Knights Templar (Freemasonry)
This page is about a Masonic organization. For the medieval Knights Templar, see Knights Templar. See Knights Templar and popular culture; the Knights Templar, full name The United Religious and Masonic Orders of the Temple and of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine and Malta, is a fraternal order affiliated with Freemasonry. Unlike the initial degrees conferred in a regular Masonic Lodge, which only require a belief in a Supreme Being regardless of religious affiliation, the Knights Templar is one of several additional Masonic Orders in which membership is open only to Freemasons who profess a belief in Christianity. One of the obligations entrants to the order are required to declare is to protect and defend the Christian faith; the word "United" in its full title indicates that more than one historical tradition and more than one actual order are jointly controlled within this system. The individual orders'united' within this system are principally the Knights of the Temple, the Knights of Malta, the Knights of St Paul, only within the York Rite, the Knights of the Red Cross.
Like the Masonic Red Cross of Constantine being inspired by the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George and the Order of Malta being inspired by the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, the Masonic order of Knights Templar derives its name from the medieval Catholic military order Knights Templar. However, it does not claim any direct lineal descent from the original Templar order; the earliest documented link between Freemasonry and the Crusades is the 1737 oration of the Chevalier Ramsay. This claimed that European Freemasonry came about from an interaction between crusader masons and the Knights Hospitaller; this is repeated in the earliest known "Moderns" ritual, the Berne manuscript, written in French between 1740 and 1744. In 1751 Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund und Altengrotkau began the Order of Strict Observance, which ritual he claimed to have received from the reconstituted Templar Order in 1743 in Paris, he claimed to have met two of the "unknown superiors" who directed all of masonry, one of whom was Prince Charles Edward Stuart.
The order went into decline when he failed to produce any evidence to support his claims, was wound up shortly after his death. In 1779 the High Knights Templar of Ireland Lodge, obtained a charter from Lodge Mother Kilwinning in Scotland; this lodge now began to grant dispensations to other lodges to confer the Knights Templar Degree. Some time around 1790 the Early Grand Encampment of Ireland was formed, which began to warrant Templar Lodges, evolved into the Supreme Grand Encampment in 1836; the Early Grand Encampment chartered several Scottish "encampments" one of which, having been chartered in 1805 as the "Edinburgh Encampment No. 31" became the"Grand Assembly of Knights Templar in Edinburgh". Who sought a charter from the Duke of Kent, Grand Master of the Order in England, it seems that the Templar degree had filtered into the lodges of the Antients from Ireland about 1780, was recorded at York about the same time. In the five degree system developed by the York Masons, the Knights Templar degree sat between the Master Mason and the Sublime Degree of Royal Arch.
Templar masonry in England entered a new era in 1791, with the formation of its first Grand Conclave, with Thomas Dunckerley as Grand Master. At that time, there were eight known Templar encampments in England, the most senior being the Encampment of Redemption at York, the Baldwyn encampment at Bristol, at whose request Dunckerley began his mission. Under his leadership, the number of encampments grew until his death in 1795. Stasis followed, until in 1805 their Royal Patron, Duke of Kent, became Grand Master himself, re-energising the society and launching it into an era of growth and development. Dunckerley laid the foundation for this not only by promoting the order, but by standardising the ritual and insisting on proper record keeping; the Grand Conclave went into a period of decline between 1872 and 1895, when it was re-founded as the present day Great Priory of England and Wales. Depending upon the geographical jurisdiction, the Knights Templar exist either as part of the York Rite or as an independent organization.
Though the York Rite and the independent versions share many similarities there are key differences which are described below. Outside the York Rite, membership is by invitation only. Candidates are required to be Master Masons, Royal Arch Masons, to sign a declaration that they profess the Doctrine of the Holy and Undivided Trinity. In some Australian States, the requirement of being a Royal Arch Mason no longer applies. Local bodies of Knights Templar are known as Preceptories. Although some jurisdictions maintain a separate Great Priory of the Temple and Great Priory of Malta, the Grand Master and other officers of both Great Priories hold simultaneous equal office in both bodies. Three degrees are administered in this system: The Degree of Knight Templar The Degree of Knight of St. Paul The Degree of Knight of Malta In England and Wales, the "Great Priory of England and Wales" for the Masonic Knights Templar is administrated from Mark Masons' Hall, London; the Order of the Red Cross continues or reverts to the period of the Royal Arch Degree when the Israelites were returning from Babylon to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple.
Zerubbabel, their leader prevails upon King Darius to restore the Holy Vessels to the new Temple
Ye Antient Order of Noble Corks
Ye Antient Order of Noble Corks or Ancient & Honourable Societas Korcorum Magnae Britanniae, universally known, informally, as The Cork, is an informal degree allied to Freemasonry. It is described as a "fun" degree, with charitable fund raising as a principal aim. Distinctly nautical in form, its membership criteria vary between branches of the order. Whilst some branches will admit all Master Masons in good standing, others restrict membership to Master Masons who are either a companion in the Holy Royal Arch or a Warden, Master or Past Master of a craft Lodge; the title'Cork' or'Corks' is derived from the cork stopper of a wine bottle, the organisation's principal emblem. In different countries this emblem appears variously as a miniature cork set in a silver clasp, or a small cork suspended from a light blue ribon, or the image of a cork with a corkscrew inserted at an angle; the origins of the degree ceremony are unknown. The earliest surviving records of the degree are held by the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons of England, but this cannot be assumed to demonstrate that the degree originated from that organisation.
All fees received by the Lodge must be paid, in full, to the treasurer of a charity, preferably a children's charity with no deduction being made for administrative expenses. Meetings are characterised by regular humorous'fines', in which a single member, or everybody present, is required to pay a fine by throwing a coin into a bucket or other receptacle. All fines are applied to charitable purposes a children's charity. Members are required to carry a pocket cork at all times, be able to produce it on demand. Any member being unable to produce the jewel is fined, this being given to the Lodge treasurer at the next meeting for contribution to charity; the nature of the pocket cork varies. In some traditions it is a piece of cork in a metal ring, in others it is a small cork set in a silver clasp, in still others it is a flat piece of cork which may be carried in a wallet. Membership is not onerous—the only costs on top of membership being dining fees, etc; the idea and aim being to raise money for children's charities, with Corkies having fun in so doing.
In Boards under the English Great Board of Corks there are no subscriptions or joining fees. Candidates can be initiated on the same night. Compared with masonic meetings, dress is informal - as meetings tend to be boisterous affairs, in good spirits; the ritual and initiation part takes up the first part of the evening, followed by festivities that are “closer to a Scottish Harmony than an English Festive Board”. Hats are worn during the meeting, with head-gear style being of personal choice - the sillier, the better; the presiding officer is known as the Admiral. The head of a national Great Board of Corks is known as the Great Admiral. All board or lodge officers have naval titles equating to the officers in a Craft Lodge, with jewels of office being borne on strings of corks. Titles vary between countries and traditions, but the following is one example: Rather Worshipful Admiral Uncommonly Worshipful Mate Highly Worshipful Purser Hardly Worshipful Lookout Nearly Rather Worshipful Vice Admiral Undoubtedly Ship's Writer Little Less Worshipful Doctor Barely Worshipful Cook Mainly Worshipful Bosun Particularly Worthy Screw Almost Worthy Carpenter Particularly Worthy ShipmateScotland: the Cork tradition is strong in Scotland, where lodges come under the supervision of the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter.
United States of America: whilst the Cork is associated with Mark Masonry, in the United States it forms an informal and optional part of the formal system of the Allied Masonic Degrees. England and Wales: in England the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons holds the oldest known English Cork records and regalia. Before the Second World War there are various references to English Mark Lodges working the Cork degree at dinner after their formal Mark meeting. A body known as the'Great Board of Corks', consisting of senior Grand Officers of the Mark Grand Lodge, controlled the Cork degree for many years, but fell into abeyance. By 2002 it had been revived, with at least one surviving member of the original Great Board. Additionally, at least one'Board of Corks' under the authority of the Great Board, has survived the passage of time. However, the English situation is now complicated in that some old Cork lodges have histories originating without reference to the Great Board, may properly be considered independent of that body.
In general, English bodies styling themselves a'Lodge of Corks' are independent, derived from Scottish tradition, whilst English bodies styling themselves a'Board of Corks' are under the jurisdiction of the Great Board of Corks. In 2012 several independent Cork Lodges, not associated with the Great Board of Corks, formed themselves into the Grand Fleet of Cork Lodges; the fleet includes mainland European Cork Lodges. Australia: while new in Australia, it follows the tradition of the Cork Order in Scotland and England. However, its membership is open to all Master Masons in good standing. There is only one authorised Cork Lodge in Australia operating in the city of Brisbane; this lodge is Endeavour Cork Lodge No.1 and was established in 2011. The following are some examples of Cork Lodges. Armada Cork Lodge, West Lothian. Maeshowe Antient & Most Noble Cork Lodge, Orkney Angus & Mearns Cork Lodge Eastmuir Cork Lodge & Chapte
John the Baptist
John the Baptist was a Jewish itinerant preacher in the early first century AD. Other titles for John include John the Forerunner in Eastern Christianity and "the prophet John" in Islam. To clarify the meaning of "Baptist", he is sometimes alternatively called John the Baptizer. John the Baptist is mentioned by the Jewish historian Josephus and revered as a major religious figure in Christianity, the Bahá'í Faith, Mandaeism, he is called a prophet by all of these faiths, is honored as a saint in many Christian traditions. According to the New Testament, John anticipated a messianic figure greater than himself and Christians refer to John as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus, since John announces Jesus' coming. John is identified as the spiritual successor of the prophet Elijah. According to the New Testament John the Baptist was Jesus Christ's cousin; some scholars maintain that John was influenced by the semi-ascetic Essenes, who expected an apocalypse and practiced rituals corresponding with baptism, although no direct evidence substantiates this.
John used baptism as the central sacrament of his messianic movement. Most scholars agree that John baptized Jesus and some scholars believe Jesus was a follower or disciple of John; the New Testament texts in which John is mentioned portray him as rejecting this idea, although several New Testament accounts report that some of Jesus' early followers had been followers of John. John was sentenced to death and subsequently beheaded by Herod Antipas sometime between 28 and 36 AD after John rebuked him for divorcing his wife and unlawfully taking Herodias, the wife of his brother Herod Philip I. John the Baptist is mentioned in all four canonical Gospels and the non-canonical Gospel of the Nazarenes; the Synoptic Gospels describe John baptising Jesus. The Gospel of Mark introduces John as a fulfilment of a prophecy from the Book of Isaiah about a messenger being sent ahead, a voice crying out in the wilderness. John is described as living on locusts and wild honey. John proclaims baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sin, says another will come after him who will not baptize with water, but with the Holy Spirit.
Jesus comes to John, is baptized by him in the river Jordan. The account describes how. A voice from heaven says, "You are my Son, the Beloved. In the gospel there is an account of John's death, it is introduced by an incident where the Tetrarch Herod Antipas, hearing stories about Jesus, imagines that this is John the Baptist raised from the dead. It explains that John had rebuked Herod for marrying Herodias, the ex-wife of his brother. Herodias demands his execution, but Herod, who'liked to listen' to John, is reluctant to do so because he fears him, knowing he is a'righteous and holy man'; the account describes how Herod's daughter Herodias dances before Herod, pleased and offers her anything she asks for in return. When the girl asks her mother what she should request, she is told to demand the head of John the Baptist. Reluctantly, Herod orders the beheading of John, his head is delivered to her, at her request, on a plate. John's disciples bury it in a tomb. There are a number of difficulties with this passage.
The Gospel refers to Antipas as'King' and the ex-husband of Herodias is named as Philip, but he is known to have been called Herod. Although the wording implies the girl was the daughter of Herodias, many texts describe her as "Herod's daughter, Herodias". Since these texts are early and significant and the reading is'difficult', many scholars see this as the original version, corrected in versions and in Matthew and Luke. Josephus says. Scholars have speculated about the origins of the story. Since it shows signs of having been composed in Aramaic, which Mark did not speak, he is to have got it from a Palestinian source. There are a variety of opinions about how much actual historical material it contains given the alleged factual errors. Many scholars have seen the story of John arrested and buried in a tomb as a conscious foreshadowing of the fate of Jesus; the Gospel of Matthew account begins with the same modified quotation from Isaiah, moving the Malachi and Exodus material to in the text, where it is quoted by Jesus.
The description of John is taken directly from Mark, along with the proclamation that one was coming who would baptise with the Holy Spirit "and fire". Unlike Mark, Matthew describes John as critical of Pharisees and Sadducees and as preaching "the kingdom of heaven is at hand" and a "coming judgment". Matthew shortens the account of the beheading of John, adds two elements: that Herod Antipas wants John dead, that the death is reported to Jesus by his disciples. Matthew's approach is to shift the focus away onto John as a prototype of Jesus. Where Mark has Herod killing John reluctantly and at Herodias' insistence, Matthew describes him
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry known as the Scottish Rite, is one of several Rites of Freemasonry. A Rite is a progressive series of degrees conferred by various Masonic organizations or bodies, each of which operates under the control of its own central authority. In the Scottish Rite the central authority is called a Supreme Council; the Scottish Rite is one of the appendant bodies of Freemasonry that a Master Mason may join for further exposure to the principles of Freemasonry. It is concordant, in that some of its degrees relate to the degrees of Symbolic Freemasonry. In England and some other countries, while the Scottish Rite is not accorded official recognition by the Grand Lodge, there is no prohibition against a Freemason electing to join it. In the United States, the Scottish Rite is recognized by Grand Lodges as an extension of the degrees of Freemasonry; the Scottish Rite builds upon the ethical teachings and philosophy offered in the Craft Lodge, through dramatic presentation of the individual degrees.
The seed of the myth of Stuart Jacobite influence on the higher degrees may have been a careless and unsubstantiated remark made by John Noorthouk in the 1784 Book of Constitutions of the Premier Grand Lodge of London. It was stated, without support, that King Charles II was made a Freemason in the Netherlands during the years of his exile. However, there were no documented lodges of Freemasons on the continent during those years; the statement may have been made to flatter the fraternity by claiming membership for a previous monarch. This folly was embellished by John Robison, a professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, in an anti-Masonic work published in 1797; the lack of scholarship exhibited by Robison in that work caused the Encyclopædia Britannica to denounce it. A German bookseller and Freemason, living in Paris, working under the assumed name of C. Lenning, embellished the story further in a manuscript titled "Encyclopedia of Freemasonry" written between 1822 and 1828 at Leipzig.
This manuscript was revised and published by another German Freemason named Friedrich Mossdorf. Lenning stated that King James II of England, after his flight to France in 1688, resided at the Jesuit College of Clermont, where his followers fabricated certain degrees for the purpose of carrying out their political ends. By the mid-19th century, the story had gained currency; the well-known English Masonic writer, Dr. George Oliver, in his Historical Landmarks, 1846, carried the story forward and claimed that King Charles II was active in his attendance at meetings—an obvious invention, for if it had been true, it would not have escaped the notice of the historians of the time; the story was repeated by the French writers Jean-Baptiste Ragon and Emmanuel Rebold, in their Masonic histories. Rebold's claim that the high degrees were created and practiced in Lodge Canongate Kilwinning at Edinburgh are false. James II died in 1701 at the Palace of St. Germain en Laye, was succeeded in his claims to the British throne by his son, James Francis Edward Stuart, the Chevalier St. George, better known as "the Old Pretender", but recognized as James III by the French King Louis XIV.
He was succeeded in his claim by Charles Edward Stuart known as "the Young Pretender", whose ultimate defeat at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 put an end to any serious hopes of the Stuarts regaining the British crowns. The natural confusion between the names of the Jesuit College of Clermont, the short-lived Masonic Chapter of Clermont, a Masonic body that controlled a few high degrees during its brief existence, only served to add fuel to the myth of Stuart Jacobite influence in Freemasonry's high degrees. However, the College and the Chapter had nothing to do with each other; the Jesuit College was located at Clermont. Rather, it was named "Clermont" in honor of the French Grand Master, the Comte de Clermont, not because of any connection with the Jesuit College of Clermont. A French trader, by the name of Estienne Morin, had been involved in high-degree Masonry in Bordeaux since 1744 and, in 1747, founded an "Écossais" lodge in the city of Le Cap Français, on the north coast of the French colony of Saint-Domingue.
Over the next decade, high-degree Freemasonry was carried by French men to other cities in the Western hemisphere. The high-degree lodge at Bordeaux recognized seven Écossais lodges there. In Paris in the year 1761, a patent was issued to Estienne Morin, dated 27 August, creating him "Grand Inspector for all parts of the New World"; this Patent was signed by officials of the Grand Lodge at Paris and appears to have granted him power over the craft lodges only, not over the high, or "Écossais", degree lodges. Copies of this Patent appear to have been embellished by Morin, to improve his position over the high-degree lodges in the West Indies. Morin returned to the West Indies to Saint-Domingue. Based on his new Patent, he assumed powers to constitute lodges of all degrees, spreading the high degrees throughout the West Indies and North America. Morin stayed in Saint-Domingue until 1766. At Kingston, Jamaica, in 1770, Morin created a "Grand Chapter" of his new Rite (the Gr
Red Cross of Constantine
The Red Cross of Constantine, or more formally the Masonic and Military Order of the Red Cross of Constantine and the Appendant Orders of the Holy Sepulchre and of St John the Evangelist, is a Christian fraternal order of Freemasonry. Candidates for the order must be members of Craft Freemasonry and Royal Arch Freemasonry; the Masonic and Military Order of the Red Cross of Constantine is a three-degree Order of masonry, with its "Appendant Orders" a total of five degrees are conferred within this system. Installation as a “Knight of the Red Cross of Constantine” is admission to the Order’s first degree. There are two more degrees which follow, the two other distinct Orders of Masonry which are under the control of each national Grand Imperial Conclave of the Order. On admission to the Order a member becomes a Knight-Mason, or a Knight of the Red Cross of Constantine; this ceremony is known as installation, is performed in a ‘Conclave’. A Conclave is the regular unit of this Order, the name for any assembly of members of the Order’s first degree.
The ceremony is short and simple, but teaches valuable moral lessons to the candidate, based upon the story of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. On election to serve as Viceroy, a member must be admitted to the second degree, by which ceremony he becomes a Venerable Priest-Mason, or an Installed Eusebius; this ceremony is performed in a ‘College’ of Priests-Mason. A College is the name for any assembly of members of the Order’s second degree; the ceremony is spiritual in nature, incorporates more overtly religious symbolism and ritual. Having received this degree the Installed Eusebius or Priest-Mason is entitled to serve as Viceroy in his own, or any other, Conclave or College. In general this degree may only be conferred on those elected to serve as Viceroy of a Conclave, although exceptions are possible by dispensation. On election to serve as Sovereign, a member must be admitted to the third degree, by which ceremony he becomes a Perfect Prince-Mason.
The ceremony is performed in a ‘Senate’ of Princes-Mason. A Senate is the name for any assembly of members of the Order’s third degree. Having received this degree the Prince-Mason is entitled to serve as Sovereign in his own, or any other, Conclave or Senate. Except by dispensation, this degree is only conferred on those elected as Sovereign; as with all masonic degrees, it may only be conferred on a person once - therefore a person becoming Sovereign for a second time, or in a different Conclave, would be appointed and installed into office, would not go for a second time through the full degree ceremony. Two additional Christian Orders of Masonry are under the control of the Grand Imperial Conclaves of the Red Cross of Constantine. One is the Order of the Holy Sepulchre and the other is the Order of St John the Evangelist; each of these Orders consists of a single degree or ceremony, although the two Orders are conferred separately, they are conferred on the same day, one straight after the other.
It is a rule of most jurisdictions that a member of the first degree of the Red Cross of Constantine must subsequently take these two Appendant Orders, before he may be considered qualified to proceed to the second and third degrees of the Red Cross of Constantine. The Masonic Order should not be confused with the identically named Order of the Holy Sepulchre within the Roman Catholic Church. Although both Orders recall the same historical events, there is no actual connection between them; the Masonic Order of the Holy Sepulchre has a long and complex ritual of symbolic meaning, based upon the legend of knights guarding the supposed place of burial of Jesus Christ. Both the Masonic and ecclesiastical Orders take the Jerusalem Cross as their symbol, but whereas the ecclesiastical Order displays this cross in red on a white shield, the Masonic Order displays the cross within a circle set at the centre of a Cross potent. A meeting of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre takes place in a ‘Sanctuary’, the presiding officer is called the'Prelate'.
This Order is conferred in a short ceremony of an overtly Christian character. A meeting of the Order of St John the Evangelist takes place in a ‘Commandery’, the presiding officer is called the'Commander'; the jewel of the Order of St John the Evangelist features a silver eagle with its wings extended, to which a crown is added in reference to the role of Commander, or any member of the Order, a current or past Commander. The eagle is a traditional symbol of St John the Evangelist. Since at least the 18th century, Freemasonry has incorporated symbols and rituals of several Medieval military orders in a number of Masonic bodies, most notably, in the "Red Cross of Constantine", the "Order of Malta", the "Order of the Temple", the latter two featuring prominently in the York Rite. Tracing the precise origins of these Orders has proved problematic to historians, not least due to the large number of fraternal organisations whose titles include, or have included, the phrase "Red Cross", it seems that the Order of the Red Cross of Constant
International Order of the Rainbow for Girls
The International Order of the Rainbow for Girls is a Masonic youth service organization which teaches leadership training through community service. Young women learn about the value of charity and service through their work and involvement with their annual local and Grand service projects; the order came into existence in 1922, when the Reverend W. Mark Sexson, a Freemason, was asked to make an address before South McAlester Chapter #149, Order of the Eastern Star, in McAlester, Oklahoma; as the Order of DeMolay had come under his close study during his Masonic activities, he suggested that a similar order for young women would be beneficial. The first Initiation consisted of a class of 171 young women on April 6, 1922, in the auditorium of the Scottish Rite Temple in McAlester; the original name was "Order of the Rainbow for Girls". Members can hold many different offices in the local Assembly; each requires some memory work and all but two serve for one term. Some offices are elected by the other members in the assembly.
These offices include Faith, Charity, Worthy Associate Advisor, Worthy Advisor. There are two offices that are elected in January but serve a full year which are Treasurer and Recorder; the other offices are appointed by the Worthy Mother Advisor. All offices include: Worthy Advisor Presides at meetings and plans activities for her term like a President: the highest office in an Assembly Worthy Associate Advisor Duties similar to a Vice President. Presides over a meeting in the absence of the Worthy Advisor Charity Teaches about charitable deeds Hope Teaches that hope is always there for us Faith Teaches that faith is our constant companion, she is the officer who guides new candidates throughout an initiation ceremony Recorder Records minutes and handles correspondence Treasurer Handles money and bills and compiles reports about the balances of the Assembly's various money accounts Chaplain Leads in prayers Drill Leader Leads the officers in their floor work and leads guests around the Assembly room Seven Bow Stations Teach lessons about the colors of the rainbow and their corresponding virtues: Love In all its forms Religion The importance of religion in all its forms Nature Its importance in your daily life Immortality The understanding of death is a part of life Fidelity Emphasis on being honest and reliable Patriotism Encouraging citizenship to your country Service Service to others which bind all the colors together Confidential and Outer Observers Guard the inner and outer doors Musician and Choir Director Provide music for the meetingsSome Assemblies and Grand Assemblies have other officers not specified in the ritual, such as Historian, Assistant Grand Editor, Circulation Manager, Bible Bearer, Goodwill Ambassador, American Flag Bearer, State Flag Bearer, Christian Flag Bearer, Rainbow Flag Bearer, Assembly Banner Bearer.
It is an unwritten law that each of the line officers advances to the next highest office, culminating in her term as Worthy Advisor. However, this is not a guarantee; the Mother Advisor is the primary adult working with the members. An Advisory Board of seven to fifteen adults consisting of at least two Master Masons and two members of the Order of the Eastern Star, members of the sponsoring body, Majority Members, aid in the supervision of the Assembly. All of the Assembly work is done by the members, with the advisors in support roles only; the appointing of Grand Officers varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. To be appointed or elected to a Grand Floor Office, a member must be a Past or Present Worthy Advisor in her assembly. Grand Representatives may be PWAs, but it is not mandatory. Other offices include: Grand Choir, Grand Assistant Outer Observer/Grand Confidential Observer Helper, Personal Page, Grand Page at Large; the Grand Cross of Color is the highest award given to a member or adult leader for outstanding service.
Recipients of the award are expected to meet once per year for a special service. In order for designates to be nominated, the assembly must initiate 3 new members within a calendar year. For every 3 new members, one member may be chosen to receive the Grand Cross of Color for service rendered above and beyond what is expected for Rainbow; the Masters of the Grand Cross of Color meet with the Advisory Board to decide which member to nominate as a designee for the Grand Cross of Color. The Grand Cross of Color may be awarded to adults that serve the assembly, but there may be no more adults than young women that are nominated; the governing body of Rainbow is the House of Gold. New members are elected by current members; the House of Gold consists of the Supreme Officers, Supreme Inspectors, several others making up a total of 50. Presiding Supreme Inspectors may retire their duties at any time, unless they are elected to the Supreme line, at which time they must find a successor by the time they reach Supreme Worthy Associate Advisor.
The current Supreme Inspector chooses the person whom they believe can best associate with the members of their jurisdiction. That person will become the next Supreme Deputy, it isn't until Supreme Deputies are elected into the House of Gold that they become Supreme Inspectors. There are 50 seats in the House of Gold, they are lifetime appointments. A Supreme Deputy is eligible for recommendation into the House of Gold after her 3rd Supreme Assembly af
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE. The period in which the First Temple or stood in Jerusalem, is known in academic literature as the First Temple period; the Hebrew Bible states that the temple was constructed under Solomon, king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah and that during the Kingdom of Judah, the temple was dedicated to Yahweh, is said to have housed the Ark of the Covenant. Jewish historian Josephus says that "the temple was burnt four hundred and seventy years, six months, ten days after it was built"; because of the religious sensitivities involved, the politically volatile situation in Jerusalem, only limited archaeological surveys of the Temple Mount have been conducted. No archaeological excavations have been allowed on the Temple Mount during modern times.
Therefore, there are few pieces of archaeological evidence for the existence of Solomon's Temple. An ivory pomegranate which mentions priests in the house "of ---h", an inscription recording the Temple's restoration under Jehoash have both appeared on the antiquities market, but their authenticity has been challenged and they are the subject of controversy; the noun hekhal means "a large building". This can be either the main building of the Temple in Jerusalem, or a palace such as the "palace" of Ahab, king of Samaria, or the "palace" of the King of Babylon. Hekhal is used 80 times in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible. Of these, 70 refer to the House of the LORD, the other 10 are references to palaces. There is no reference to any part of the tabernacle using this term in the Hebrew Bible. In the year that king Uzziah died. I saw the LORD sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, His train filled the hekhal. In older English versions of the Bible, including the King James Version, the term temple is used to translate hekhal.
In modern versions more reflective of archaeological research, the distinction is made of different sections of the whole Temple. Scholars and archaeologists agree on the structure of Solomon's Temple as described in 1 Kings 6:3–5, with three main elements: the porch. Schmid and Rupprecht are of the view that the site of the temple used to be a Jebusite shrine which Solomon chose in an attempt to unify the Jebusites and Israelites. Rabbinic sources state that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work Seder Olam Rabbah, place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in 422 BCE, 165 years than secular estimates; the exact location of the Temple is unknown: it is believed to have been situated upon the hill which forms the site of the 1st century Second Temple and present-day Temple Mount, where the Dome of the Rock is situated. The only source of information on the First Temple is the Tanakh. According to the biblical sources, the temple was constructed under Solomon, during the united monarchy of Israel and Judah.
The Bible describes Hiram I of Tyre who furnished architects and cedar timbers for the temple of his ally Solomon at Jerusalem. He co-operated with Solomon in mounting an expedition on the Red Sea. 1 Kings 6:1 puts the date of the beginning of building the temple "in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel". The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE; this puts the date of its construction in the mid-10th century BCE. 1 Kings 9:10 says that it took Solomon 20 years altogether to build his royal palace. The Temple itself finished being built after 7 years. 1 Kings 8:10-66 and 2 Chronicles 6:1-42 recount the events of the temple's dedication. When the priests emerged from the holy of holies after placing the Ark there, the Temple was filled with an overpowering cloud which interrupted the dedication ceremony, "for the glory of the Lord had filled the house of the Lord". Solomon interpreted the cloud as " that his pious work was accepted": The Lord has said that he would dwell in thick darkness.
I have built you a place for you to dwell in forever. The allusion is to Leviticus 16:2: The Lord said to Moses: Tell your brother Aaron not to come just at any time into the sanctuary inside the curtain before the mercy seat, upon the ark, or he will die. Solomon led the whole assembly of Israel in prayer, noting that the construction on the temple represented a fulfilment of God's promise to David, dedicating the temple as a place of prayer and reconciliation for the people of Israel and for foreigners living in Israel, highlighting the paradox that God who lives in the heavens cannot be contained within a single building; the dedication was concluded with sacrifices said to have included "twenty-two thousand bulls and one hundred and twenty thousand sheep". During the United Monarchy the Temple was dedicated to the God of Israel. From the reign of King Manasseh until King Josiah, Baal and "the host of heaven" were worshipped; until the reforms of King Josiah, there was a statue for the goddess Asherah and priestesses wove ritual textiles for her.
Next to the temple was a house for the temple prostitutes (2 Kings