What Do I Have to Do
"What Do I Have to Do" is a song performed by Australian singer and songwriter Kylie Minogue taken from her third studio album Rhythm of Love. The song was produced by Stock, Aitken & Waterman; the song was planned to be released after the single "Better the Devil You Know", but instead "Step Back in Time" was released and this was released as the third single on 21 January 1991. The song received positive reviews from most music critics, who thought the song was an instant rave classic; the song peaked at number eleven in her native Australia. The song did however peak at number six in the United Kingdom; the song was a minor hit in France and The Netherlands. The song has been performed on most of Minogue's concert tours, including her Rhythm of Love Tour, Let's Get to It Tour and Intimate and Live Tour; the song has been performed at the Showgirl: The Greatest Hits Tour and the Homecoming Tour, has been most been performed at her Aphrodite World Tour. There are three official promotional mixes of the song.
The early unreleased first version has multilayered vocals. Much of the synth was omitted and the drums and vocals were toned down for the second album version; the third version, the 7" Mix, contains a newer drum track, multilayered vocals in the chorus and relies much less on the synthesizers on the album version. This version of the song contains samples from American comedian Sam Kinison, was used for the music video. "What Do I Have To Do" was planned to be released as the follow-up single to "Better the Devil You Know", but was released as the third single off the album instead, the track was specially remixed for single release. The 1999 biographical book Girl Next Door identified this track as Kylie's favourite to perform live; the single artwork was photographed by Robert Erdmann. "What Do I Have To Do?" received positive reviews from many music critics. While reviewing the album Rhythm of Love, Chris True from Allmusic highlighted the song as an album standout. While reviewing Ultimate Kylie, Mark Edwards from Stylus Magazine gave it a positive remark, saying along with "Shocked", "Give Me Just a Little More Time".
Jason Shawahn from About.com said along with "Better The Devil You Know" and "Wouldn't Change a Thing". He labelled the song as a "pop classic". NME voted the song as the thirtieth best track of 1991. "What Do I Have to Do" debuted at number twenty-seven on the Australian Singles Chart, until rising and peaking at number eleven, staying there for two consecutive weeks. The song debuted at number ninety-nine on the Dutch Top 40, until peaking at number eighty-one for one week; the song debuted and peaked at number fifty on the French Singles Chart. The music video for the song was directed by Dave Hogan. In relation to this video, Minogue is quoted as saying "how many Hollywood stars can you look like in three and a half minutes...". Her younger sister Dannii Minogue appears in the video; the music video begins with clips of the dance scene intercut with Minogue emerging from a swimming pool and her love interest seeing her with another man. The love interest is played by Zane O'Donnell, the same model who would appear in the video for Minogue's subsequent single "Shocked".
Minogue goes out to the balcony overlooking a fairground and the man follows. The video shifts to the man watching Minogue dancing with a female friend in a club; the next scene is Minogue waking up in her lover's bed. After this, Minogue singing on the bed is intercut with scenes of her singing and dancing in front of a white backdrop; the video goes back to her friend having fun in the club as the man stares at her again. She sits on the bench overlooking the scene and takes a glance at a lookalike of her lover next to her. Following this, she gets up to dance, she gets a tattoo of a black panther on her back and shows it to her lover. The video concludes with all of Minogue's performance scenes intercut with her doing the ironing in a Gingham Apron and on a date with her lover; the final shot is of her lover walking across a bridge. While reviewing the DVD version of Greatest Hits for Amazon.co.uk, "Her most outrageous but greatest video moment is where she parodies certain movie stars in the chic video for "What Do I Have to Do?", because of her heavy eye make-up earns herself the title drag-queen Kylie."
These are the formats and track listings of major single releases of "What Do I Have to Do". CD single"What Do I Have to Do" – 3:32 "What Do I Have to Do" – 7:48 "What Do I Have to Do" – 5:087" vinyl single"What Do I Have to Do" – 3:32 "What Do I Have to Do" – 3:4812" vinyl single"What Do I Have to Do" – 7:48 "What Do I Have to Do" – 5:08iTunes Digital EP – Remixes "What Do I Have to Do" "What Do I Have to Do" "What Do I Have to Do" "What Do I Have to Do" "What Do I Have to Do" "What Do I Have to Do" "What Do I Have to Do" "What Do I Have to Do" "What Do I Have to Do" "What Do I Have to Do" "What Do I Have to Do" "What Do I Have to Do" (Movers & Sha
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Vogue (Madonna song)
"Vogue" is a song by American singer Madonna from her second soundtrack album I'm Breathless. It was released as the first single from the album on March 1990, by Sire Records. Madonna was inspired by vogue dancers and choreographers Jose Gutierez Xtravaganza and Luis Xtravaganza from the Harlem "House Ball" community, the origin of the dance form, they introduced "Vogueing" to her at the Sound Factory club in New York City. "Vogue" is an upbeat house song which set trends in dance music in the 1990s with strong influences of 1970s disco within its composition. "Vogue" contains a spoken section, in which the singer name-checks various golden-era Hollywood celebrities. Lyrically, the song is about enjoying oneself on the dance floor no matter who one is, it contains a theme of escapism. Critically, "Vogue" has been met with appreciation since its release. Commercially, the song remains one of Madonna's biggest international hits, topping the charts in over 30 countries, including Australia, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States.
It became the world's best-selling single of 1990. The music video for "Vogue", directed by David Fincher, was shot in black-and-white and takes stylistic inspiration from the 1920s and 1930s. Madonna and her dancers can be seen voguing to different choreographed moves; the video has been ranked as one of the greatest of all time in different critic lists and polls and won three awards at the 1990 MTV Video Music Awards out of a total of nine nominations. Madonna has performed the song on six of her tours, at the 1990 MTV Video Music Awards, at her performance during the halftime show of Super Bowl XLVI; the song has been featured on the soundtrack of The Devil Wears Prada, as well as in "The Power of Madonna" episode of the Fox show Glee. Writers and critics have noted the video and the song's influence in bringing an underground subculture into mainstream popular culture through the postmodern nature of her power and influence, as well as the way in which it followed a new trend in which dance music enjoyed widespread popularity.
In late 1989, after her album Like a Prayer had spawned three US hits—the title track, "Express Yourself" and "Cherish", a top-five European single in "Dear Jessie", its fourth US single, "Oh Father", stalled at number 20 in the charts. Following the success of his remixes of a number of Madonna's earlier songs, including additional production on the "Like A Prayer" single, Warner Music head of dance music Craig Kostich approached Pettibone with the idea of collaborating with Madonna on a new song. In a 2015 Billboard interview, Pettibone recalled that the song was created quickly and cheaply - given a budget of only $5000, he composed and recorded the Philly/Salsoul-influenced backing track in just two weeks, submitted it to Madonna, who wrote the lyrics and came up with the title. Madonna flew to New York and recorded her vocals in a small 24-track basement studio on West 56th St, in a booth, converted from a closet. According to Pettibone, the star was efficient in the studio tracking all the verse and chorus vocals in order, in single takes.
Pettibone proposed the idea of a rap to fill the middle eight, for which there were no lyrics. He suggested namechecking classic film stars, so he and Madonna quickly wrote a list of names and she recorded it immediately. Pettibone came up with the song's vocal coda. After Madonna returned to Los Angeles, Pettibone carried out some further'tweaking' of the track and the finished song was submitted to Warners, just three weeks after Kostich's initial approach. Madonna's "Keep It Together" was intended to be the next single, but after presenting the new song to Warner Bros. executives, all parties involved decided that "Vogue" was too good to be wasted on a B-side and that it should be released as a single. Although the song itself had nothing to do with Madonna's then-upcoming Disney movie Dick Tracy, it was included on the album I'm Breathless, which contained songs from and inspired by the film. Madonna altered some of the suggestive lyrics because the song was connected to the Disney film via soundtrack.
"Vogue" is a house song with disco influence. The song has been noted by Allmusic critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine to have a "deep house groove" and to have a "throbbing beat" by Mark Coleman of Rolling Stone; the backing track features elements of salsa-influenced soul music, including in the form of samples of horns and strings from the 1982 Salsoul Orchestra track "Ooh I Love It", the inclusion of, the subject of a lawsuit. J. Randy Taraborrelli, in his book Madonna: An Intimate Biography, wrote that the song was a "pulsating dance track". According to sheet music published at Musicnotes.com at Alfred Publishing, the song is written in the key of A♭ major, has a tempo of 116 beats per minute, in it, Madonna's vocal range spans from C4 to E♭5. Lyrically, the song has a theme of escapism, talks about how any person can enjoy themself. In the bridge, the song has a spoken rap section, in which Madonna references numerous "golden era" Hollywood celebrities; the lyrics of the song's rap section feature the names of 16 old Hollywood stars from the 1920s to the 1950s.
In order of mention in the lyrics, they are: Greta Garbo, Marilyn Monroe, Marlene Dietrich, Joe DiMaggio, Marlon Brando, Jimmy Dean, Grace Kelly, Jean Harlow, Gene K
The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald is a daily compact newspaper owned by Nine in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia and a national online news brand; the print version of the newspaper is published six days a week. The Sydney Morning Herald includes a variety including the magazines Good Weekend. There are a variety of lift-outs, some of them co-branded with online classified advertising sites: The Guide on Monday Good Food and Domain on Tuesday Money on Wednesday Drive, Shortlist on Friday News Review, Domain, Drive and MyCareer on SaturdayAs of February 2016, average week-day print circulation of the paper was 104,000; the editor is Lisa Davies. Former editors include Darren Goodsir, Judith Whelan, Sean Aylmer, Peter Fray, Meryl Constance, Amanda Wilson, William Curnow, Andrew Garran, Frederick William Ward, Charles Brunsdon Fletcher, Colin Bingham, Max Prisk, John Alexander, Paul McGeough, Alan Revell and Alan Oakley.
The February 2016 average circulation of the paper was 104,000. In December 2013, the Audit Bureau of Circulations's audit on newspaper circulation states a monthly average of 132,000 copies were sold, Monday to Friday, 228,000 copies on Saturday, both having declined 16% in 12 months. According to Roy Morgan Research Readership Surveys, in the twelve months to March 2011, the paper was read 766,000 times on Monday to Friday, read 1,014,000 times on Saturdays; the newspaper's website smh.com.au was rated by third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb as the 17th and 32nd most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the fifth most visited news website in Australia and as the 42nd newspaper's website globally, attracting more than 15 million visitors per month, it is available nationally except in the Northern Territory. Limited copies of the newspaper are available at newsagents in New Zealand and at the High Commission of Australia, London. In 1831 three employees of the now-defunct Sydney Gazette, Ward Stephens, Frederick Stokes and William McGarvie, founded The Sydney Herald.
In 1931 a Centenary Supplement was published. The original four-page weekly had a print run of 750. In 1840, the newspaper began to publish daily. In 1841, an Englishman named John Fairfax purchased the operation, renaming it The Sydney Morning Herald the following year. Fairfax, whose family were to control the newspaper for 150 years, based his editorial policies "upon principles of candour and honour. We have no wish to mislead. During the decade 1890, Donald Murray worked there; the SMH was late to the trend of printing news rather than just advertising on the front page, doing so from 15 April 1944. Of the country's metropolitan dailies, only The West Australian was in making the switch. In 1949, the newspaper launched The Sunday Herald. Four years this was merged with the newly acquired Sun newspaper to create The Sun-Herald, which continues to this day. In 1995, the company launched the newspaper's web edition smh.com.au. The site has since grown to include interactive and multimedia features beyond the content in the print edition.
Around the same time, the organisation moved from Jones Street to new offices at Darling Park and built a new printing press at Chullora, in the city's west. The SMH has since moved with other Sydney Fairfax divisions to a building at Darling Island. In May 2007, Fairfax Media announced it would be moving from a broadsheet format to the smaller compact or tabloid-size, in the footsteps of The Times, for both The Sydney Morning Herald and The Age. Fairfax Media dumped these plans in the year. However, in June 2012, Fairfax Media again announced it planned to shift both broadsheet newspapers to tabloid size, in March 2013. Fairfax announced it would cut staff across the entire group by 1,900 over three years and erect paywalls around the papers' websites; the subscription type is to be a freemium model, limiting readers to a number of free stories per month, with a payment required for further access. The announcement was part of an overall "digital first" strategy of digital or on-line content over printed delivery, to "increase sharing of editorial content", to assist the management's wish for "full integration of its online and mobile platforms".
In July 2013 it was announced that the SMH's news director, Darren Goodsir, would become Editor-in-Chief, replacing Sean Aylmer. On 22 February 2014, the final Saturday edition was produced in broadsheet format with this too converted to compact format on 1 March 2014, ahead of the decommissioning of the printing plant at Chullora in June 2014. According to Irial Glynn, the newspaper's editorial stance is centrist, it is seen as the most centrist among the three major Australian non-tabloids. In 2004, the newspaper's editorial page stated: "market libertarianism and social liberalism" were the two "broad themes" that guided the Herald's editorial stance. During the 1999 referendum on whether Australia should become a republic, the Herald supported a "yes" vote; the newspaper did not endorse the Labor Party for federal office in the first six decades of Federation, but did endorse the party in 1961, 1984, 1987. During the 2004 Australian federal election, the Herald annou
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per
"Cowboy Style" is a song recorded by Australian recording artist and songwriter Kylie Minogue, for her sixth studio album Impossible Princess. The song was released as the final single on 5 October 1998 through Mushroom. Minogue co-wrote the track with Dave Seaman while Brothers in Rhythm produced it. Backed by guitars and drum instruments, "Cowboy Style" is a Celtic pop track in which Minogue sings about her relationship with Stephane Sednaoui. Critical response to "Cowboy Style" was positive. Released in Australia and New Zealand, the song charted at number thirty-nine on the Australian Singles Chart. Minogue promoted "Cowboy Style" by performing it on her Intimate and Live Tour from June to August 1998. One of the live performances, directed by Michael Williams, was used as the music video, she performed it on her Fever Tour and Showgirl: The Homecoming Tour. The song was included in the track list of Minogue's compilation albums Confide in Me and Confide in Me: The Irresistible Kylie. "Cowboy Style" was written by Minogue, Steve Anderson and Dave Seaman, was one of the first songs composed for the album.
Minogue wrote the song prior to being in a relationship with French photographer Stephane Sednaoui with different lyrical context, but it was completed while she was dating. Of the song, Minogue said "the way you start a new relationship with someone, they can bring out so many emotions within you and makes you question yourself a bit more." The title "Cowboy Style" comes from when she first met Sednaoui in person, where she recalled him looking "unusual" and felt like he was "the new cowboy coming into town". Following the weak commercial performance of her previous single "Breathe", Minogue left Deconstruction Records. While performing on her Intimate and Live concert tour in Australia, Minogue confirmed that she would release "Cowboy Style" as the fourth single in Australia and New Zealand by Mushroom Records; the single's artwork was shot during the Intimate and Live tour by Simon Emmert, which featured Minogue with a leather bra and a cowboy hat on. Idolator listed the artwork as one of "Kylie's Best Single Covers", saying "Leather bra and a cowboy hat.
Enough said." An unedited shot of the cover was featured in her Kylie photo album book, released in August 1999. "Cowboy Style" was recorded at Real World Studios, Sarm West and DMC Studios in London and was mixed by Alan Bremner at Real World. Instrumentally, Greg Bones and Anderson played the guitar, Johnnie Hardie played the fiddle, all other instrumentals played by Anderson. "Cowboy Style" is a Celtic pop song that lasts a duration of forty-four seconds. Sal Cinquemani from Slant Magazine commented that "Cowboy Style features a tribal percussion break and a string quartet that sounds more Celtic than country." Online music critic Adrian Denning compared the song to the work of Icelandic recording artist and songwriter Björk. Nick Levine from Digital Spy said "Oh, in'Cowboy Style', it has a track that manages to sound a little bit Celtic and a little bit Middle Eastern. Pete Waterman must have wept." "Cowboy Style" received favorable reviews from music critics. Chris True from Allmusic highlighted the song.
Michael R. Smith from The Daily Vault compared the song in retrospect to American singer Madonna's song "Don't Tell Me", writing. It's the one track that left me wanting more of the same - extended remixes, at the least." A reviewer from Who Magazine was positive towards the track, stating "An Eastern feel under a free-flowing melody. Classic poppy Kyles." C. Adams from Herald Sun commended the track by saying "Cowboy Style manages to border from country music and remain cool." Gary James from Entertainment Focus praised all her written tracks and selected "Say Hey", "Too Far", "Cowboy Style" and "Limbo" for her being able to portray an "sense of claustrophobia and uncertainty."John Mangan from The Age was positive in his review, saying the song is a "funky hoe-down sound". A reviewer from the publication The Backlot listed the song at number eleven on their "Kylie Minogue's Best Songs, In Honor of Her Birthday" and said "This stylistic mishmash is a hard-driving, sexualized quest for freedom.
How do you deal with the fact that Kylie sings, "I am frightened, I'm aroused, I'm enlightened to the now' and sells it?" Online critic Adrian Denning from his website Adriandenning.co.uk said "Too Far flows well into the impressive, eastern flavored Cowboy Style. Either one of these two songs would have made better singles than the ones chosen, by the way." Sputnikmusic highlighted the track as an album stand out, commenting "Cowboy Style a funky western jam that might get country fans to do a line dance, this is the mother to Madonna's "Don't Tell Me". Kylie's creativity to mix her style with a genre that can be a put off to the masses is a surprise and one of the albums highlights." "Cowboy Style" entered at thirty-nine on 18 October 1998. It is the lowest charting single from the Impossible Princess album; the music video for "Cowboy Style" was directed by Michael Williams and taped at a sound check at one of the Intimate and Live shows in June 1998. The music video was dubbed with the radio edit, it was featured on the CD single.
The music video was released on the DVD version of Greatest Hits 87–99 in June 2003. Minogue performed "Cowboy Style" on the Australian morning TV series. Minogue included the song on
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu