taken from her third studio album Rhythm of Love. The song was produced by Stock Aitken Waterman; the song was released as the album's lead single on 30 April 1990 by Mushroom Records. "Better the Devil You Know" is known as the song that re-invented Minogue with more sex appeal, as her previous albums were presented with her "girl next door" persona. Her music onwards presented a more independent approach; the song's title is referenced as an idiom. Lyrically, the song was said to be about Minogue's leaving of her TV series Neighbours and her relationship with her then-boyfriend, INXS frontman and singer Michael Hutchence; the song was lauded by music critics. They complimented the song itself and felt it was one of Minogue's best, along as a highlight to, not just her studio album but her compilations as well. Commercially, it was successful; the song peaked at number two in four in her native Australia. In other regions, it managed to peak inside the top forty in all the countries it charted in, including France, Germany, New Zealand and Switzerland.
The accompanying music video for "Better the Devil You Know" was directed by Paul Goldman and was filmed in Melbourne, Australia. Though its imagery was criticized for her mature look, the video has been iconic to Minogue's artistry style and imagery beyond the song; the song has been featured in most of Minogue's concert tours. The song has appeared in commercials, including Coca-Cola and the film If Looks Could Kill, was re-recorded in 2012 at the Abbey Road Studios for inclusion on Minogue's orchestral album The Abbey Road Sessions. "Better the Devil You Know" was written by Stock and Waterman, who were the only producers and songwriters of Minogue's two albums after her debut. However, this album featured additional production by some minor producers; when the song was first in the making, Minogue had announced she would be leaving the cast of the TV series Neighbours, to focus on her music career. After this, many fans of her role were saddened by her leaving. Stock, Aitken & Waterman lead member Pete Waterman said he was telling Mike Stock that Kylie had stopped going out with her Neighbours co-star Jason Donovan and said she was dating INXS lead singer Michael Hutchence.
Waterman commenting saying "how it was as they feared their lives were going to be hell as a consequence."The first verse features notes spanning from A-C#m-D-D2-Dm-E-Bm-D. When it reaches the chorus, the song spans from A-F#m-A-D, repeats everyline; when it reaches the bridge, the songs chords span from A-F#m-A-F in each line. According to William Baker, a writer and one of Kylie Minogue's best friends, who wrote the book Kylie: La La La said "The song featured a more mature sound, a more polished production and a vocal, less layered than before." He carried on saying about Minogue's persona as the Queen of Disco and Princess of Pop saying "The track transferred well onto the dance-floor and heralded a long reign for Kylie as the new queen of disco... a pop princess". "Better the Devil You Know" is one of Minogue's most famous singles, since its release it has been lauded by music critics. Chris True from AllMusic highlighted the song as an album standout. Chris True reviewed her debut compilation Greatest Hits and said the song was "absolutely perfect for the unknowing."
Johnny Loftus from AllMusic had highlighted it as an album standout on her compilation Greatest Hits. True highlighted it from her compilation album Greatest Hits 87–97 as an album standout, as well as a highlight from Ultimate Kylie. Tim Sendra, however did not highlight it from her 2012 compilation The Best of Kylie Minogue but said "it's nice to hear 1990's "Better the Devil You Know" next to 2010's "All the Lovers" and realize that Kylie has never been less than a perfect pop star."Jason Shawahn from About.com said along with "What Do I Have To Do" and "Wouldn't Change A Thing". Hunter Felt from PopMatters said along with "Je Ne Sais Pas Pourquoi" and "Shocked" are pure pop moments, he described it "as soulful rave-ups". "Better the Devil You Know" became Minogue's fifth non-consecutive number two single, being blocked by Adamski's "Killer". The song stayed at number two for two consecutive weeks, spent a total of 10 weeks in the chart, it was certified silver by the British Phonographic Industry having sold 329,000 copies.
In Minogue's native Australia, the song debuted at five on the week end of 10 June 1990. The song peaked at number four on the charts and spent a total of thirteen weeks on the chart; the song was certified gold by the Australian Recording Industry Association with sales exceeding 35,000 copies, while in New Zealand, the song was not a great success. The song fell out the next week at forty, it re-entered at number twenty-seven, where it peaked and charted for four weeks. In France, the song debuted at number thirty-eight, after weeks on the chart it peaked at number thirteen for a sole week; the song stayed in the charts for a total of sixteen weeks. In the Netherlands, the song debuted at number ninety-six; the song was successful in that country, peaked at number sixteen on that chart. It spent a total of thirteen weeks on the chart, it was successful on the Belgium Singles Chart, where it debuted at number twenty-eight. The song rose and peaked at number five, becoming one of Minogue's most successful singles in that country.
It stayed in the charts for a total of sixteen weeks. The song was gen
Paul David Hewson, KBE OL, known by his stage name Bono, is an Irish singer-songwriter, venture capitalist and philanthropist. He is best known as the lead vocalist and primary lyricist of rock band U2. Bono was raised in Dublin, Ireland, he attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School where he met his future wife, Alison Stewart, as well as schoolmates with whom he founded U2 in 1976. Bono soon established himself as a passionate frontman for the band through his expressive vocal style and grandiose gestures and songwriting, his lyrics are known for their social and political themes, for their religious imagery inspired by his Christian beliefs. During U2's early years, Bono's lyrics contributed to the group's spiritual tone; as the band matured, his lyrics became inspired more by personal experiences shared with the other members. As a member of U2, Bono has received 22 Grammy Awards and has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Bono is well known for his activism both through U2 and as an individual.
He is active in campaigning for Africa, for which he co-founded DATA, EDUN, the ONE Campaign, Product Red. In pursuit of these causes, he has participated in benefit concerts and met with influential politicians. Bono has been praised for his philanthropic efforts. In 2005, Bono was named one of the Time Persons of the Year. Outside the band, he has recorded with numerous artists, he has collaborated with U2 bandmate the Edge on several projects, including: songs for Roy Orbison and Tina Turner. He is Managing Director and a Managing Partner of the private equity firm Elevation Partners, which has invested in several companies. Bono was born in the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, on 10 May 1960, he was raised in the Northside suburb of Finglas with his brother by their mother, Iris, a member of the Church of Ireland, their father, Brendan Robert "Bob" Hewson, a Roman Catholic. His parents agreed that the first child would be raised Anglican and the second Catholic. Although Bono was the second child, he attended Church of Ireland services with his mother and brother.
He went to the local primary Glasnevin National School. Bono's mother died on 10 September 1974, after suffering a cerebral aneurysm at her father's funeral. Many U2 songs, including "I Will Follow", "Mofo", "Out of Control", "Lemon" and "Tomorrow" focus on the loss of his mother. Bono attended a multi-denominational school in Clontarf. During his childhood and adolescence and his friends were part of a surrealist street gang called "Lypton Village". Bono met one of Guggi, in Lypton Village; the gang had a ritual of nickname-giving. Bono had several names: first, he was "Steinhegvanhuysenolegbangbangbang" just "Huyseman", followed by "Houseman", "Bon Murray", "Bono Vox of O'Connell Street", just "Bono". "Bono Vox" is an alteration of Bonavox, a Latin phrase which translates to "good voice". It is said he was nicknamed "Bono Vox" by his friend Gavin Friday, he disliked the name. Hewson has been known as "Bono" since the late 1970s. Although he uses Bono as his stage name, close family and friends refer to him as Bono, including fellow band members.
After he left school, his father Bob Hewson, told him he could live at home for one year but if he was not able to pay his own way, he would have to leave the house. Bono is married to businesswoman Alison Hewson; the couple have four children: daughters Jordan and Memphis Eve and sons Elijah Bob Patricius Guggi Q and John Abraham. Bono was a close friend to INXS frontman Michael Hutchence. Bono is never seen in public without sunglasses, as he suffers from glaucoma. During a Rolling Stone interview he stated: sensitive eyes to light. If somebody takes my photograph, I will see the flash for the rest of the day. My right eye swells up. I've a blockage there. So it's it's part privacy and part sensitivity. In the late 1980s or early 90s, Bono bought a top-floor duplex apartment in Manhattan's San Remo apartment building from Steve Jobs for $15 million. Jobs never moved in. In 2004, Bono was given an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from the University of Pennsylvania. In May 2010, Bono suffered a spinal injury while preparing for a U2 tour, was taken to a German clinic in Munich for emergency neurosurgery.
The North American leg of the tour was postponed and rescheduled for 2011. Bono was named one of the 17 Irish artists to be proud of by the Irish Post on 9 April 2013. Time magazine ranked him at the 8th place on its list of the "Most Influential Celebrities" in 2013. Bono's work as an activist, due to his Christian beliefs, began in earnest when, inspired by Live Aid, he travelled to Ethiopia to work in a feeding camp with his wife Alison and the charity World Vision, an Evangelical Christian humanitarian aid and advocacy organisation. With regard to Bono's 2013 declarations in interviews published and videotaped of his faith in Jesus Chri
Kylie Ann Minogue known mononymously as Kylie, is an Australian-British singer and actress. She achieved recognition starring in the Australian soap opera Neighbours, where she played tomboy mechanic Charlene Robinson. Appearing in the series for two years, Minogue's character married Scott Robinson in an episode viewed by nearly 20 million people in the United Kingdom, making it one of the most watched Australian TV episodes ever. Since Minogue has been a recording artist and has achieved commercial success and critical acclaim in the entertainment industry. Minogue has been recognised with several honorific nicknames, most notably the "Princess of Pop." She is recognised as the highest-selling Australian artist of all time by the Australian Recording Industry Association. Born and raised in Melbourne, Minogue has worked and lived in the United Kingdom since the 1990s, she released her first studio album Kylie the next year. In 1992, she left PWL and signed with Deconstruction Records where she released her self-titled studio album and Impossible Princess, both of which received positive reviews from critics.
Returning to more mainstream dance-oriented music, Minogue signed to Parlophone and released Light Years. The followup, was a hit in many countries, including the United States; the lead single "Can't Get You Out of My Head" became one of the most successful singles of the 2000s, selling over ten million units. It is recognised as her "signature song" and was named "the catchiest song ever" by Yahoo! Music. Other successful singles by Minogue include "I Should Be So Lucky", "The Loco-Motion", "Especially for You", "Hand on Your Heart", "Better the Devil You Know", "Confide in Me", "Spinning Around", "Love at First Sight", "Slow", "2 Hearts" and "All the Lovers". In 2005, while Minogue was on her Showgirl: The Greatest Hits Tour, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. After treatment, she resumed the tour under the title Showgirl: The Homecoming Tour, which critics viewed as a "triumph". Minogue made her film debut in The Delinquents and portrayed Cammy in Street Fighter. Minogue has appeared in the films Moulin Rouge!, Jack & Diane, Holy Motors.
In 2014, she appeared as a judge on the third series of The Voice Australia. Her other ventures include children's books and fashion; as of 2015, Minogue has had worldwide record sales of more than 80 million. She has mounted several successful and critically acclaimed concert world tours and received a Mo Award for "Australian Entertainer of the Year" for her live performances. Minogue was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2008 New Year Honours for services to Music, she was appointed by the French government as a Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres for her contribution to the enrichment of French culture. Minogue was awarded an honorary Doctor of Health Science degree by Anglia Ruskin University for her work in raising awareness for breast cancer. In November 2011, on the 25th anniversary of the ARIA Music Awards, she was inducted by the Australian Recording Industry Association into the ARIA Hall of Fame. In December 2016, Billboard ranked her as the 18th most successful dance artist of all-time.
Minogue signed a new global recording contract with BMG Rights Management in early 2017. Her latest album Golden was released on 6 April 2018, debuting at No. 1 in the Australia. Kylie was born to Ronald Charles Minogue and Carol Ann Jones in Melbourne, Australia, on 28 May 1968, her father is a fifth generation Australian, has Irish ancestry, while her mother came from Maesteg, Wales. Jones had lived in Wales until age ten when her mother and father and Denis Jones, decided to move to Australia for a better life. Just before Kylie's birth, Ron qualified as an accountant and worked through several jobs while Carol worked as a professional dancer. Kylie's younger brother, Brendan, is a news cameraman in Australia, while her younger sister Dannii Minogue is a singer and television host; the Minogue family moved around various suburbs in Melbourne to sustain their living expenses, which Kylie found unsettling as a child. After the birth of Dannii, the family moved to South Oakleigh; because money was tight, Ron worked as an accountant at a family-owned car company and Carol worked as a tea lady at a local hospital.
After moving to Surrey Hills, Minogue attended Studfield Primary School before attending Camberwell Primary School. She went on to Camberwell High School. During her schooling years, Minogue found it difficult to make friends, she got her HSC with subjects including English. Minogue described herself as being of "average intelligence" and "quite modest" during her high school years. From the age of 11, Kylie appeared in small roles in soap operas including The Sullivans and Skyways. In 1985, she was cast in one of the lead roles in The Henderson Kids. Minogue took time off school to film The Henderson Kids and while Carol was not impressed, Minogue felt that she needed the independence to make it into the entertainment industry. During filming, co-star Nadine Garner labelled Minogue "fragile" after producers yelled at her for forgetting her lines. Minogue was dropped from the second season of the show after producer Alan Hardy felt the need for her character to be "written off". In retrospect, Hardy stated that removing her from the showing "turned out to be the best thing for her".
Interested in following a career in music, Minogue made a demo tape for the producers of weekly music programme Young Talent Time, which featured Dannii as a regular performer
Over the Rainbow
"Over the Rainbow" is a ballad composed by Harold Arlen with lyrics by Yip Harburg. It was written for the movie The Wizard of Oz and was sung by actress Judy Garland in her starring role as Dorothy Gale, it became Garland's signature song. About five minutes into the film, Dorothy sings the song after failing to get Aunt Em, Uncle Henry, the farm hands to listen to her story of an unpleasant incident involving her dog and the town spinster, Miss Gulch. Aunt Em tells her to "find yourself a place where you won't get into any trouble"; this prompts musing to Toto, "Some place where there isn't any trouble. Do you suppose there is such a place, Toto? There must be. It's not a place you can get to by a train. It's far away. Behind the moon, beyond the rain...", at which point she begins singing. The "Over the Rainbow" and Kansas scenes were directed by the uncredited King Vidor; the song was deleted from the film after a preview in San Luis Obispo because MGM chief executive Louis B. Mayer and producer Mervyn LeRoy thought it "slowed down the picture" and sounded "like something for Jeanette MacDonald, not for a little girl singing in a barnyard".
But the song was returned to the film due to the persistence of associate producer Arthur Freed and Roger Edens, Judy Garland's vocal coach and mentor. At the start of the film, part of the song is played by the MGM orchestra over the opening credits. A reprise of it was deleted after being filmed. An additional chorus was to be sung by Dorothy while she was locked in the Witch's castle, helplessly awaiting death as the hourglass ran out. However, although the visual portion of that reprise is lost, the soundtrack of it survives and was included in the 2-CD Deluxe Edition of the film's soundtrack released by Rhino Entertainment in 1995. In that intense rendition, Dorothy cries her way through it, unable to finish, concluding with, "I'm frightened, Auntie Em, I'm frightened!" This phrase was retained in the film and is followed by Aunt Em's brief appearance in the crystal ball, where she is soon replaced by the visage of the witch and taunting Dorothy before turning toward the camera to cackle.
Another instrumental version is played in the underscore in the final scene and over the closing credits. On October 7, 1938, Judy Garland recorded the song on the MGM soundstage with an arrangement by Murray Cutter. In September 1939, a studio recording of the song, not from the film soundtrack, was recorded and released as a single for Decca. In March 1940, that same recording was included on a Decca 78 four-record studio cast album entitled The Wizard of Oz. Although this isn't the version that appeared in the film, Decca continued to release the "cast album" into the 1960s after it was reissued on disc, a 331⁄3-rpm album; the film version of "Over the Rainbow" was unavailable to the public until the soundtrack was released by MGM in 1956 to coincide with the television premiere of The Wizard of Oz. The soundtrack version has been re-released several times over the years, including a deluxe edition by Rhino in 1995. After The Wizard of Oz appeared in 1939, "Over the Rainbow" became Garland's signature song.
She performed it for thirty years. She said she wanted to remain true to the character of Dorothy and to the message of being somewhere over the rainbow. An introductory verse, omitted from the film is sometimes used in theatrical productions of The Wizard of Oz and is included in the piano sheet music from the film, it was used in versions by Tony Bennett, Al Bowlly, Doris Day, Ella Fitzgerald, Frank Sinatra, Sarah Vaughan, Trisha Yearwood, Norma Waterson. Judy Garland sang the introductory verse only once, on a 1948 radio broadcast of The Louella Parsons Show. Lyrics for a second verse appeared in the British edition of the sheet music. In March 2017, "Over the Rainbow" sung by Judy Garland was entered in the National Recording Registry by the Library of Congress as music, "culturally or artistically significant"; the Recording Industry Association of America and the National Endowment for the Arts ranked it number one on their Songs of the Century list. The American Film Institute named it best movie song on the AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs list.
"Over the Rainbow" was given the Towering Song Award by the Songwriters Hall of Fame and was sung at its dinner on June 12, 2014, by Jackie Evancho. In April 2005, the United States Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp honoring Yip Harburg that includes a lyric, it was sent as an audio wakeup call to astronauts about the STS-88 space shuttle mission on Flight Day 4, dedicated to astronaut Robert D. Cabana by his daughter Sara. "Over the Rainbow" reached number 12 on the Billboard Hot Digital Tracks chart during the week of January 31, 2004. In the U. S. it was certified Platinum for 1,000,000 downloads sold. As of October 2014 it had sold over 4.2 million digital copies. In the UK, "Over the Rainbow" was released as a single under the title "Somewhere Over the Rainbow", it entered the UK Official Singles Chart in April 2007 at number 68. In Germany, the single returned to the German Singles Chart in September 2010. After two weeks on that chart, it received gold status for selling 150,000 copies.
In October 2010, it reached number one on the German charts. In 2011 was certified 5x gold for selling over 750,000 copies, it stayed 12 non-consecutive weeks at the top spot and was the most successful single in Germany in 2010. In March 2010 it was the second best-selling download in Germany with digital sales betw
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Music recording certification
Music recording certification is a system of certifying that a music recording has shipped, sold, or streamed a certain number of units. The threshold quantity varies by nation or territory. All countries follow variations of the RIAA certification categories, which are named after precious materials; the threshold required for these awards depends upon the population of the territory where the recording is released. They are awarded only to international releases and are awarded individually for each country where the album is sold. Different sales levels, some 10 times lower than others, may exist for different music media; the original gold and silver record awards were presented to artists by their own record companies to publicize their sales achievements. The first silver disc was awarded by Regal Zonophone to George Formby in December 1937 for sales of 100,000 copies of "The Window Cleaner"; the first gold disc was awarded by RCA Victor to Glenn Miller and His Orchestra in February 1942, celebrating the sale of 1.2 million copies of single "Chattanooga Choo Choo".
Another example of a company award is the gold record awarded to Elvis Presley in 1956 for one million units sold of his single "Don't Be Cruel". The first gold record for an LP was awarded by RCA Victor to Harry Belafonte in 1957 for the album Calypso, the first album to sell over 1,000,000 copies in RCA's reckoning. At the industry level, in 1958 the Recording Industry Association of America introduced its gold record award program for records of any kind, albums or singles, which achieved one million dollars in retail sales; these sales were restricted to U. S.-based record companies and did not include exports to other countries. For albums in 1968, this would mean shipping 250,000 units; the platinum certification was introduced in 1976 for the sale of one million units for albums and two million for singles, with the gold certification redefined to mean sales of 500,000 units for albums and one million for singles. No album was certified platinum prior to this year. For instance, the recording by Van Cliburn of the Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto from 1958 would be awarded a platinum citation, but this would not happen until two decades after its release.
In 1999, the diamond certification was introduced for sales of ten million units. In the late 1980s, the certification thresholds for singles were dropped to match that of albums; the first official designation of a "gold record" by the Recording Industry Association of America was established for singles in 1958, the RIAA trademarked the term "gold record" in the United States. On 14 March 1958, the RIAA certified its first gold record, Perry Como's hit single "Catch a Falling Star"; the Oklahoma! Soundtrack was certified as the first gold album four months later. In 1976, RIAA introduced the platinum certification, first awarded to the Eagles compilation album Their Greatest Hits on 24 February 1976, to Johnnie Taylor's single "Disco Lady" on 22 April 1976; as music sales increased with the introduction of compact discs, the RIAA created the Multi-Platinum award in 1984. Diamond awards, honoring those artists whose sales of singles or albums reached 10,000,000 copies, were introduced in 1999.
In the 20th century, for a part of the first decade of the 21st, it was common for distributors to claim certifications based on their shipments – wholesale to retail outlets – which led to many certifications which outstripped the actual final retail sales figures. This became much less common once the majority of retail sales became paid digital downloads and digital streaming. In most countries certifications no longer apply to physical media but now include sales awards recognizing digital downloads. In June 2006, the RIAA certified the ringtone downloads of songs. Streaming from on-demand services such as Apple Music, Spotify and Napster has been included into existing digital certification in the U. S since 2013 and the U. K. and Germany since 2014. In the U. S. and Germany video streaming services like YouTube, VEVO, Yahoo! Music began to be counted towards the certification, in both cases using the formula of 100 streams being equivalent to one download. Other countries, such as Denmark and Spain, maintain separate awards for digital download singles and streaming.
The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry was founded in 1996, grants the IFPI Platinum Europe Award for album sales over one million within Europe and the Middle East. Multi-platinum Europe Awards are presented for sales in subsequent multiples of one million. Eligibility is unaffected by time, is not restricted to European-based artists; the Independent Music Companies Association was founded in 2000 to grow the independent music sector and promote independent music in the interests of artistic and cultural diversity. IMPALA sales awards were launched in 2005 as the first sales awards recognising that success on a pan-European basis begins well before sales reach one million; the award levels are Silver, Double Silver, Double Gold, Diamond and Double Platinum. Below are certification thresholds for the United States, United Kingdom and France; the numbers in the tables are in terms of "units", where a unit represents one sale or one shipment of a given medium. Certific