In Jainism, a tirthankara is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma. The word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha, a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths, the saṃsāra. According to Jains, a tirthankara is a rare individual who has conquered the saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth, on their own, made a path for others to follow. After understanding the true nature of the Self or soul, the Tīrthaṅkara attains Kevala Jnana, the first Tirthankara refounds Jainism. Tirthankara provides a bridge for others to follow the new teacher from saṃsāra to moksha; the tirthankara Māllīnātha is believed to be a woman named Malli bai by Svetambara Jains while the Digambara sect believes all 24 tirthankara to be men including Māllīnātha. Digambara tradition believes a woman can reach to the 16th heaven and can attain liberation only being reborn as a man. In Jain cosmology, the wheel of time is divided in two halves, Utsarpiṇī or ascending time cycle and avasarpiṇī, the descending time cycle.
In each half of the cosmic time cycle twenty-four tirthankaras grace this part of the universe. There have been an infinite number of tirthankaras in the past time periods; the first tirthankara in this present time cycle was Rishabhanatha, credited for formulating and organising humans to live in a society harmoniously. The 24th and last tirthankara of present half-cycle was Mahavira. History records the existence of Mahavira and his predecessor, the twenty-third tirthankara. A tirthankara organises the sangha, a fourfold order of male and female monastics, srāvakas and śrāvikās; the tirthankara's teachings form the basis for the Jain canons. The inner knowledge of tirthankara is believed to be perfect and identical in every respect and their teachings do not contradict one another. However, the degree of elaboration varies according to the spiritual advancement and purity of the society during their period of leadership; the higher the spiritual advancement and purity of mind of the society, the lower the elaboration required.
While tirthankaras are documented and revered by Jains, their grace is said to be available to all living beings, regardless of religious orientation. Tīrthaṅkaras are arihants. An Arihant is called Jina, one who has conquered inner enemies such as anger, attachment and greed, they dwell within the realm of their Soul, are free of kashayas, inner passions, personal desires. As a result of this, unlimited siddhis, or spiritual powers, are available to them – which they use for the spiritual elevation of living beings. Through darśana, divine vision, deshna, divine speech, they help others in attaining kevalajñana, moksha to anyone seeking it sincerely; the word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha which means a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths. Tirthankaras are variously called "Teaching Gods", "Ford-Makers", "Crossing Makers" and "Makers of the River-Crossing. Jain texts propound that a special type of karma, the tīrthaṅkara nama-karma, raises a soul to the supreme status of a Tīrthaṅkara.
Tattvartha Sutra, a major Jain text, list down sixteen observances which lead to the bandha of this karma: Purity of right faith Reverence Observance of vows and supplementary vows without transgressions Ceaseless pursuit of knowledge Perpetual fear of the cycle of existence Giving gifts Practising austerities according to one's capacity Removal of obstacles that threaten the equanimity of ascetics Serving the meritorious by warding off evil or suffering Devotion to omniscient lords, chief preceptors and the scriptures Practice of the six essential daily duties Propagation of the teachings of the omniscient Fervent affection for one's brethren following the same path. Five auspicious events called, Pañca kalyāṇaka marks the life of every tirthankara: Gārbha kalyāṇaka: When ātman of a tirthankara comes into his mother's womb. Janma kalyāṇaka: Birth of a tirthankara. Indra performs a ceremonial bath on tirthankara on Mount Meru. Tapa kalyāṇaka: When a tirthankara renounces all worldly possessions and become an ascetic.
Jñāna kalyāṇaka: The event when a tirthankara attains kevalajñāna. A samavasarana is erected from where he restores sangha after that. Nirvāṇa kalyāṇaka: When a tirthankara leaves his mortal body, it is known as nirvana, it is followed by moksha. Their souls dwells in Siddhashila after that. After attaining kevalajñāna, a tirthankara preaches the path to liberation in the samavasarana. According to Jain texts, the heavenly pavilion is erected by devas where devas and animals assemble to hear the tirthankara. A tirthankara's speech is heard by all animals in their own language, it is believed. Jainism postulates that time has no end, it moves like the wheel of a cart. The wheel of time is divided in two halves, Utsarpiṇī and Avasarpiṇī. 24 tirthankaras are born in each half of this cycle. In Jain tradition the tirthankaras were royal in their final lives, Jain texts record details of their previous lives, their clan and families are among those recorded in early, or legendary, Hindu history. Jain canons state that Rishabhanatha, the fir
Girnar Jain temples
The group temples of Jainism are situated on the Mount Girnar situated near Junagadh in Junagadh district, India. There temples are sacred to the Svetambara branches of Jainism. According to Jain religious beliefs, the 22nd Tirthankara Neminath became an ascetic after he saw the slaughter of animals for a feast on his wedding, he came to Mount Girnar to attain salvation. He Moksha on the Mount Girnar, his bride-to-be Rajulmati renounced and became a nun. Girnar was anciently called Raivata or Ujjayanta, sacred amongst the Jains to Neminath, the 22nd Tirthankar, a place of pilgrimage before 250 BCE. Situated on the first plateau of Mount Girnar at the height of about 3800 steps, at an altitude of 2370 ft above Junagadh, still some 600 ft below the first summit of Girnar, there are Jain temples with marvelous carvings in marble; some 16 Jain temples here form a sort of fort on the ledge at the top of the great cliff. These temples are along the west face of the hill, are all enclosed; the Neminath temple is the largest temple of the group standing in a quadrangular court 195 x 130 feet.
The temple was rebuilt by Sajjana, the governor of Saurashtra appointed by Jayasimha Siddharaja, in 1129 CE. There is an inscription on one of the pillars of the mandapa stating that it was repaired in 1278 CE, it consists of two rangamandapa halls with two porches and a central shrine, which contains a large black image of Neminath sitting in the lotus position holding a conch in his palm. The principal hall in front of the central shrine measures across from door to door inside 41' 7" x 44' 7" from the shrine door to that leading out at the west end; the roof is supported by 22 square columns of granite coated with white lime while the floor is of tessellated marble. Round the central shrine is a circumambulatory passage with many images in white marble including that of a Ganesha and a Chovishi or slab of the twenty four Tirthankara. Between the outer and inner halls are two shrines; the outer hall measures 38' x 21' 3". The outer hall has two small raised platforms paved with slabs of yellow stone, covered with representations of feet in pairs called padukas, which represent the 2452 feet of the Gandharas, first disciples of Tirthankaras.
On the west of this is a closed entrance with a porch overhanging the perpendicular scarp of the hill. On two of the pillars of the mandapa are inscriptions dated 1275, 1281, 1278 — dates of restoration; the enclosure in which these rangamandapas and the central shrine are situated, is nearly surrounded inside by 70 little cells, each enshrining a marble image on a bench, with a covered passage running round in front of them lighted by a perforated stone screen. The principal entrance was on the east side of the court. On south side, there is a passage leading with granite pillars in lines. Opposite the entrance is a recess containing two large black images. Behind these figures is a room from, a descent into a cave, with a large white marble image, concealed, it has a slight hollow in the shoulder, said to be caused by water dropping from the ear, whence it was called Amijhara, "nectar drop". There are few shrines in the court dedicated to Jain monks. In the North porch are inscriptions which state that in Samwat 1215 certain Thakurs completed the shrine, built the Temple of Ambika.
There is a small temple of Adinath behind the Neminath temple facing west, built by Jagmal Gordhan of Porwad family in VS 1848 under guidance of Jinendra Suri. There are three temples to the left of the passsage from the north porch of the Neminath temple. Of them, the temple on the south contains a colossal image of Adinatha, the first Tirthankar like that at Palitana temples; the image is in standing meditating position On the throne of this image is a slab of yellow stone carved in 1442, with figures of the 24 Tirthankars. On the north, opposite the Adabadji temple, there is Panchabai's or Panchmeru temple, built in VS 1859, it contains spires each enshrining quadruple images. West of Panchmeru temple, there is a large temple; the temples is called Merakavasahi or Merakavashi due to false identification. Madhusudan Dhaky noted that the Merakavasahi was a small shrine somewhere near east gate of Neminatha temple while the current temple is large one and outside the north gate of the Neminatha temple.
Based on its architecture, Dhaky dates the temple to 15th century and notes that it is mentioned as Kharataravasahi built or restored by Bhansali Narpal Sanghavi in the old itineraries of Jain monks. The temple is depicted in the Shatrunjaya-Giranar Patta dated 1451 CE in Ranakpur temple so it must have built before it; the temple may have been built as early as 1438 CE. Dhaky believes that the temple may have been built on the site of the Satyapuravatara Mahavira's temple built by Vastupala. According to an anecdote said by modern Jain writers, the minister of Chaulukya king Siddharaja Jayasimha, built the Neminatha temple using the state treasury; when he collected the funds to return as a compensation, the king declined to accept it so the funds were used to built the temple. Dhaky concludes that the anecdote is false. Sahastraphana Parshwanatha, the image, consecrated in 1803 CE by Vijayajinendra Suri, is the central deity in the temple; the temple housed the golden image of Mahavira and brass images of Shanti
Mahaveer Janma Kalyanak, is one of the most important religious festivals for Jains. It celebrates the birth of Mahaveer, the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankara of Avasarpiṇī; as per the Gregorian calendar, the holiday occurs either in April. Most modern historians consider Kundagram as Mahaveer's birthplace. According to Jain texts, Mahaveer was born on the thirteenth day of the bright half of the moon in the month of Chaitra in the year 599 BCE. Mahaveer was born in a democratic kingdom, where the king was chosen by votes. Vaishali was its capital. Mahaveer was named'Vardhamana', which means "One who grows", because of the increased prosperity in the kingdom at the time of his birth. In Vasokund, Mahaveer is much revered by the villagers. A place called Ahalya bhumi has not been ploughed for hundreds of years by the family that owns it, as it is considered to be the birthplace of Mahaveer. Mahaveer was born into Ikshvaku dynasty as the son of King Siddhartha of Kundagrama and Queen Trishala. During her pregnancy, Trishala was believed to have had a number of auspicious dreams, all signifying the coming of a great soul.
Digambara sect of Jainism holds that the mother saw sixteen dreams which were interpreted by the King Siddhartha. According to the Svetambara sect, the total number of auspicious dreams is fourteen, it is said that when Queen Trishala gave birth to Mahaveer, the head of heavenly beings performed a ritual called abhisheka on Sumeru Parvat, this being the second of five auspicious events, said to occur in the life of all Tirthankaras. The idol of Mahaveer is carried out in a procession called rath yatra. On the way stavans are recited. Statues of Mahaveer are given a ceremonial anointment called the abhisheka. During the day, most members of the Jain community engage in some sort of charitable act, prayers and vratas. Many devotees visit temples dedicated to Mahaveer to offer prayers. Lectures by monks and nuns are held in temples to preach the path of virtue. Donations are collected in order to promote charitable missions like saving cows from slaughter or helping to feed poor people. Ancient Jain temples across India see an high volume of practitioners come to pay their respects and join in the celebrations.
Ahimsa rallies preaching the Mahaveer's message of Ahiṃsā are taken out on this day. Jain, Kailash Chand, Lord Mahāvīra and His Times, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8 Jain, Uttarapurāṇa of Āchārya Guṇabhadra, Bhartiya Jnanpith, ISBN 978-81-263-1738-7 Jalaj, Dr. Jaykumar, The Basic Thought of Bhagavan Mahavir, Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay, ISBN 978-81-88769-41-4 History of Jainism Lord Mahavira Sayings The Significance of Mahavir Jayanti
The Palitana temples of Jainism are located on Shatrunjaya hill by the city of Palitana in Bhavnagar district, India. The city of the same name, known as Padliptapur, has been dubbed "City of Temples". Shatrunjaya means a "place of victory against inner enemies" or "which conquers inner enemies"; this site on Shatrunjaya hill is considered sacred by Svetambara Jains. It is said. There are 863 marble-carved temples on the hills spread in nine clusters, some being vast temple complexes, while most small in size; the main temple is dedicated to the first Tirthankara. The main temple is reached by stepping up 3500 steps. Along with Shikharji in the state of Jharkhand, the two sites are considered the holiest of all pilgrimage places by the Jain community. Jains believe that a visit to this group of temples is essential as a once-in-a-lifetime chance to achieve nirvana or salvation. Of note, Digambara Jains have only one temple here on the hills. Hingraj Ambikadevi is considered as the presiding deity of the hill, a Hindu Goddess worshiped in Baluchistan province of Pakistan, Sindh province and Saurashtra provinces of Gujarat state, near by regions.
On the summit, there is a shrine of a Muslim saint by name Angar Pir, reported to have protected the temples during Muslim invasions in early 14th century. As the temple-city was built to be an abode for the divine, no one is allowed to stay overnight, including the priests. Shatrunjaya means a "place of victory against inner enemies" or "which conquers inner enemies". There are 108 names of Shatrunjaya but only some of them are in common use; the Gulf of Cambay is to the south of the Shatrunjaya Hills, Bhavnagar city is to the north of the hills with the Shetrunji River flowing in between. The temple complex on the hills is located 56 kilometres southwest of Bhavnagar. Palitana, a town in the foothill is 2 kilometres away; the Palitana town is at an altitude of only 66 m. The Palitana Temples are situated at the saddle linking them; the summit is situated at an elevation of 7,288 feet. Reaching it involves climbing over 3,750 stone steps; the temples remain closed for the devotees during the monsoon season.
PathsIt takes two hours to make the 3.5 kilometres climb. There are multiple routes; the shortest one goes around the outer walls of the temples on the hilltop and passes Angar Pir, the shrine of a Muslim saint, reported to have protected the temples during Muslim invasions. A second route goes around the foot of the mountain. Elderly pilgrims who cannot climb the stairs are carried on a doli carried by porters and charged based on the pilgrim's weight. A large number of pilgrims take part in a third route in the month of Phalguna, which passes five sacred temple sites over a distance of 45 kilometres. GroundsFrom the top of Shatrunjaya are views of the Shetrunji river and the rugged, drought-affected landscape; the narrow streets or lanes in the temple complex are similar to the ones found in the medieval cities of Europe. The high walls surrounding the temples give the appearance of a fort. Important features include the Ashok tree, the Chaitra tree, four-faced idol of Mahavir, Hingraj Ambikadevi, Kumarpal and Samprati.
According to the Shatrunjaya Mahatmya, the first Tirthankara Rishabha sanctified the hill where he delivered his first sermon. It was his grandson Pundarika, grandson of Rishabha who attained Nirvana at Shatrunjay, hence the hill was known as "Pundarikgiri". There exists a marble image of Pundaraksvami consecrated in V. S. 1064 by Shersthi Ammeyaka to commemorate the sallekhana of a muni belonging to the Vidhyadhara Kula. Bharata Chakravartin, the father of Pundarik and half-brother of Bahubali came to Shatrunjaya many times, he is credited with building a temple here in honour of his father Rishabha. Legendarily it is associated with many other Tirthankaras.:249The Palitana temples were built over a period of 900 years starting in the 11th century. Kumarpal Solanki, a great Jain patron built the earliest temples, it is said that sculptors' skills and capacity to carve with abrasive cords the intricate designs was paid on the basis of the marble dust that they had collected every evening after their hard labour.
They were destroyed by Turkish Muslims invaders in 1311 AD, when the saint Jinaprabhasuri, 50 years old, presided over the temples. Two years the rebuilding began. While some temple building activity took place under Samara Shah, it was only two centuries that it picked up momentum, when in 1593, Hiravijayasuri organized a major pilgrimage to this location to attend the consecration ceremony of the temple built for Rishabha by Tej Pal Soni, a merchant. Following this, there was proliferation of temples here. Most of the temples which are now present date to the 16th century. In 1656, Shah Jahan's son Murad Baksh granted Palitana villages to the prominent Jain merchant Shantidas Jhaveri, a Svetambara Jain, in 1656, subsequently when all taxes were exempted that the temple town further prospered, it was brought under the control of the Anandji Kalyanji Trust in 1730 to manage not only Palitana temples but many other temples of Svetambara Jains, since the Mughal period. History makes a mention that Lunia Seth Tilokchand, a merchant from Ajmer led a large contingent of pilgrims to
Gommateshwara Statue ಗೊಮ್ಮಟೇಶ್ವರ is a 57-foot high monolithic statue located on Vindyagiri at Shravanbelagola in the Indian state of Karnataka. Vindyagiri Hill is one of the two hills in Shravanabelagola; the Gommateshwara statue is dedicated to the Jain figure Bahubali. It was built around 983 A. D. and is one of the largest free standing statues in the world. The construction of the statue was commissioned by the Ganga dynasty minister and commander, Chavundaraya. Neighboring areas have Jain temples known as several images of the Tirthankaras. Chandragiri is dedicated to the Jain figure Bharat, the brother of Bahubali and the son of the first tirthankara Adinatha. One can have a beautiful view of the surrounding areas from the top of the hill. An event known as Mahamastakabhisheka attracts devotees from all over the world; the Mahamastakabhisheka festival is held once in 12 years, when the Gommateshwara statue is anointed with milk, ghee, sugarcane juice etc. from the top of the statue Heinrich Zimmer attributed this anointment as the reason for the statue's freshness.
The next abhisheka will be in 2030. In 2007, the statue was voted as the first of Seven Wonders of India in a Times of India poll; the statue depicts the prolonged meditation of Bahubali. The motionless contemplation in kayotsarga posture led to the growth of climbing vines around his legs; the image of Gommateshwara has large ears. The eyes are open as, his facial features are chiseled with a faint touch of a smile at the corner of the lips that embodies a calm inner peace and vitality. His shoulders are broad, the arms stretch straight down and the figure has no support from the thigh upwards. There is an anthill in the background. From this anthill, emerge a snake and a creeper which twine around both the legs and arms culminating as a cluster of flowers and berries at the upper portion of the arms; the entire figure stands on an open lotus signifying the totality attained in installing this unique statue. On either side of Gommateshwara stand two tall and majestic chauri bearers in the service of the Lord.
One of them is a yaksh and the other one is a yakshini. These richly beautifully carved figures complement the main figure. Carved on the rear side of the anthill is a trough for collecting water and other ritual ingredients used for the sacred bath of the statue. In the introduction to his English translation of the Gommatsāra, J. L. Jaini writes: The event has been attended by multiple political personalities including Krishna-Rajendra Wodeyar in 1910, Narendra Modi and Ramnath Kovind in 2018. Gommatagiri Chandragupta basadi Bawangaja Jaini, Jagmandar-lāl. Gommatsara Jiva-kanda. Archived from the original on 2006. Rice, B. Lewis. Inscriptions at Sravana Belgola: a chief seat of the Jains. Bangalore: Mysore Govt. Central Press. Zimmer, Heinrich. Campbell, Joseph, ed. Philosophies Of India. London, E. C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6
Jain cosmology is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe and its constituents according to Jainism. Jain cosmology considers the universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having neither beginning nor end. Jain texts describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist; this Universe, according to Jainism, is broad at the top, narrow at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom. According to Jains, the Universe is made up of six simple and eternal substances called dravya which are broadly categorized under Jiva and Ajiva as follows: Jīva Jīva i.e. Souls – Jīva exists as a reality, having a separate existence from the body that houses it, it is characterised by upayoga. Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer to the disappearing of one state of soul and appearing of another state, these being the modes of the soul. Ajīva Pudgala – Matter is classified as solid, gaseous, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter i.e. ultimate particles.
Paramāṇu or ultimate particle is the basic building block of all matter. The Paramāṇu and Pudgala are indestructible. Matter combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. According to Jainism, it destroyed. Dharma-dravya and Adharma-dravya – Dharmastikāya and Adharmastikāya are distinctly peculiar to Jaina system of thought depicting the principle of Motion and Rest, they are said to pervade the entire universe. Dharma and Adharma are by itself not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without Dharmastikāya motion is not possible and without Adharmastikāya rest is not possible in the universe. Ākāśa – Space is a substance that accommodates the living souls, the matter, the principle of motion, the principle of rest and time. It is all-pervading and made of infinite space-points. Kāla – Kāla is an eternal substance according to Jainism and all activities, changes or modifications can be achieved only through the progress of time. According to the Jain text, Dravyasaṃgraha: Conventional time is perceived by the senses through the transformations and modifications of substances.
Real time, however, is the cause of imperceptible, minute changes that go on incessantly in all substances. The Jain doctrine postulates an eternal and ever-existing world which works on universal natural laws; the existence of a creator deity is overwhelmingly opposed in the Jain doctrine. Mahāpurāṇa, a Jain text authored by Ācārya Jinasena is famous for this quote: According to Jains, the universe has a firm and an unalterable shape, measured in the Jain texts by means of a unit called Rajju, supposed to be large; the Digambara sect of Jainism postulates that the universe is fourteen Rajju high and extends seven Rajjus from north to south. Its breadth is seven Rajjus at the bottom and decreases till the middle where it is one Rajju; the width increases till it is five Rajju and again decreases till it is one Rajju. The apex of the universe is one Rajju wide and eight Rajju high; the total space of the world is thus 343 cubic Rajju. The svetambara view differs and postulates that there is constant increase and decrease in the breadth and the space is 239 cubic Rajju.
Apart from the apex, the abode of liberated beings, the universe is divided into three parts. The world is surrounded by three atmospheres: dense-wind and thin-wind, it is surrounded by infinitely large non-world, empty. The whole world is said to be filled with living beings. In all the three parts, there is the existence of small living beings called nigoda. Nigoda are of two types: Itara-nigoda. Nitya-nigoda are those which will reborn as nigoda throughout eternity where as Itara-nigoda will be reborn as other beings too; the mobile region of universe is one Rajju broad and fourteen Rajju high. Within this, there are animals and plants everywhere where as Human beings are restricted to 2.5 continents of middle world. The beings inhabiting lower world are called Naraki. Deva live in top three realms of lower world. Living beings are divided in fourteen classes: 1. Fine beings with one sense. 2. Crude beings with one sense. 3. Beings with two sense. 4. Beings with three sense. 5. Beings with four sense. 6.
Beings with five sense without mind. 7. Beings with five sense with a mind; these can be developed which makes it a total of fourteen. Human beings are the only ones which can attain salvation; the early Jains contemplated the nature of the earth and universe and developed a detailed hypothesis on the various aspects of astronomy and cosmology. According to the Jain texts, the universe is divided into 3 parts: Urdhva Loka – the realms of the gods or heavens Madhya Loka – the realms of the humans and plants Adho Loka – the realms of the hellish beings or the infernal regionsThe following Upanga āgamas describe the Jain cosmology and geography in a great detail: Sūryaprajñapti – Treatise on Sun Jambūdvīpaprajñapti - Treatise on the island of Roseapple tree.
The flag of Jainism has five colours: red, white and black. These five colours represent the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi, it represents the five main vows, which are small as well as great. These five colours represent the "Pañca-Parameṣṭhi" and the five vows, small as well as great: White - represents the arihants, souls who have conquered all passions and have attained omniscience and eternal bliss through self-realization, it denotes peace or ahimsa. Red - represents souls that have attained salvation and truth, it denotes truthfulness. Yellow - represents the acharya the Masters of Adepts; the colour stands for non-stealing. Green - represents those who teach scriptures to monks, it signifies chastity. Dark blue or black - represents monks and nuns, it signifies non-possession. It is believed that the complexion of all the 24 Tirthankaras was of one of these 5 colours. For instance and Pushpadanta were white and Neminatha were blue or dark colour and Vasupujya were red, Mallinatha and Pārśva were green, while the remaining were golden or yellowish.
The swastika in the centre of the flag represents the four states of existence of soul. The four stages may be: heaven-beings or deities human beings animal/birds/insects/plants hell beingsIt represents that the soul can embody any of these forms, owing to karma, which may escalate it to higher-level forms such as heavenly beings, or degrade it to lower-level forms such as lesser animals or hell beings; the purpose of soul is to liberate itself from these four stages and be arihants or Siddha eventually. The three dots above the swastika represent the Ratnatraya of Jainism: Samyak Darshana - "Right Faith" or "Right Vision" Samyak Gyana - "Right Knowledge" Samyak Charita - "Right Conduct"These are part of the Jainist paradigm by which jīva seek to rid themselves of karma and the cycle of rebirth, saṃsāra, which it develops; the curve above the three dots denotes Siddhashila, a place in the highest realms of Universe, composed of pure energy. It is above earth, or heaven, it is the place where souls that have attained salvation, for instance and Siddhas reside eternally with supreme bliss.
Respect for Jain Flag is respect for Pañca-Parameṣṭhi. According to Jainism, respect for Pañca-Parameṣṭhi abiding the Ratnatraya destroys the sorrow of the four states of existence and guides one to the sweet home of infinite bliss. Jain symbols Jain rituals