Scorpions are a German rock band formed in 1965 in Hanover by Rudolf Schenker. Since the band's inception, its musical style has ranged from hard rock to heavy metal; the lineup from 1978–1992 was the most successful incarnation of the group, included Klaus Meine, Rudolf Schenker, Matthias Jabs, Francis Buchholz, Herman Rarebell. The band's only constant member has been Schenker, although Meine has been the lead singer for all of Scorpions' studio albums, while Jabs has been a consistent member since 1979, bassist Paweł Mąciwoda and drummer Mikkey Dee have been in the band since 2003 and 2016 respectively. During the mid-1970s, with guitarist Uli Jon Roth part of the line-up, the music of the Scorpions was defined as hard rock. After the departure of Roth in 1978, Matthias Jabs joined and, following the guidance of producer Dieter Dierks, the Scorpions changed their sound towards hard rock/heavy metal, mixed with rock power ballads. Throughout the 1980s the group received positive reviews and critical acclaim from music critics, experienced commercial success with the albums Animal Magnetism, Love at First Sting, the live recording World Wide Live, Savage Amusement and Best of Rockers'n' Ballads, their best-selling compilation album.
Scorpions' eleventh studio album Crazy World was well-received, included the song "Wind of Change", a symbolic anthem of the political changes in Eastern Europe in the late 1980s and early 1990s and the fall of the Berlin Wall. It is one of the best-selling singles in the world with over fourteen million copies sold. Scorpions have sold over 110 million records in total, they have released 27 compilation albums and 74 singles. Six of their singles have reached number one on the charts in different countries, their albums, singles and video releases have reached gold and multi-platinum status 200 times in different countries. Rolling Stone described the Scorpions as "the heroes of heavy metal", MTV called them "Ambassadors of Rock"; the band was ranked number 46 on VH1's Greatest Artists of Hard Rock programme, with "Rock You Like a Hurricane" at number 18 on VH1's list of the 100 Greatest Hard Rock Songs. "Still Loving You" ranked 22nd place among the greatest ballads. The Scorpions have received prestigious awards such as three World Music Awards, a star on the Hollywood Rock wall, a presence in the permanent exhibition of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
In 2015 the group celebrated its 50th anniversary. Rudolf Schenker, the band's rhythm guitarist, launched the band in 1965. At first, the band had beat Schenker himself handled the vocals. Things began to come together in 1970 when Schenker's younger brother Michael and vocalist Klaus Meine joined the band. With this line-up they won a music contest in 1972 and recorded 2 songs for a single, never released on the CCA label, but the songs, early versions of the Sweet cover Action and the original I'm Going Mad were released on different compilation albums including Psychedelic Gems 2. In 1972 the group recorded and released their debut album Lonesome Crow, with Lothar Heimberg on bass and Wolfgang Dziony on drums and re-recorded versions of their CCA songs. During the Lonesome Crow tour, the Scorpions opened for upcoming British band UFO. Near the end of the tour, guitarist Michael Schenker accepted an offer of lead guitar for UFO. Uli Jon Roth, a friend of Michael's, was introduced to the band and he helped them to finish off the tour.
The departure of Michael Schenker led to the breakup of the band. In 1973, Uli Roth, who had helped the Scorpions complete the Lonesome Crow tour, was offered the role as lead guitarist, but turned the band down, preferring instead to remain in the band Dawn Road. Rudolf Schenker decided he wanted to work with Roth, but did not want to resurrect the last Scorpions lineup, he attended some of Dawn Road's rehearsals and decided to join the band, which consisted of Roth, Francis Buchholz, Achim Kirschning and Jürgen Rosenthal. Uli Roth and Buchholz persuaded Rudolf Schenker to invite Klaus Meine to join on vocals, which he soon did. While there were more members of Dawn Road than Scorpions in the band, they decided to use the Scorpions name because it was well known in the German hard rock scene and an album had been released under that name. In 1974, the new line-up released Fly to the Rainbow; the album proved to be more successful than Lonesome Crow and songs such as "Speedy's Coming" and the title track established the band's sound.
Achim Kirschning decided to leave after the recordings. Soon after, Jürgen Rosenthal had to leave. In 1976, he joined, he was replaced in July 1974 by Jurgen Fechter. In 1975 Rudy Lenners from Belgium became the next drummer; that year the band released In Trance, which marked the beginning of their long collaboration with German producer Dieter Dierks. The album established their heavy metal formula, it garnered a fan base at home and abroad with cuts such as "In Trance", "Dark Lady" and "Robot Man". Meanwhile, as "The Hunters", the band recorded "Fuchs geh' voran" and "Wenn es richtig losgeht", German cover versions of "Action" and "Fox on the Run" by the Sweet for EMI's Electrola label. In 1976, the Scorpions released Virgin Killer, the album cover of which featured a nude prepubescent girl behind a broken pane of glass; the cover art was designed by Stefan Bohle, the product manager for RCA Records, their label at the time. The cover brought the band considerable market exposure but was subsequently pulled o
Joseph Satriani is an American instrumental rock guitarist and multi-instrumentalist. Early in his career, Satriani worked as a guitar instructor, with many of his former students achieving fame, such as Steve Vai, Larry LaLonde, Rick Hunolt, Kirk Hammett, Andy Timmons, Charlie Hunter, Kevin Cadogan, Alex Skolnick, he is a 15-time Grammy Award nominee and has sold over 10 million albums, making him the biggest-selling instrumental rock guitarist of all time. In 1988, Satriani was recruited by Mick Jagger as lead guitarist for his first solo tour. Satriani toured with Deep Purple as the guitarist, joining shortly after the departure of Ritchie Blackmore in November 1993, he has worked with a range of guitarists during the G3 tour, which he founded in 1995. Satriani has been the guitarist for the supergroup Chickenfoot since joining the band in 2008. Satriani was born in New York of Italian descent, his paternal grandparents were from Piacenza and Bobbio, while his maternal grandparents were from Bari.
He was inspired to play guitar at age 14, after hearing of the death of Jimi Hendrix. He has been said to have heard the news during football practice, where he announced to his coach that he was quitting to become a guitarist. In 1974, Satriani studied music with jazz guitarist Billy Bauer and with reclusive jazz pianist Lennie Tristano; the technically demanding Tristano influenced Satriani's playing. Satriani began teaching guitar, with his most notable student at the time being fellow Long Island native Steve Vai. While he was teaching Vai, he was attending Five Towns College for studies in music. In 1978, Satriani moved to California, to pursue a music career. Soon after arriving in California, he resumed teaching, his students included Steve Vai, Kirk Hammett of Metallica, David Bryson of Counting Crows, Kevin Cadogan from Third Eye Blind, Larry LaLonde of Primus and Possessed, Alex Skolnick of Testament, Rick Hunolt, Phil Kettner of Lȧȧz Rockit, Geoff Tyson of T-Ride, Charlie Hunter and David Turin.
Satriani started playing in a San Francisco-based band called the Squares, where he continued to network and make musical connections. He was invited to join the Greg Kihn Band, who were on the downside of their career, but whose generosity helped Satriani pay off the overwhelming credit-card debt from recording his first album Not of This Earth. In 1987, Satriani's second album Surfing with the Alien produced radio hits and was the first all-instrumental release to chart so in many years; the track "Crushing Day" was featured on the soundtrack of a low-budget film titled. Surfing with the Alien is his most acclaimed work, according to aggregator Acclaimed Music. In 1988 Satriani helped produce the EP The Eyes of Horror for the death metal band Possessed; that same year, he released an EP titled Dreaming #11, which featured the song "The Crush of Love". In 1989, Satriani released the album Flying in a Blue Dream, it was said to be inspired by the death of his father, who died in 1989 during the recording of the album.
"One Big Rush" featured on the soundtrack to the Cameron Crowe movie Say Anything.... "The Forgotten Part II" was featured on a Labatt Blue commercial in Canada in 1993. "Can't Slow Down" featured in a car-chase sequence in the Don Johnson-starring show Nash Bridges. "The Bells of Lal" was featured for an eerie scene in the 1996 Billy Bob Thornton movie Sling Blade, while Carl is sharpening a lawnmower blade to kill the menacing Doyle Hargraves played by Dwight Yoakam. Joe Satriani sang backing vocals on the self-titled Crowded House album. Satriani was a friend of Mitchell Froom. In 1992, Satriani released his most commercially successful album to date. Radio stations across the country picked up "Summer Song", which got a major boost when Sony used it in a major commercial campaign for their Discman portable CD players. "Cryin'", "Friends", the title track were regional hits on radio. In late 1993, Satriani joined Deep Purple as a temporary replacement for departed guitarist Ritchie Blackmore during the band's Japanese tour.
The concerts were a success, Satriani was asked to join the band permanently, but he declined, having just signed a multialbum solo deal with Sony, Steve Morse took the guitarist slot in Deep Purple. In 1996, Satriani founded a concert tour intended to feature a trio of guitarists; the original lineup featured Satriani and Eric Johnson. The G3 tour has continued periodically since its inaugural version, with Satriani the only permanent member. Other guitarists who have performed in G3 include among others: Yngwie Malmsteen, John Petrucci, Kenny Wayne Shepherd, Robert Fripp, Andy Timmons, Uli Jon Roth, Michael Schenker, Adrian Legg, Paul Gilbert, Steve Morse, Steve Lukather. In 1998, Satriani recorded and released Crystal Planet, followed up with Engines of Creation, one of his more experimental works featuring the electronica genre. Two shows at the Fillmore West in San Francisco were recorded in December 2000 and released as Live in San Francisco, a two-disc live album and DVD. Satriani recorded and released evolving music, including Strange Beautiful Music in 2002 and Is There Love in Space? in 2004.
In May 2005, Satriani toured India for the first time, playing concerts in Delhi and Mumbai. In 2006, Satriani recorded and released Super Colossal and Satriani Live!, another two-disc live album and DVD recorded May 3, 2006, at the Grove in Anaheim, California. In 2006, Satriani signed on as an official supporter of Little Kids Rock, a nonprofit organization that provides free musical instruments and instruction to ch
Ronnie James Dio
Ronald James Padavona known professionally as Ronnie James Dio or Dio, was an American heavy metal singer-songwriter and composer. He fronted or founded numerous groups throughout his career, including Elf, Black Sabbath and Heaven & Hell. Dio was born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where his family resided for his father's service in the U. S. Army during World War II, his music career began there in 1957 as part of the Vegas Kings. In 1967, he formed the rock band Elf. In 1975, Deep Purple guitarist Ritchie Blackmore founded the band Rainbow along with Dio, where he began a successful career releasing albums such as "Rising" and "Long Live Rock N' Roll". In 1979, Dio joined Black Sabbath as lead singer, he appeared in two studio albums of the band which met with success: "Heaven & Hell" and "Mob Rules". In 1982 he left the band to pursue a solo career, having two albums certified platinum by RIAA. In 2006 he founded the band Hell with ex-bandmate Tony Iommi. Dio was diagnosed with stomach cancer in 2009.
Dio is regarded as one of most influential heavy metal artists of all time. He is known for popularizing the "Metal Horns" hand gesture in metal culture and his medieval-themed song lyrics. Dio had a powerful, versatile vocal range and was capable of singing both hard rock and lighter ballads, he was awarded the "Metal Guru Award" by Classic Rock Magazine in 2006. He was named the "Best Metal singer" at the Revolver Golden Gods Awards in 2010. Ronald James "Dio" Padavona was born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, to Italian-American parents from Cortland, New York, his family moved to Portsmouth from Cortland as part of his father's service in the U. S. Army during World War II and they resided there for only a short time before returning to Cortland. Padavona listened to a great deal of opera while growing up, was influenced vocally by American tenor Mario Lanza, his first formal musical training began at age 5. Padavona participated in his high school's band program and was one of the youngest members selected to play in the school's official dance band.
It was during high school that Padavona formed his first rock-n-roll group, The Vegas Kings. He soon changed the name of his band to "Ronnie and the Rumblers" and shortly thereafter to "Ronnie and the Red Caps". Though Padavona began his rock-n-roll career on trumpet, he added singing to his skillset and assumed bass guitar duties for the groups. Padavona graduated from Cortland High School in 1960, he was offered a scholarship to the prestigious Juilliard School of Music but did not take up the offer due to his interest in rock music. Dio instead attended the University at Buffalo to major in pharmacology, he played trumpet in the university's concert band. Despite being known for his powerful singing voice, Padavona claimed to have never received any vocal training, he instead attributed his singing ability to the use of breathing techniques he learned while playing trumpet. Dio's musical career began in 1957, when several Cortland, New York musicians formed the band, The Vegas Kings; the group's lineup consisted of Dio on bass guitar, Billy DeWolfe on lead vocals, Nick Pantas on guitar, Tom Rogers on drums, Jack Musci on saxophone.
In 1958, the band again changed their name from The Rumblers to Ronnie and the Redcaps. Musci left the band in 1960, a new guitarist, Dick Botoff, joined the lineup; the Redcaps released two singles: The first single was "Conquest"/"Lover" with the A-side being an instrumental reminiscent of The Ventures and the B-side featuring DeWolfe on lead vocals. The second single was "An Angel Is Missing"/"What'd I Say" featuring Dio on lead vocals for both tracks. Explanations vary for how Padavona adopted the stage name "Dio". One story is. Another has it that Padavona's grandmother said he had a gift from God and should be called "Dio", although this was debunked by Padavona's widow, Wendy, in a February 2017 interview. Padavona first used the name on a recording in 1960, when he added it to the band's second release on Seneca. Soon after that the band modified their name to Ronnie Dio and the Prophets; the Prophets lineup lasted for several years, touring throughout the New York region and playing college fraternity parties.
They produced one single for one album. Some of the singles were labeled as being by Ronnie Dio as a solo artist if the rest of the Prophets contributed to the recording; the group released several singles during the following years until early 1967. Dio continued to use his birth name on any songwriting credits on those releases. In late 1967, Ronnie Dio and the Prophets transformed into a new band called The Electric Elves and added a keyboard player. After recovering from a deadly car accident in February 1968, the group shortened its name to The Elves and used that name until mid-1972, when it released its first proper album under the name Elf. Over the next few years, the group went on to become a regular opening act for Deep Purple. Elf recorded three albums until the members' involvement recording the first Rainbow album in early 1975 resulted in Elf disbanding. In the mid-1970s Dio's vocals caught the ear of Deep Purple guitarist Ritchie Blackmore, planning on leaving them due to creative differences over the band's new direction.
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
Rainbow (rock band)
Rainbow are a British rock supergroup led by guitarist Ritchie Blackmore, active from 1975 until 1984, 1993 until 1997, 2015 until present. They were established with Ronnie James Dio's American rock band Elf, but after their first album, Blackmore fired the backing members and continued with Dio until 1979. Three British musicians joined in 1979—singer Graham Bonnet, keyboardist Don Airey and then-former Deep Purple bassist Roger Glover—and this line-up gave the band their commercial breakthrough with the single "Since You Been Gone". Over the years Rainbow went through many personnel changes, with each studio album recorded with a different lineup, leaving Blackmore as the band's only constant member; the singers Joe Lynn Turner and Doogie White followed Bonnet, numerous backing musicians have come and gone. In addition to Blackmore, Rainbow's current lineup includes Ronnie Romero on vocals, Jens Johansson on keyboards, Bob Nouveau on bass and David Keith on drums. A pioneer of power metal, the band's early work featured mystical lyrics with a neoclassical metal style, but went in a more streamlined, commercial direction following Dio's departure from the group.
Rainbow were ranked No. 90 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. The band have sold over 28 million records worldwide, with 1,420,000 copies in the UK. By 1973, Blackmore had steered Deep Purple through a significant personnel change, with Ian Gillan and Roger Glover being replaced by David Coverdale and Glenn Hughes. However, the new members were keen to add new musical styles and Blackmore found his request to record the Steve Hammond-penned "Black Sheep of the Family" with "Sixteenth Century Greensleeves" turned down by the band, he decided using Dio's band Elf as additional musicians. He enjoyed the results, a full album, billed as Ritchie Blackmore's Rainbow was recorded between February and March 1975 at Musicland Studios in Munich, Germany; the band name was inspired by Grill in West Hollywood, California. Rainbow's music was inspired by classical music since Blackmore started playing cello to help him construct interesting chord progressions, Dio wrote lyrics about medieval themes.
Dio possessed a versatile vocal range capable of singing both hard rock and lighter ballads, according to Blackmore, "I felt shivers down my spine." Although Dio never played a musical instrument on any Rainbow album, he is credited with writing and arranging the music with Blackmore, in addition to writing all the lyrics himself. Blackmore and Dio found a common ground in their sense of humour. Following the positive experience of recording with Dio, Blackmore decided to leave Deep Purple, playing his last show in Paris in April; the album was a top 20 UK and top 30 US hit. Blackmore's departure from Deep Purple was publicly announced on 21 June. Blackmore was unhappy about carrying the Elf line-up along for live performances, so he fired everybody except Dio shortly after the album was recorded, due to Driscoll's style of drumming and the funky bass playing of Gruber. Blackmore would continue to dictate personnel for the remainder of the band's lifetime, with drummer and former bandmate Ricky Munro remarking "he was difficult to get on with because you never knew when he would turn around and say'You're sacked'."
Blackmore recruited bassist Jimmy Bain, American keyboard player Tony Carey and drummer Cozy Powell, who had worked with Jeff Beck and had some solo success. Powell greatly appealed to Blackmore in their mutual fondness for practical jokes; this line-up commenced the first world tour for the band, with the first date in Montreal on 10 November 1975. The centrepiece of the band's live performance was a computer-controlled rainbow including 3,000 lightbulbs, which stretched 40 feet across the stage. A second album, was recorded in February at Musicland. By the time of the European dates in the summer of 1976, Rainbow's reputation as a blistering live act had been established; the band added Deep Purple's "Mistreated" to their setlist, song lengths were stretched to include improvisation. Carey recalls rehearsing the material was straightforward, saying "We didn't work anything out, except the structure, the ending... free-form progressive rock." The album art was designed by American fantasy artist Ken Kelly, who had drawn Tarzan and Conan the Barbarian.
In August 1976, following a gig at Newcastle City Hall, Blackmore decided to fire Carey, believing his playing style to be too complicated for the band. Unable to find a suitable replacement Carey was reinstated, but as the world tour progressed onto Japan, he found himself being the recipient of Blackmore's pranks and humour. Blackmore subsequently decided that Bain was substandard and fired him in January 1977; the same fate befell Carey shortly after. Blackmore, had difficulty finding replacements he liked. On keyboards, after auditioning several high-profile artists, including Vanilla Fudge's Mark Stein, Procol Harum's Matthew Fisher and ex-Curved Air and Roxy Music man Eddie Jobson, Blackmore selected Canadian David Stone, from the little-known band Symphonic Slam. For a bass player, Blackmore chose Mark Clarke of Jon Hiseman's Colosseum, Uriah Heep and Tempest, but once in the studio for the next album, Long Live Rock'n' Roll, Blackmore disliked Clarke's fingerstyle method of playing so much that he fired him on the spot and played bass himself on all but four songs: the album's title track, "Gates of Babylon", "Kill the King", "Sensitive to Light".
Former Widowmaker bassist Bob Daisley was hired to record these tracks, completi
Vibrato systems for guitar
A vibrato system on a guitar is a mechanical device used to temporarily change the pitch of the strings. Instruments without a vibrato have other tailpiece systems, they add vibrato to the sound by changing the tension of the strings at the bridge or tailpiece of an electric guitar using a controlling lever. The lever enables the player to and temporarily vary the tension and sometimes length of the strings, changing the pitch to create a vibrato, portamento, or pitch bend effect; the pitch-bending effects have become an important part of many styles, allowing creation of sounds that could not be played without the device, such as the 1980s-era shred guitar "dive bombing" effect. The mechanical vibrato systems began as a device for more producing the vibrato effects that blues and jazz guitarists had achieved on arch top guitars by manipulating the tailpiece with their picking hand. Guitar makers developed a variety of vibrato systems since the 1920s. A vibrato-equipped guitar is more difficult to tune than a fixed-tailpiece guitar.
Since the regular appearance of mechanical vibrato systems in the 1950s, many guitarists have used them—from Chet Atkins to Duane Eddy and the surf music of The Ventures, The Shadows, Dick Dale. In the 1960s and 1970s, Jimi Hendrix, Jeff Beck, David Gilmour, Ritchie Blackmore, Jimmy Page, Frank Zappa used vibrato arms for more pronounced effects. In the 1980s, shred guitarists Eddie Van Halen, Eric Johnson, Joe Satriani and Steve Vai, metal guitarists Ritchie Blackmore, Kirk Hammett, Terje Rypdal, David Torn and David Duhig used vibrato in a range of metal-influenced styles; some electric guitarists have reversed the normal meanings of the terms vibrato and tremolo when referring to hardware devices and the effects they produce. This reversal of terminology is attributed to Leo Fender and the naming of his 1954 Stratocaster mechanical vibrato system as a "Tremolo Device for Stringed Instruments". Additionally, the 1956 Fender "Vibrolux" guitar amplifier, used electronically generated tremolo that Fender called “vibrato”.
Other classic guitar amplifiers contain electronic “vibrato units” which produce a tremolo effect via a tremolo circuit. This confusion of terms persists. While the "tremolo arm" can produce variations of pitch, including vibrato, it cannot produce tremolo. Other used names for the device include "vibrato bar" and "whammy bar", the latter attributed to guitarist Lonnie Mack's aggressive, rapid manipulation of the pitch-bending device in his 1963 song "Wham!". It has been called a "whang bar". Most vibrato systems for guitar are based on one of four basic designs: Bigsby Vibrato Tailpiece, introduced in the late 1940s and used in close to original form on many guitars Fender Synchronized Tremolo or strat trem, introduced on the Fender Stratocaster, which inspired many designs, including: Floyd Rose locking tremolo G&L Dual-fulcrum Vibrato, designed by Leo Fender Fender two-point synchronized tremolo Fender Floating Bridge, which has two main variants: Fender Floating Tremolo or jag trem, introduced on the Fender Jazzmaster Fender Dynamic Vibrato or stang trem, introduced on the Fender Mustang Cam-driven designs based on pedal steel guitar concepts, include: Kahler Tremolo System Washburn Wonderbar Stetsbar tremolo Many other designs exist in smaller numbers, notably several original designs marketed by Gibson under the Vibrola name, which they used for some licensed Bigsby units.
A design patented in 2006 from Trem King uses a fixed bridge with a moving tone block. The world's first patented mechanical vibrato unit was designed by Doc Kauffman; the initial patent was filed in August 1929 and was published in 1932. Between 1920 and 1980 Kauffman collaborated with many pioneering guitar manufacturers including Rickenbacker and Fender. In the late 1930s Rickenbacker produced the first commercial batch of electric Spanish guitars, utilizing the Kauffman "Vib-rol-a" as a stock option, thus setting precedence for electric guitars produced by Fender and Gibson; the Epiphone guitar company first offered the Vibrola as an option on some archtop guitars from 1935 to 1937. Epiphone sold the Vibrola as an aftermarket option as well; this Vibrola was used on some Rickenbacker lap steel guitars at around the same time and was introduced on their six string'Electro Spanish' guitars beginning about 1937. Some early Vibrolas on Rickenbacker guitars were not operated by hand, but rather moved with an electrical mechanism developed by Doc Kauffman to simulate the pitch manipulation available with steel guitars.
The Vibrola distributed as an option with Rickenbacker Electro Spanish guitars was hand operated like the earliest Epiphone Vibrolas. A unit was created and used on Rickenbacker's Capri line of guitars in the 1950s, such as John Lennon's 1958 Rickenbacker 325, it was a side-to-side action vibrato unit, notorious for throwing the guitar out of tune, hence Lennon's replacing his with a Bigsby B5 unit.. The first commercially successful vibrato system for guitar was the Bigsby vibrato tailpiece just called a Bigsby, invented by Paul Bigsby; the exact date of its first availability is uncertain, as Bigsby kept few records, but it was on Bigsby-built guitars photographed in 1952, in what became its standard form. In several interviews, the late Merle Travis
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical and secular music. While a more precise term is used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820, this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods; the central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, known as the common-practice period. The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the ancient music period, before 500 AD the early music period, which includes the Medieval including the ars antiqua the ars nova the ars subtilior the Renaissance eras. Baroque the galant music period the common-practice period, which includes Baroque the galant music period Classical Romantic eras the 20th and 21st centuries which includes: the modern that overlaps from the late-19th century, impressionism that overlaps from the late-19th century neoclassicism, predominantly in the inter-war period the high modern the postmodern eras the experimental contemporary European art music is distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.
Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music; this can leave less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, which are heard in non-European art music and in popular-music styles such as jazz and blues. Another difference is that whereas most popular styles adopt the song form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, fugue and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera and mass; the term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.
Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain, such as the use of music notation and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works. Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble—and the works written for it—have become a defining feature of classical music; the key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. This score determines details of rhythm, and, where two or more musicians are involved, how the various parts are coordinated.
The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic that would be difficult to achieve in the heat of live improvisation. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago. Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced; that said, the score does allow the interpreter to make choices on. For example, if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, it is not known how fast the piece should be played; as well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or how the chordal instrument should play the chords, which are not notated in the part.
The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas or pauses, the use of effects such as vibrato or glissando. Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and b