Pali or Magadhan is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is studied because it is the language of the Pāli Canon or Tipiṭaka, is the sacred language of some religious texts of Hinduism and all texts of Theravāda Buddhism; the earliest archaeological evidence of the existence of canonical Pali comes from Pyu city-states inscriptions found in Burma dated to the mid 5th to mid 6th century CE. The word Pali is used as a name for the language of the Theravada canon. According to the Pali Text Society's Dictionary, the word seems to have its origins in commentarial traditions, wherein the Pāli was distinguished from the commentary or vernacular translation that followed it in the manuscript; as such, the name of the language has caused some debate among scholars of all ages. Both the long ā and retroflex ḷ are seen in Pāḷi. R. C. Childers translates the word as "series" and states that the language "bears the epithet in consequence of the perfection of its grammatical structure".
In the 19th century, the British Orientalist Robert Caesar Childers argued that the true or geographical name of the Pali language was Magadhi Prakrit, that because pāḷi means "line, series", the early Buddhists extended the meaning of the term to mean "a series of books", so pāḷibhāsā means "language of the texts". However, modern scholarship has regarded Pali as a mix of several Prakrit languages from around the 3rd century BCE, combined together and Sanskritized; the closest artifacts to Pali that have been found in India are Edicts of Ashoka found at Gujarat, in the west of India, leading some scholars to associate Pali with this region of western India. There is persistent confusion as to the relation of Pāḷi to the vernacular spoken in the ancient kingdom of Magadha, located around modern-day Bihār. Pali, as a Middle Indo-Aryan language, is different from Sanskrit more with regard to its dialectal base than the time of its origin. A number of its morphological and lexical features show that it is not a direct continuation of Ṛgvedic Vedic Sanskrit.
Instead it descends from one or more dialects that were, despite many similarities, different from Ṛgvedic. However, this view is not shared by all scholars. Some, like A. C. Woolner, believe that Pali is derived from Vedic Sanskrit, but not from Classical Sanskrit. Paiśācī is a unattested literary language of classical India, mentioned in Prakrit and Sanskrit grammars of antiquity, it is found grouped with the Prakrit languages, with which it shares some linguistic similarities, but was not considered a spoken language by the early grammarians because it was understood to have been purely a literary language. In works of Sanskrit poetics such as Daṇḍin's Kavyadarsha, it is known by the name of Bhūtabhāṣā, an epithet which can be interpreted as'dead language', or bhuta means past and bhasha means language i.e.'a language spoken in the past'. Evidence which lends support to this interpretation is that literature in Paiśācī is fragmentary and rare but may once have been common; the 13th-century Tibetan historian Buton Rinchen Drub wrote that the early Buddhist schools were separated by choice of sacred language: the Mahāsāṃghikas used Prākrit, the Sarvāstivādins used Sanskrit, the Sthaviravādins used Paiśācī, the Saṃmitīya used Apabhraṃśa.
This observation has lead some scholars to theorize connections between Pali and Paiśācī. Many Theravada sources refer to the Pali language as "Magadhan" or the "language of Magadha"; this identification first appears in the commentaries, may have been an attempt by Buddhists to associate themselves more with the Maurya Empire. But the four most important places in Buddha's life are all outside of it, it is that he taught in several related dialects of Middle Indo-Aryan, which had a high degree of mutual intelligibility. There is no attested dialect of Middle Indo-Aryan with all the features of Pali. Pali has some commonalities with both the western Ashokan Edicts at Girnar in Saurashtra, the Central-Western Prakrit found in the eastern Hathigumpha inscription; the similarities of the Saurashtran inscriptions to the Hathigumpha inscription may be misleading because the latter suggests the Ashokan scribe may not have translated the material he received from Magadha into the vernacular. Whatever the relationship of the Buddha's speech to Pali, the Canon was transcribed and preserved in it, while the commentarial tradition that accompanied it was translated into Sinhala and preserved in local languages for several generations.
In Sri Lanka, Pali is thought to have entered into a period of decline ending around the 4th or 5th century, but survived. The work of Buddhaghosa was responsible for its reemergence as an important scholarly language in Buddhist thought; the Visuddhimagga, the other commentaries that Buddhaghosa compiled and condensed the Sinhala commentarial tradition, preserved and expanded in Sri Lanka since the 3rd century BCE. T
Lucknow is the capital city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, is the administrative headquarters of the eponymous district and division. It is the twelfth most populous urban agglomeration of India. Lucknow has always been known as a multicultural city that flourished as a North Indian cultural and artistic hub, the seat of power of Nawabs in the 18th and 19th centuries, it continues to be an important centre of governance, education, aerospace, pharmaceuticals, design, tourism and poetry. The city stands at an elevation of 123 metres above sea level. Lucknow district covers an area of 2,528 square kilometres. Bounded on the east by Barabanki, on the west by Unnao, on the south by Raebareli and in the north by Sitapur, Lucknow sits on the northwestern shore of the Gomti River. Lucknow was the capital of the Awadh region, controlled by the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire, it was transferred to the Nawabs of Awadh. In 1856, the British East India Company abolished local rule and took complete control of the city along with the rest of Awadh and, in 1857, transferred it to the British Raj.
Along with the rest of India, Lucknow became independent from Britain on 15 August 1947. It has been listed as the 17th fastest growing city in 74th in the world. Lucknow, along with Agra and Varanasi, is in the Uttar Pradesh Heritage Arc, a chain of survey triangulations created by the Government of Uttar Pradesh to boost tourism in the state. "Lucknow" is the anglicised spelling of the local pronunciation "Lakhnau". According to one legend, the city is named after Lakshmana, a hero of the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana; the legend states that Lakshmana had a palace or an estate in the area, called Lakshmanapuri. However, the Dalit movement believes that Lakhan Pasi, a dalit ruler, was the settler of the city and is named after him; the settlement came to be known as Lakhanpur by the 11th century, Lucknow. A similar theory states; the name changed to Lakhanavati Lakhnauti and Lakhnau. Yet another theory states that the city's name is connected with Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess of wealth. Over time, the name changed to Laksmanauti, Lakhsnaut and Lakhnau.
From 1350 onwards and parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Awadh, the British East India Company and the British Raj. For about eighty-four years, Awadh was part of the Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur. Emperor Humayun made it a part of the Mughal Empire around 1555. Emperor Jahangir granted an estate in Awadh to a favoured nobleman, Sheikh Abdul Rahim, who built Machchi Bhawan on this estate, it became the seat of power from where his descendants, the Sheikhzadas, controlled the region. The Nawabs of Lucknow, in reality, the Nawabs of Awadh, acquired the name after the reign of the third Nawab when Lucknow became their capital; the city became North India's cultural capital, its nawabs, best remembered for their refined and extravagant lifestyles, were patrons of the arts. Under their dominion and dance flourished, construction of numerous monuments took place. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chota Imambara, the Rumi Darwaza are notable examples.
One of the Nawab's enduring legacies is the region's syncretic Hindu–Muslim culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb. Until 1719, the subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor. Persian adventurer Saadat Khan known as Burhan-ul-Mulk, was appointed Nizam of Awadh in 1722 and established his court in Faizabad, near Lucknow. Many independent kingdoms, such as Awadh, were established as the Mughal Empire disintegrated; the third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula, fell out with the British after aiding the fugitive Nawab of Bengal, Mir Qasim. Roundly defeated at the Battle of Buxar by the East India Company, he was forced to pay heavy penalties and surrender parts of his territory. Awadh's capital, Lucknow rose to prominence when Asaf-ud-Daula, the fourth Nawab, shifted his court to the city from Faizabad in 1775; the British East India Company appointed a resident in 1773 and by early 19th century gained control of more territory and authority in the state.
They were, disinclined to capture Awadh outright and come face to face with the Maratha Empire and the remnants of the Mughal Empire. In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British and was forced to abdicate; the British helped Saadat Ali Khan take the throne. He became a puppet king, in a treaty of 1801, yielded large part of Awadh to the East India Company while agreeing to disband his own troops in favour of a hugely expensive, British-controlled army; this treaty made the state of Awadh a vassal of the East India Company, although it continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name until 1819. The treaty of 1801 proved a beneficial arrangement for the East India Company as they gained access to Awadh's vast treasuries digging into them for loans at reduced rates. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh's armed forces brought them useful returns while the territory acted as a buffer state; the Nawabs were ceremonial kings, busy with show. By the mid-nineteenth century, the British had grown impatient with the arrangement and demanded direct control over Awadh.
In 1856 the East India Compa
Kosala Proper or Uttara Kosala is the kingdom of the celebrated personality of Treta Yuga, Raghava Rama. Ayodhya was its capital, presently in Uttar Pradesh. Rama's sons Kusha inherited parts of this kingdom. Lava ruled from the city called Kusa from the city called Kushavati. A colony of Kosala kings existed in Madhya Pradesh, it was called Dakshina Kosala. Rama's mother Kausalya was from this kingdom. King Rama extended his influence up to the island-kingdom of Lanka situated in the southern ocean, he had friendly relations with the southern kingdom of forest dwellers called Kishkindha. Rama's brother Bharata, founded the city of Takshasila there. Gandhara lies close to the native kingdom of Bharata's mother, Kaikeyi. Rama's second brother Lakshmana founded the city of Lakshmanapura near river Ganges, now known as Lucknow, he founded the city of Chandrakanta there. Rama's youngest brother Satrughna destroyed the forest called Madhu and founded the city of Mathura which became the capital of the Surasena Kingdom.
Nishadha king Nala's friend Rituparna was a ruler of Kosala. Brihadbala another ruler of Kosala during Dwapara Yuga, took part in Mahabharata war and was killed by Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna; the Indian epic Ramayana is the window to this era. During the period of the forefathers of Raghava Rama, there was only one Kosala kingdom, it had its capital at Ayodhya, identified as the Ayodhya town near Faizabad in Uttar Pradesh state of India. During the reign of Dasharatha, the father of Rama, Dakshina Kosala came into prominence, it was situated in the Madhya Pradesh state of India. Dasharatha married his eldest wife Kausalya from this kingdom. Raghava Rama's son's Lava and Kusa, inherited each half of the Kosala kingdom, with Ayodhya as its capital. Thus, this Kosala split into two parts; the Indian epic Mahabharata is the window to this era. During the time of Kurukshetra War, the reign of Pandavas and Kauravas, we find mention of numerous kingdoms with the name, Kosala. Raghava Rama's Kosala was split into two, owing to his two sons attaining kingship after his reign.
During the era of Kurukshetra War it was split into five kingdoms. This was the kingdom ruled by Kusa, with Kusavati as its capital.. They were described as fleeing to the southern country of Kuntis due to Magadha king Jarasandha; the route taken by Bhima and Krishna from Kuru Kingdom to Magadha Kingdom was through this Eastern Kosala. This was the kingdom ruled by Lava with Sravasti as its capital.. This kingdom was defeated in his military campaign to the east. Vriahadvala was a Kosala king mentioned as a general under Duryodhana, in the Kurukshetra War.. This kingdom was defeated by the Pandava general Bhima, in his military campaign to the east.. It seems that this Kosala had its power extended to the neighbouring kingdom of Kasi to the south of it, because Vrihadvala sometimes commanded the troops from Kasi in Kurukshetra War; this was the reason to consider Kasi-Kosala as a single kingdom. For a period of time in the past, Kasi would have been a vassal state of Kosala kingdom; the grandmothers of Kauravas and Pandavas were called sometimes as princesses of Kasi and some times as princesses of Kosala, attesting to this fact.
This was the original Kosala ruled by king Raghava Rama. This was ruled during this era; this kingdom was defeated by the Pandava general Bhima, in his military campaign to the east.. The native kingdom of Raghava Rama's mother Kausalya, considered as Dakshina Kosala Kingdom split at least into two during the era of Kurukshetra War; this became evident if we follow the passage in Mahabharata, describing the military campaign of the Pandava general Sahadeva, who led his troops to the southern direction. This kingdom was close to the Vidarbha Kingdom ruled by Bhishmaka to the east of it. Sahadeva moved to the Eastern Kosala. After defeating the other Kosala kingdom Sahadeva defeated numerous kings in the Eastern Kosala, indicating that there were many kingdoms, not one, however collectively known as Eastern Kosalas. Mahabharata, Book 1, Chapter 114The mothers of Dhritarashtra and Pandu, viz Ambika and Ambalika, where described to be Kosala princesses, they were some times described as princesses from Kasi Kingdom and Kosala being a single kingdom during the time of Mahabharata.
Satyavati and Bhishma and the Kosala princesses were all gratified with the presents Pandu made out of the acquisitions of his prowess. And Ambalika in particular, upon embracing her son of incomparable prowess, became glad. Mahabharata, Book 1, Chapter 188Kosala king was present in this event......... the intelligent Vatsaraja, the king of Kosala and the powerful Jarasandha and many other great kings—all Kshatriyas celebrated throughout the world—have come, O blessed one, for thee. Mahabharata, Book 2, Chapter 14The eighteen tribes of the Bhojas, from fear of Jarasandha, have all fled towards the west, and the king of the Salwayana tribe with their brethren and followers.
Chaturmas is a holy period of four months, beginning on Shayani Ekadashi—the eleventh day of the bright half, Shukla paksha, of Ashadh —until Prabodhini Ekadashi, the eleventh day of the bright half of Kartik in Hinduism and Jainism. Chaturmas is reserved for penance, fasting, bathing in holy rivers and religious observances for all. Devotees resolve to observe some form of vow, be it of silence or abstaining from a favourite food item, or having only a single meal in a day. Chaturmas means "four months", derived from the Sanskrit catur, "four", māsa, "month"; the sun begins to move southwards in the month of Ashadh. The eleventh day of Ashadh is called Devashayani Ekadashi, because in Hinduism, Lord Vishnu is believed to begin to sleep on this day, he is believed to wake up on the eleventh of Kartik, hence called Prabodhini Ekadashi. The period corresponds with the rainy season in India, it is believed that Hindu gods and goddesses are at rest during this period and should not be disturbed, so no auspicious ceremonies, such as weddings and thread ceremonies, are held during the four months' period.
Chaturmas, inauspicious for weddings and other celebrations, is a suitable time for householders to have an annual renewal of faith by listening to discourses on dharma, by meditation and vrata. Penance, religious observances, recital of mantras, bathing in holy rivers, performing sacrifices, charity are prescribed. Fasts and purity during this period help maintain health, for which there is a scientific rationale, disease spreading more with the onset of monsoon. A number of Hindus those following the Vaishnav tradition, refrain from eating onions and garlic during this period. In Maharashtra, a number of Hindu families do not eat any egg plant preparations; the Sanyasis or ascetics observe Chaturmas for four fortnights, beginning on full moon day of the month of Ashadh known as Guru Purnima or Vyas Purnima, ending on full moon day of the month of Bhadrapada. Sanyasis are supposed to halt during this period at one selected place, give discourses to the public. Major Celebrations within this holy period include: Guru Purnima Krishna Janmashtami Raksha Bandhan Ganesh Chaturthi Navratri Diwali Champa Sashthi - Per custom in Maharashtra, Chaturmas ends on this day.
In Jainism this practice is prescribed for Jain monasticism. Wandering monks such as mendicants and ascetics in Jainism, believed that during the rain season, countless bugs and tiny creatures that cannot be seen in the naked eye would be produced massively. Therefore, these monks reduce the amount of harm they do to other creatures so they opt to stay in a village for the four months to incur minimal harm to other lives; these monks, who do not stay in one place for long, observe their annual'Rains Retreat' during this period, by living in one place during the entire period amidst lay people, observing a vow of silence, meditation and other austerities, giving religious discourses to the local public. During the four-month rainy-season period, when the mendicants must stay in one place, the chief sadhu of every group gives a daily sermon, attended by women and older, retired men, but on special days by most of the lay congregation. During their eight months of travel, the sadhus give sermons whenever requested, most when they come to a new village or town in their travels.
One of the most important Jain festivals, falls during the beginning of this period, which concludes with Forgiveness Day, Kshamavani Diwas, wherein lay people and disciples say Micchami Dukkadam and ask forgiveness from each other. Amongst Jain merchants, there is a tradition of inviting monks to their respective cities during Chaturmas to give religious instruction. In Jainism, the third part of the classical Jain text Kalpa Sutra, written by Bhadrabahu I in the 1st century AD, deals with rules for ascetics and laws during the four months of the rainy season, when ascetics temporarily abandon their wandering life and settle down amidst the laity; this is the time when the festival of Paryushan is celebrated and the Kalpasutra is traditionally recited. Gautama Buddha stayed at the royal garden of King Bimbisara of Rajgir, whom he had converted, for the period of Chaturmas and gave sermons: this practice is followed by monks to this day. Another reason for ascetics to stay in one place during the rainy season is that the tropical climate produces a large number of insects, which would be trampled by travelling monks.
Vassa is varsha-vas i.e.. It begins with Asalha Puja. at the end of vassa, during Kathina, new robes are donated by the laity to the monks. Cort, John E. Jains in the World: Religious Values and Ideology in India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-513234-3 Jain Chaturmas begins
Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world, it was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow; the main ethnic group is the Hindavi people. On 9 November 2000, a new state, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region; the two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest and Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers 243,290 square kilometres, equal to 7.33% of the total area of India, is the fourth-largest Indian state by area.
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the fourth-largest state economy in India with ₹15.79 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹57,480. Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy; the service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate and financial consultancies. President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days; the natives of the state are called Uttar Bhartiya, or more either Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of medieval India; the state has several historical and religious tourist destinations, such as Agra, Vrindavan and Allahabad. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago.
There have been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age. The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh; the aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira.
The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC. Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya, Kushan and Gurjara-Pratihara empires. Following the Huns' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire reached its zenith, it spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south. It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region.
Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, from the 8th century to the 10th century. After fall of Pala empire, the Chero dynasty ruled from 12th century to 18th century. Parts or all of Uttar Pradesh were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley, swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan and Bangladesh; the Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks. In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior.
After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, th
Balrampur is a city and a municipal board in Balrampur district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the district headquarters of Balarampur district. Balrampur was a state in India, it was divided in 1748 and is a part of U. P. Balrampur had population as of 2011 census is 90000. Balrampur city is in close vicinity of Shravasti where Lord Gautam Buddha is considered to have displayed his supernatural powers in the spiritual transformation of Angulimala, a famous dacoit who wore a necklace of fingers. In the Mughal era Balrampur was the seat of a Taluqdari of Oudh. Balrampur is located at 27.43°N 82.18°E / 27.43. It has an average elevation of 105 metres. Two prominent archaeological sites and Savatthi, or Saheth and Maheth, as they are locally known, are located in the vicinity of Balrampur city. Alexander Cunningham used the ancient accounts of Chinese pilgrim-monks to determine that Saheth-Maheth referred to Jetavana and Savatthi. Saheth, covering an area of 32 acres, was the site of the Jetavana monastery.
It became an important place of pilgrimage, adorned with numerous shrines and monasteries. The stupas belong to the Kushan period, while the temples are in the Gupta style; the remains date from the Mauryan era to the 12th century CE. One of the earliest stupas, contained relics of the Buddha. A colossal statue of the Buddha was found here, now preserved in the Indian Museum, Kolkata. Maheth covers an area of about 400 acres, has been identified with the remains of the city proper and is located about 0.25 miles to the north-east of Saheth. Excavations have exposed the massive gates of the city and the ruins of other structures which testify to the prosperity of ancient Sravasti; the Sobhanath Temple is located here. The ruins of Maheth includes two stupas. One stupa, known as Pakki Kuti, is said to be that of Angulimala while the other, known as Kachchi Kuti, is believed to be that of Sudatta, a disciple of Buddha. Pakki Kuti and Kacchi Kuti were converted into Brahmanical temples; the Emperor Ashoka visited Jetavana, the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen- Tsang mentions two Ashokan pillars at Sravasti.
Other places of interest include the Swarnagandha Kuti. In Jetavana is located the second-holiest tree of Buddhism: the Anandabodhi Tree; the district has rich literary heritage. Famous Urdu poet Ali Sardar Jafri was born here in 1913, he is among the only four Urdu poets. The other notable poet of the city is Syed Ali Mehdi Rizvi famous for his religious Urdu poetry such as Mussadas, Salam, Nauha etc. Apart from extensively writing the religious poetry, his other notable works include poetic representation of History of India named "Matla-e-Watan" and translation of Bhagavad Gita in Urdu poetry. Apart from that the birthplace of Mohd Shafi Khan known as Bekal Utsahi is Balrampur, he has the distinction of being a former member of Rajya Sabha. In 1976 he got Padmashree Award in the field of literature. During a visit to the Mazar of Hazrat Vaaris Ali Shah of Devan-Sharif in 1945 Shah Hafiz Pyari Miyan quoted, "Bedam Gaya Bekal aaya". After that incident Mohammad Shafi Khan converted his name as "Bekal Varsi".
During the period of Pandit Nehru in 1952 an interesting event happened, which resulted in the emergence of Bekal Utsahi. There was an election programme of congress party in Gonda at that time. Bekal Varsi welcomed Pandit Nehru by his poetry "Kisan Bharat Ka". Nehru was much impressed and said,"Yeh hamara utsahi shayar hai", he is renowned as Bekal Utsahi in the literary world. One of the most popular Hindu worship place is situated in Tulsipur about 27 kilometers from the district headquarters, it is known as Devi Patan. The temple has the distinction of having included in 51 "Shaktipeethas" of Goddess Durga according to Hindu mythology, it is believed that during the event when Lord Shiva was carrying the corpse of his wife Sati, the light shoulder of Sati had fallen here. Revered by Hindus in India and Nepal, millions of pilgrims visit this place throughout the year. A Grand festival has been organized at the time of Durga Puja. During the month of chaitra a "Mela" has been organized every year.
One of the salient feature of this event is "Shobha Yatra" of Peer Ratan Nath. Every year devotees from Dang district of Nepal used to come here as an integral part of yatra; the Devi Patan Siddha Peeth had been established by Guru Gorakshnath of the Nath Sampradaya. The existing temple here is said to have been constructed King Vikramaditya. In the 1lth century King Suheldeo of Sravasti had renovated the temple; the Royal family of Balrampur, is today the caretaker of the temple. A large fair takes place in Navratri and every year on Chaitra Panchami the deity of Pir Ratan Nath is brought from Dang in Nepal to the Devi Patan temple where it is worshipped along with the Devi. Apart from that Bijleshwari Devi temple is famous among the local people; the area where the temple is situated is known as Bijlipur. The temple is built by the Maharaja of Balrampur in the 19th Century and is a fine example of intricate carving in red stone, which cover the whole structure; the sanctum sanctorum has no idol but a deep covered hole in the ground, where legend has it that lightning fell to mark the spot for the building the temple.
It has the distance of about 6 kilometers from Balrampur city. Jharkhandi Temple on the opposite side of Jharkhandi Railway Station of Gonda-Gorakhpur loop line attracts the attention of Balrampurites as well as other people too; the Festival of "M
Gautama Buddha known as Siddhārtha Gautama in Sanskrit or Siddhattha Gotama in Pali, Shakyamuni Buddha, or the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was a monk, sage, philosopher and religious leader on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught in the northeastern part of ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement common in his region, he taught throughout other regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kosala. Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, he is believed by Buddhists to be an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering. Accounts of his life and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarised after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later.
Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha's life. Most people accept that the Buddha lived and founded a monastic order during the Mahajanapada era during the reign of Bimbisara, the ruler of the Magadha empire, died during the early years of the reign of Ajatasatru, the successor of Bimbisara, thus making him a younger contemporary of Mahavira, the Jain tirthankara. While the general sequence of "birth, renunciation, search and liberation, death" is accepted, there is less consensus on the veracity of many details contained in traditional biographies; the times of Gautama's birth and death are uncertain. Most historians in the early 20th century dated his lifetime as c. 563 BCE to 483 BCE. More his death is dated between 411 and 400 BCE, while at a symposium on this question held in 1988, the majority of those who presented definite opinions gave dates within 20 years either side of 400 BCE for the Buddha's death; these alternative chronologies, have not been accepted by all historians.
The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddhārtha Gautama was born into the Shakya clan, a community, on the periphery, both geographically and culturally, of the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 5th century BCE. One of his usual names was "Sakamuni" or "Sakyamunī", it was either a small republic, or an oligarchy, his father was an elected chieftain, or oligarch. According to the Buddhist tradition, Gautama was born in Lumbini, now in modern-day Nepal, raised in the Shakya capital of Kapilvastu, which may have been either in what is present day Tilaurakot, Nepal or Piprahwa, India. According to Buddhist tradition, he obtained his enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, gave his first sermon in Sarnath, died in Kushinagar. Apart from the Vedic Brahmins, the Buddha's lifetime coincided with the flourishing of influential Śramaṇa schools of thought like Ājīvika, Cārvāka, Ajñana. Brahmajala Sutta records sixty-two such schools of thought. In this context, a śramaṇa refers to one who toils, or exerts themselves.
It was the age of influential thinkers like Mahavira, Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla, Ajita Kesakambalī, Pakudha Kaccāyana, Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, as recorded in Samaññaphala Sutta, whose viewpoints the Buddha most must have been acquainted with. Indeed and Moggallāna, two of the foremost disciples of the Buddha, were the foremost disciples of Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, the sceptic. There is philological evidence to suggest that the two masters, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, were indeed historical figures and they most taught Buddha two different forms of meditative techniques. Thus, Buddha was just one of the many śramaṇa philosophers of that time. In an era where holiness of person was judged by their level of asceticism, Buddha was a reformist within the śramaṇa movement, rather than a reactionary against Vedic Brahminism; the life of the Buddha coincided with the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley during the rule of Darius I from about 517/516 BCE. This Achaemenid occupation of the areas of Gandhara and Sindh, to last for about two centuries, was accompanied by the introduction of Achaemenid religions, reformed Mazdaism or early Zoroastrianism, to which Buddhism might have in part reacted.
In particular, the ideas of the Buddha may have consisted of a rejection of the "absolutist" or "perfectionist" ideas contained in these Achaemenid religions. No written records about Gautama were found from his lifetime or from the one or two centuries thereafter. In the middle of the 3rd century BCE, several Edicts of Ashoka mention the Buddha, Ashoka's Rummindei Minor Pillar Edict commemorates the Emperor's pilgrimage to Lumbini as the Buddha's birthplace. Another one of his edicts mentions the titles of several Dhamma texts, establishing the existence of a written Buddhist tradition at least by the time of the Maurya era; these texts may be the precursor of the Pāli Canon. "Sakamuni" in mentioned in the reliefs of Bharhut, dated to circa 100 BCE, in relation with his illumination and the Bodhi tree, with the inscription Bhagavato Sakamunino Bodho. The oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts are the Gandhāran Buddhist texts, repor