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Shrew

The shrew is a small mole-like mammal classified in the order Eulipotyphla. True shrews are not to be confused with treeshrews, otter shrews, elephant shrews, or the West Indies shrews, which belong to different families or orders. Although its external appearance is that of a long-nosed mouse, a shrew is not a rodent, as mice are, it is, in fact, a much closer relative of hedgehogs and moles, shrews are related to rodents only to the extent that both belong to the Boreoeutheria magnorder – together with humans, cats, horses, cattle, whales and others. Shrews have not the familiar gnawing front incisor teeth of rodents. Shrews are distributed worldwide. In terms of species diversity, the shrew family is the fourth-most successful mammal family, being exceeded only by the muroid rodent families Muridae and Cricetidae and the bat family Vespertilionidae. All shrews are tiny; the largest species is the Asian house shrew of tropical Asia, about 15 cm long and weighs around 100 g. In general, shrews are terrestrial creatures that forage for seeds, nuts, a variety of other foods in leaf litter and dense vegetation, but some specialise in climbing trees, living underground, living under snow, or hunting in water.

They have small eyes and poor vision, but have excellent senses of hearing and smell. They are active animals, with voracious appetites. Shrews have unusually high metabolic rates, above that expected in comparable small mammals. Shrews in captivity can eat 1/2 to 2 times their own body weight in food daily, they are capable of entering torpor. In winter, many species undergo morphological changes. Shrews can lose between 30% and 50% of their body weight, shrinking the size of bones and internal organs. Whereas rodents have gnawing incisors that grow throughout life, the teeth of shrews wear down throughout life, a problem made more extreme because they lose their milk teeth before birth, so have only one set of teeth throughout their lifetimes. In some species, exposed areas of the teeth are dark red due to the presence of iron in the tooth enamel; the iron reinforces the surfaces that are exposed to the most stress, which helps prolong the life of the teeth. This adaptation is not found in species with lower metabolism, which don't have to eat as much and therefore don't wear down the enamel to the same degree.

The only other mammals with pigmented enamel are the incisors of rodents. Apart from the first pair of incisors, which are long and sharp, the chewing molars at the back of the mouth, the teeth of shrews are small and peg-like, may be reduced in number; the dental formula of shrews is:3.1.1-3.31-2.0-1.1.3 Shrews are fiercely territorial, driving off rivals, coming together only to mate. Many species dig burrows for catching food and hiding from predators, although this is not universal. Female shrews can have up to 10 litters a year. Shrews have gestation periods of 17–32 days; the female becomes pregnant within a day or so of giving birth, lactates during her pregnancy, weaning one litter as the next is born. Shrews live 12 to 30 months. Shrews are unusual among mammals in a number of respects. Unlike most mammals, some species of shrews are venomous. Shrew venom is not by grooves in the teeth; the venom contains various compounds, the contents of the venom glands of the American short-tailed shrew are sufficient to kill 200 mice by intravenous injection.

One chemical extracted from shrew venom may be useful in the treatment of high blood pressure, while another compound may be useful in the treatment of some neuromuscular diseases and migraines. The saliva of the northern short-tailed shrew contains soricidin, a peptide, studied for use in treating ovarian cancer. Along with the bats and toothed whales, some species of shrews use echolocation. Unlike most other mammals, shrews lack zygomatic bones, so have incomplete zygomatic arches; the only terrestrial mammals known to echolocate are two genera of shrews, the tenrecs of Madagascar and the solenodons. These include the Eurasian or common shrew and the American vagrant shrew and northern short-tailed shrew; these shrews emit series of ultrasonic squeaks. By nature the shrew sounds, unlike those of bats, are low-amplitude, broadband and frequency modulated, they contain no "echolocation clicks" with reverberations and would seem to be used for simple, close-range spatial orientation. In contrast to bats, shrews use echolocation only to investigate their habitats rather than additionally to pinpoint food.

Except for large and thus reflecting objects, such as a big stone or tree trunk, they are not able to disentangle echo scenes, but rather derive information on habitat type from the overall call reverberations. This might be comparable to human hearing whether one calls into a beech forest or into a reverberant wine cellar; the 385 shrew species are placed in 26 genera, which are grouped

Zvonimir Cimermančić

Zvonimir Cimermančić was a Croatian footballer. He began his playing career with HŠK Građanski Zagreb's youth side before moving to ŠK Slavija Varaždin. In 1938 he returned to Građanski and in the following season won the Kingdom of Yugoslavia's last national championship, he played with Građanski in the Independent State of Croatia's First League until the state's demise and the club's disbanding at the end of the Second World War by Yugoslavian communists. He had become Croatian national champion with the club during the 1943 season. Afterwards, he played for NK Građanski's replacement regime-club NK Dinamo Zagreb. Cimermančić has the distinction of having played for two different FIFA-recognized national teams, three different nations, four national teams in all. In 1940, Cimermančić debuted for the Kingdom of Yugoslavia's national team and concurrently played four matches for the Banovina of Croatia's national team, which represented the Croatian statelet within the kingdom. With the establishment of the Independent State of Croatia and its respective national team, he suited up thirteen times and scored six goals for the country.

After the war, he played for communist Yugoslavia's national team. After his playing career, Cimermančić worked as a dentist, he is buried in Mirogoj Cemetery. Profile at the Serbian football federation

Israel River

The Israel River, sometimes referred to as Israel's River, is a river in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, in the United States. It rises in the township of Low and Burbank's Grant and runs 24 miles northwest along U. S. Highway 2, traversing the towns of Lancaster, before joining the Connecticut River; the Abenaki people called the river Siwooganock, which means "place of the burnt pine trees". The first name given to the river by English settlers was "Powers River" in honor of Captain Peter Powers, who in 1754 became the first to explore this area; the present name comes from an early hunter and trapper named Israel Glines, whose camp was situated near the outlet of the river. The Johns River, in the nearby town of Whitefield, is named for Israel's brother John; the Israel River rises near the foot of Mount Adams, at the juncture of Castle Brook and Cascade Brook. With its numerous tributaries, the river drains the northwestern slopes of Mount Adams and Mt. Jefferson in the Presidential Range, the northern slopes of the Dartmouth Range, the southern slopes of the Pliny Range.

The larger tributaries include the South Branch, The Mystic, Castle Brook, Cascade Brook, Stag Hollow Brook, Stanley Brook, Priscilla Brook, Alder Brook, Red Brook, Mill Brook, Garland Brook and Otter Brook. Major highway bridges over the river include New Hampshire Route 115, U. S. Route 2 and New Hampshire Route 115A in Jefferson, U. S. Route 3 on Main Street in Lancaster. A number of smaller bridges are provided for snowmobile trails, there is an old covered bridge on Mechanic Street in Lancaster. List of rivers of New Hampshire Julyan and Mary. Place Names of the White Mountains. Hanover: University Press of New Hampshire. P. 77. ISBN 0-87451-638-2. USDA Forest Service. White Mountain National Forest