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Shropshire

Shropshire is a county in England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south. Shropshire Council was created in 2009, a unitary authority taking over from the previous county council and five district councils; the borough of Telford and Wrekin has been a separate unitary authority since 1998 but continues to be included in the ceremonial county. The county's population and economy is centred on five towns: the county town of Shrewsbury, culturally and important and close to the centre of the county; the county has many market towns, including Whitchurch in the north, Newport northeast of Telford and Market Drayton in the northeast of the county. The Ironbridge Gorge area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, covering Ironbridge, Coalbrookdale and a part of Madeley. There are other historic industrial sites in the county, such as at Shrewsbury, Broseley and Highley, as well as the Shropshire Union Canal; the Shropshire Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers about a quarter of the county in the south.

Shropshire is one of England's most rural and sparsely populated counties, with a population density of 136/km2. The Wrekin is one of the most famous natural landmarks in the county, though the highest hills are the Clee Hills and the Long Mynd. Wenlock Edge is another significant geological landmark. In the low-lying northwest of the county overlapping the border with Wales is the Fenn's, Whixall and Bettisfield Mosses National Nature Reserve, one of the most important and best preserved bogs in Britain; the River Severn, Great Britain's longest river, runs through the county, exiting into Worcestershire via the Severn Valley. The county flower is the round-leaved sundew; the area was once part of the lands of the Cornovii, which consisted of the modern day counties of Cheshire, north Staffordshire, north Herefordshire and eastern parts of Powys. This was a tribal Celtic iron age kingdom, their capital in pre-Roman times was a hill fort on the Wrekin. Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography names one of their towns as being Viroconium Cornoviorum, which became their capital under Roman rule and one of the largest settlements in Britain.

After the Roman occupation of Britain ended in the 5th century, the Shropshire area was in the eastern part of the Welsh Kingdom of Powys. It was annexed to the Angle kingdom of Mercia by King Offa in the 8th century, at which time he built two significant dykes there to defend his territory against the Welsh or at least demarcate it. In subsequent centuries, the area suffered repeated Viking incursions, fortresses were built at Bridgnorth and Chirbury. After the Norman conquest in 1066, major estates in Shropshire were granted to Normans, including Roger de Montgomerie, who ordered significant constructions in Shrewsbury, the town of which he was Earl. Many defensive castles were built at this time across the county to defend against the Welsh and enable effective control of the region, including Ludlow Castle and Shrewsbury Castle; the western frontier with Wales was not determined until the 14th century. In this period, a number of religious foundations were formed, the county falling at this time under the Diocese of Hereford and that of Coventry and Lichfield.

Some parishes in the north-west of the county in times fell under the Diocese of St. Asaph until the disestablishment of the Church in Wales in 1920, when they were ceded to the Lichfield diocese; the county was a central part of the Welsh Marches during the medieval period and was embroiled in the power struggles between powerful Marcher Lords, the Earls of March and successive monarchs. The county contains a number of significant towns, including Shrewsbury and Ludlow. Additionally, the area around Coalbrookdale in the county is seen as significant, as it is regarded as one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution; the village of Edgmond, near Newport, is the location of the lowest recorded temperature in England and Wales. Shropshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle annal for 1006; the origin of the name is the Old English Scrobbesbyrigscīr, meaning "Shrewsburyshire", "the shire of the fortified place in the scrublands". Salop is an old name for Shropshire used as an abbreviated form for post or telegrams, it is thought to derive from the Anglo-French "Salopesberia".

It is replaced by the more contemporary "Shrops" although Shropshire residents are still referred to as "Salopians". Salop however, is used as an alternative name for the county town, which shares the motto of Floreat Salopia; when a county council for the county was first established in 1889, it was called Salop County Council. Following the Local Government Act 1972, Salop became the official name of the county; the name was not well-regarded locally however, a subsequent campaign led by a local councillor, John Kenyon, succeeded in having both the county and council renamed as Shropshire in 1980. This took effect from 1 April of that year; the border with Wales was defined in the 16th century – the hundreds of Oswestry (including Oswes

Tai-an

Tai-an is a Momoyama period chashitsu located at Myōki-an temple in Yamazaki, Kyoto. Tai-an was designed by the great tea master Sen no Rikyū in 1582. Sen no Rikyū was named the tea master of Toyotomi Hideyoshi that same year, following Oda Nobunaga's death, as Hideyoshi was battling around the area at the time, they held tea ceremonies there. In fact it is said that it was built for this purpose. An example of the smallest type of chashitsu, its main layout consists of one tatami mat for the host and another one for the guest. On the north side, where the tea house connects with another building, there is a tokonoma; the entrance, on the south side, is said to have been designed larger than usual in order to allow Hideyoshi to enter with his armor on. On the west side there is another one mat area with a shelf for tea utensils, a tablet with the name of the teahouse hanging near the ceiling. Tai-an is the only teahouse attributed to Sen no Rikyū, as such it is designated a National Treasure, it can be visited with advanced reservations with an entrance fee.

Floorplan, 3-D view and extensive photos, from Columbia University

Cengkareng

Cengkareng is a district on West Jakarta, Indonesia. The Duri-Tangerang railway and Tangerang-Jakarta railway passes through Cengkareng; the district of Cengkareng is divided into six kelurahan or urban villages: Kedaung Kali Angke - area code 11710 Kapuk - area code 11720 Cengkareng Barat - area code 11730 Cengkareng Timur - area code 11730 Rawa Buaya - area code 11740 Duri Kosambi - area code 11750 Mookervaart Canal, a canal connecting the Cisadane River in Tangerang and Kali Angke in Jakarta. Constructed from 1678 to 1689, this 25-30 meter wide channel is one of the important flood control water channels in Jakarta. Palapa Main Control Station Soekarno-Hatta International Airport