click links in text for more info

Shrewsbury School

Shrewsbury School is an English independent boarding school for pupils aged 13 to 18 in Shrewsbury, founded by Edward VI in 1552 by a Royal Charter. The present campus, to which the school moved in 1882, is on the banks of the River Severn. Shrewsbury School is one of the original seven public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868, one of the'great' nine identified by the Clarendon Commission of 1861, it was a boarding school for boys. Since 2015, the school has been co-educational. Pupils are admitted at the age of 13 by selective examination, for ten per cent of the pupils, English is a second or additional language; the fees at Shrewsbury are up to £12,980 a term for UK students and up to £13,500 a term for international students, with three terms per academic year in 2019. The school's old boys – or "Old Salopians" – include naturalists, academics, authors, sportsmen and military figures. Following a petition in 1542 to Henry VIII from the townspeople of Shrewsbury for a free grammar school, Shrewsbury School was founded by charter in 1552 under King Edward VI by Adam Jones in three rented wooden buildings, which included Riggs Hall, built in 1450, now the only remaining part of the original foundation.

The curriculum was based on Continental Calvinism, under its first headmaster, Thomas Ashton and boys were taught the catechism of Calvin. The school attracted large numbers of pupils from Protestant families in Shrewsbury and North Wales, with 266 boys on its roll at the end of 1562, it had few facilities so early pupils lodged with local families. Philip Sidney, who attended Shrewsbury between the ages of nine and thirteen, lodged with the family of George Leigh, Member of Parliament for Shrewsbury. Having achieved a reputation for excellence under Ashton, in 1571 the school was augmented by Queen Elizabeth I. Although Ashton had resigned from his headmastership in 1568, he returned to Shrewsbury in 1578 to help draw up the ordinances governing the school, which were in force until 1798. Shrewsbury has retained links with the College, with the continued appointment of Johnian academics to the Governing Body, the historic awarding of'closed' Shrewsbury Exhibitions; the stone buildings on Castle Gates, including a chapel, dormitories and classrooms were completed by 1630 and the school continued in these, until it was relocated in 1882.

Subsequently, the premises were converted to a public Free Library and Museum by the Shrewsbury Borough Council, opening in their new role in 1885. In the 20th century the library purpose took over the building. After a period of structural deterioration, followed by extensive restoration work, the buildings were re-opened as Shrewsbury Public Library in 1983; the reputation of the school declined in the following centuries. Samuel Butler became headmaster in 1798; the school had just three headmasters during the 19th century. Butler was succeeded by his pupil Benjamin Hall Kennedy in 1836, who in turn gave way to Henry Whitehead Moss in 1866. Under Butler and Kennedy, Shrewsbury was one of three provincial schools among the nine studied by the Clarendon Commission of 1861–64. In 1882, Moss moved the school from its original town centre location to a new site of 150 acres in Kingsland, on the south bank of the River Severn overlooking the town. A legacy of this move can be seen in the school campus being referred to as "The Site".

The school was set up in a building that had at different times housed a foundling hospital and the Shrewsbury workhouse. Moss was succeeded in 1908 by Cyril Alington Master in College at Eton. Alington, though a Fellow of All Souls College, was a sportsman, evidenced by the 1914 appointment as his secretary of Neville Cardus, the future cricket journalist who had joined the school in 1912 as the school's assistant cricket professional. At the time of his appointment as Headmaster, Alington was younger than any of the masters on the staff, so to bring in new blood into the teaching staff, he recruited several former Collegers from Eton, most notably The Rev. Ronald Knox. Alington revived attendance which had fallen away under Moss, he was an energetic builder. Since the turn of the millennium, the school's site has seen investment. A new music school, The Maidment Building, was opened by Prince Charles in 2001; the Main School Building – an institutional building of 1765, remodelled by Sir Arthur Blomfield – saw renovation over several years, modernising all classrooms in the mid to late 2000s.

A new boarding house has been completed, as has a new world-class indoor cricket centre and a new swimming pool. In 2003 Shrewsbury International School, Bangkok was opened in Bangkok, Thailand, on the banks of the Chao Phraya River. In 2005 Shrewsbury School was one of fifty of the country's leading independent schools which were found guilty of running an illegal price-fixing cartel which had allowed them to drive up fees for thousands of parents; each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £10,000 and all agreed to make ex-gratia payments totalling three million pounds into a trust designed to benefit pupils who atte

Tammelan Stadion

Tammelan Stadion is a football stadium in Tampere, Finland. The stadium holds 5,050 people and was built in 1931, it is the home ground for the Veikkausliiga club Ilves and the Kakkonen sides TPV and Tampere United. The Ilves women’s team, which plays in the Naisten liiga uses the stadium; the stadium’s history began in 1926 when the city council made a decision to build a football field in Tammela. Construction, advanced rather due to a lack of funds; the situation worsened during the recession of early 1930s. The field was opened in 1931, but a stadium-like look was reached only in 1937 when the first stand was built; the current stands were built in 1993. Only the main stand has numbered 1300 in all; the attendance record for the stadium was set in October 2, 1994, when 5490 spectators watched a game between TPV and HJK. The current stadium does not meet the requirements set by Veikkausliiga, a new one is being planned to replace it; the city of Tampere held an architecture competition in 2014, in which a proposal called Hattutemppu by JKMM Arkkitehdit was chosen as the basis for the development project.

The new building will comprise apartments as well as office and retail space in addition to the stadium proper. The new stadium will seat 6500 spectators and meet the UEFA Category 3 criteria

Sabiha Sumar

Sabiha Sumar is a Pakistani filmmaker and producer. She is best known for her independent documentary films, her first feature-length film was Khamosh Pani, released in 2003. She is known for exploring themes of gender, religion and fundamentalism in Pakistan. She, along with Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy and Samar Minallah, are the only three Pakistani women independent documentary filmmakers to have screened their work outside of Pakistan. Sumar was born in Karachi in 1961, her parents were from Bombay and moved to Karachi during partition. When Sumar was growing up, her parents hosted many social gatherings that included Sufi poetry and liquor, she attended Karachi Grammar School. Sumar studied Persian Literature at the University of Karachi, followed by Filmmaking and Political Science at Sarah Lawrence College in New York from 1980–83, she completed her post-graduate degree from Cambridge University, England in International Relations. Sabiha Sumar has earned acclaim for her independent films, which deal with political and social issues such as the effects of religious fundamentalism on society, on women.

Sumar's main interest has been on addressing Pakistani women's place in the world and how different aspects of society have affected them over the past several decades. Sumar's first documentary, Who Will Cast the First Stone, deals with the state of three women in prison in Pakistan under the Hudood Ordinances, it won the Golden Gate Award at the San Francisco Film Festival in 1998. The film led to the quashing of death-by-stoning sentence for Shahida Parveen, accused of adultery. In 1992 Sumar founded Vidhi Films, her documentary films include Don't Ask Why, For a Place Under the Heavens, On the roofs of Delhi, Dinner with the President: A Nation's Journey. Her film, Suicide Warriors, is about women in the Tamil Liberation Army. For a Place Under the Heavens addressed issues of religion and phallocentrism and gender. For a Place Under the Heavens kicked off a critical debate on women wearing the hijab in the Muslim World. In 2013, her latest feature film Good, her films have circulated internationally through film festivals, American universities, women’s organizations and human rights organizations.

Sumar’s films have not been screened in Pakistan due to its content. Don’t Ask Why aired on a German-French channel. Sumar produced, her first feature film is Khamosh Pani. It first aired in 2003. Khamosh Pani is a fictional film that looks at religion, honour killings, assault and colonialism in the wake of partition, it depicts the trauma of partition through a woman’s point of view. Sumar links the violent aftermath of partition to the violence of Zia-ul-Haq’s Islamization in 1979; the latter is a theme, namely For a Place Under the Heavens. Sumar continues in the tradition of Partition cinema, among the likes of Deepa Mehta, Kamal Hasan, Chadraprakash Dwivdei. Khamosh Pani is one of the first films to offer a perspective on partition cinema from a Muslim lens. Khamosh Pani was supposed to be a documentary film; when Sumar was researching for the film, she did not want to make. The film is a fictional narrative that looks at the necessity of silence in face of healing from trauma. Sumar received funding for Khamosh Pani from a number of international sources, including France, Switzerland and Sweden.

Most of the film was shot in Pakistan. Khamosh Pani won fourteen international awards, it won Best Screenplay at the third KaraFilm Festival in 2003. Sumar won the Golden Leopard for Best Film at the Locarno International Film Festival, she won the Audience Award and Silver Montgolfiere at the Nantes Three Continents Festival. Khamosh Pani is a First Run title endorsed by the Human Rights Watch. Sumar faced difficulty finding places to screen the film in Pakistan due to its controversial themes. Sumar organised forty-one free screenings of the film across Pakistan; the film sparked a controversy regarding the main character’s suicide after its screening at the Indian Film Festival of Los Angeles. She has one daughter, who accompanied Sumar in For a Place Under the Heavens. Sumar established the Centre for Social Science Research in Karachi. Sabiha Sumar on IMDb Profile at Women of Pakistan feature New York Times review of "Silent Waters" Video Interview of Sabiha Sumar "Sabiha Sumar: "I began to realize I could be in prison."".

Capturing Reality: The Art of Documentary. National Film Board of Canada. Archived from the original on 2009-07-03. Retrieved 2009-09-03

750 Burrard Street

750 Burrard Street is a building in Downtown Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, at the northeast corner of Robson Street and Burrard Street. The site was home of the main branch of the Vancouver Public Library from 1957 to 1995. In December 1996, Canada's first Virgin Megastore opened on the lower level. In late 2011, HMV Canada, now separately owned by Hilco UK, announced plans to close the Burrard location in January 2012 as part of a corporate refocusing towards smaller locations. HMV closed at this location on January 23, 2012; the southeast corner of the building was the first Planet Hollywood in Vancouver opened on March 16, 1997. The main entrance was on 969 Robson Street, it was closed in October 1999 after bankruptcy. The upper levels were taken over in fall 1997 as studios for the newly launched independent TV station VTV. VTV became part of the CTV Television Network, the site now serves as Bell Media's west coast headquarters; the site selection, much of the VTV format, had been inspired by Toronto station City and the iconic downtown studios that were at the time synonymous with the station.

Incidentally, CTV would acquire the Toronto building in question. The Globe and Mail, co-owned with CTV from 2001 to 2010 moved its Vancouver offices into part of CTV's space. Radio stations 94.5 Virgin Radio, 103.5 QMFM, TSN Radio 1040 and TSN Radio 1410, all co-owned with CTV since 2007 moved into the building. In the early 2010s, CTV reduced its space so that its offices are no longer directly accessible from Burrard Street. Besides Bell Media and the Globe, current occupants include a flagship Victoria's Secret / Pink store, as well as a Clearly Contacts retail store. 9 Channel Nine Court—CTV's Toronto Studios Morguard building profile

Castle Williams

Castle Williams is a circular fortification of red sandstone on the northwest point of Governors Island, part of a system of forts designed and constructed in the early 19th century to protect New York City from naval attack. It is a prominent landmark in New York Harbor. Together with Fort Jay, it is managed by the National Park Service as part of Governors Island National Monument. Castle Williams was designed and erected between 1807 and 1811 under the direction of Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan Williams, Chief Engineer of the Corps of Engineers and first Superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York; the castle was one component of a defensive system for the inner harbor that included Fort Columbus and the South Battery on Governors Island. Its pioneering design consisted of multiple levels of fortified gun emplacements, it established a prototype for American coastal fortification design for the rest of the 19th century. The nearly circular fortification, 40 feet high and 210 feet in diameter, was constructed of sandstone walls 7 to 8 feet thick.

Each of its four levels had 13 casemates. The four-tier arrangement was only duplicated in the US by Battery Weed at Fort Wadsworth on Staten Island and Fort Point in San Francisco. However, at Castle Williams the third tier was not armed. Before its completion, Colonel Henry Burbeck, commanding the defenses of New York City, issued an Army order on November 24, 1810, that named the castle for its designer and builder: "In future the Stone Tower on this Island will bear the name of CASTLE WILLIAMS, in honor of the commandant of the United States Corps of Engineers, who designed and erected it." During the Civil War, the casemates of Castle Williams were used to house newly recruited Union troops, to serve as a barracks for the garrison's troops, to imprison Confederate enlisted men and deserters from the Union Army. After 1865, it became a low-security military prison, used as quarters for recruits and transient troops. By the 1880s, the castle, with its pitted and crumbling walls, was considered to be an aging and obsolete fortification.

Improvements that included the installation of central heating and plumbing were most made in 1895 when Castle Williams was designated one of the U. S. Army's ten military prisons. A commitment to preserve the forts of Governors Island was made in the early 20th century by Secretary of War Elihu Root when landfill operations doubled the size of Governors Island between 1901 and 1912; the castle was fitted up as a model prison in 1903. It was most wired for electricity when it became available on the island in 1904; the angled gate walls were remodeled in 1912-13 to create a two-story guardhouse, using stones from two demolished magazines within the courtyard. Castle Williams became the Atlantic Branch of the Fort Leavenworth Disciplinary Barracks in 1915, the Eastern Branch of the United States Disciplinary Barracks in 1921. Expansion of the plumbing system occurred in 1916, complete renovation of the plumbing, central heating, electrical systems was carried out in the 1930s; the floors and roof were reinforced with steel in the 1930s, steel grating and solitary confinement cells were installed in selected casemates of the second and third tiers.

Extensive renovations were carried out in 1947-48. Concrete balconies enclosed with steel sashes replaced existing wooden galleries, a three-story brick addition enclosed a steel stair. Concrete floors and brick partitions were installed in the casemates of the second tier, steel security sashes and doors replaced those made of wood. Castle Williams ceased operations as a military prison in 1965 when the U. S. Army closed its post at Fort Jay and moved Headquarters, First United States Army from Governors Island to Fort Meade, Maryland; the U. S. Coast Guard arrived on Governors Island in 1966 and considered demolishing the castle. Instead it became a community center that provided a nursery, meeting rooms for scouts and clubs, a woodworking shop, art studios, a photography laboratory, a museum. With the relocation of those civilian functions to new locations on the island in the mid-1970s, the castle ended its military career in a state of mild neglect as a storage facility and landscape shop for the Coast Guard.

When the Governors Island Coast Guard base closed in 1997, the General Services Administration stabilized the building with replacement windows and a new roof. In 2003, Castle Williams and the neighboring fortification, Fort Jay, were transferred to the National Park Service under the administration of the Governors Island National Monument, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. List of New York City Designated Landmarks in Manhattan on Islands National Register of Historic Places listings in Manhattan on islands Notes Bibliography Hightower, Barbara. C.: National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, p. 47 "Castle Williams" on Historic American Buildings Survey Kerr, Field Grey, USA: G. P. Putnam's Sons, pp. 30–37, ISBN 978-0-399-15741-7 Stillwell, Oral History Interview: Admiral James S. Gracey, USCG retired. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute, p. 741 Yocum, Castle Williams: Historic Structure Report: Governors Island National Monument, National Parks

Richard Ravitch

Richard Ravitch is an American politician and businessman who served as Lieutenant Governor of New York from 2009 to 2010. He was appointed to the position in July 2009 by New York Governor David Paterson. A native of New York City, he earned a law degree from Yale Law School and has worked in his family's real estate development business, a number of government and government-appointed positions, including with the New York State Urban Development Corporation and Metropolitan Transportation Authority, in private industry, including tenures as chairman of the Bowery Savings Bank and as the chief owner representative in labor negotiations for Major League Baseball. Richard Ravitch was born July 7, 1933 to a Jewish family in Brooklyn, New York City, the son of Saul and Sylvia Ravitch, his father was a co-founder of HRH Construction Corporation, which grew to have offices in New York, Los Angeles, Washington, DC, Puerto Rico. The firm had begun building in Manhattan in the late nineteenth century, by 1965 had built more than $1 billion worth of projects, including Columbia University Law School and New York University Hospital.

Ravitch is a member of the third generation of the family to run the company. Ravitch was educated at Columbia College, earning an undergraduate degree in American History with Phi Beta Kappa honors in 1955, Yale Law School, earning a JD in 1958, he served in the army for a short time after graduation from Yale and his 1960 marriage to Diane Silvers. After earning his law degree, Ravitch worked for the House Government Operations Committee in Washington, D. C. and the New York State Commission on Governmental Operations for the City of New York. He joined his family's business, HRH Construction, in 1960, his focus was low- and middle-income housing projects, some notable developments he was responsible for were Waterside Plaza and Manhattan Plaza, all in Manhattan. Some of the projects he worked on were built under the Mitchell-Lama Housing Program, he built the first integrated housing projects in Washington, D. C. with James H. Scheuer. President Lyndon Johnson appointed Ravitch to the United States Commission on Urban Problems in 1966, he was elected president of the Citizens Housing and Planning Council in 1968.

In 1975 Ravitch was appointed by New York State governor Hugh Carey as chairman of the New York State Urban Development Corporation. Ravitch was responsible for salvaging the finances of the organization, which Carey had found was nearly insolvent. After succeeding at the reorganization, Ravitch brought in another president, while retaining the position of unpaid chairman himself. Ravitch sold HRH Construction, his family's business, in 1977. Carey again chose Ravitch for a major appointment in 1979, as head of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Carey had expressed the desire to keep the annual salary at $15,000 requiring whoever took the job to be "independently wealthy or have a business that did not require his full attention". Ravitch was approved for the job, did not accept a salary for his work, he was described as throwing himself "into the job unsparingly", recapitalizing the system, building the Metro-North Railroad from other existing lines, improving labor relations. He was the chairman of the M.

T. A. during the 11-day 1980 New York City transit strike, receiving death threats. Ravitch was assigned a bodyguard and he began wearing a bulletproof vest at some public events, security was provided for his family, he led the M. T. A. until 1983. After a year of effort, Ravitch became chairman of the Bowery Savings Bank of New York in 1985; the bank had been losing money for several years, Ravitch formed an investment group that included Laurence Tisch, Lionel Pincus, Warren Buffett to take over the bank as an alternative to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation liquidating it. After the bank returned to profitability, it was sold to H. F. Ahmanson & Co. in 1987. While chairman of Bowery, Ravitch was named to the board of governors of the American Stock Exchange. Ravitch considered a run for mayor of New York City in 1977 that met with a "lukewarm response", he ran as an "outsider" against incumbent mayor Ed Koch, Manhattan Borough President David Dinkins, city comptroller Harrison J. Goldin.

He was endorsed by one of the city's major newspapers, the Daily News, just before the primary, but placed third in that primary, which Dinkins won. Ravitch's candidacy was described after the primary as being run in the face of "predictable defeat". Dinkins went on to win the general election against Rudy Giuliani. Moving back to private industry, Ravitch was hired in November 1991 by the Major League Baseball owners as head of their Player Relations Committee, the chief labor negotiator for the owners, at an annual salary of $750,000. Although some critics claimed he was hired as a "union buster" against the Major League Baseball Players Association, he rejected that characterization. Koch, mayor of New York while Ravitch ran the M. T. A. called that description "foolish" and described Ravitch as a "Renaissance man". During 1994 negotiations between the owners and the players, a primary negotiating point was the owners' desire for a salary cap, which the union resisted; the negotiations were not successful in avoiding the 1994 Major League Baseball strike, which ended the 1994 baseball season and resulted in cancellation of the 1994 World Series.

The players' union held Ravitch responsible for caus