Shrubland, scrub or brush is a plant community characterised by vegetation dominated by shrubs, often including grasses and geophytes. Shrubland may either occur naturally or be the result of human activity and it may be the mature vegetation type in a particular region and remain stable over time, or a transitional community that occurs temporarily as the result of a disturbance, such as fire. A stable state may be maintained by natural disturbance such as fire or browsing. Shrubland may be unsuitable for habitation because of the danger of fire. The term shrubland was coined in 1903, shrubland species generally show a wide range of adaptations to fire, such as heavy seed production and fire-induced germination. In botany and ecology a shrub is defined as a woody plant less than 8 m high. Tall shrubs are mostly 2–8 m high, small shrubs 1–2 m high, Mediterranean scrublands Mediterranean scrublands occur naturally in the Mediterranean forests and scrub biomes, located in the five Mediterranean climate regions of the world.
Scrublands are most common near the seacoast, and have adapted to the wind. Low, soft-leaved scrublands around the Mediterranean Basin are known as garrigue in France, phrygana in Greece, tomillares in Spain, and batha in Israel. Interior scrublands Interior scrublands occur naturally in areas where soils are nutrient-poor. Florida scrub is another example of interior scrublands, dwarf shrubs Some vegetation types are formed of dwarf-shrubs, low-growing or creeping shrubs. These include the maquis and garrigues of Mediterranean climates, and the acid-loving dwarf shrubs of heathland and moorland, fynbos Maquis Prostrate shrub Semi-desert Shrub-steppe Shrub swamp Moorland
A heath is a shrubland habitat found mainly on free-draining infertile, acidic soils and is characterised by open, low-growing woody vegetation. Moorland is generally related to high-ground heaths with—especially in Great Britain—a cooler, heaths are widespread worldwide, but are fast disappearing and considered a rare habitat in Europe. They form extensive and highly diverse communities across Australia in humid and sub-humid areas where fire regimes with recurring burning are required for the maintenance of the heathlands, even more diverse though less widespread heath communities occur in Southern Africa. Extensive heath communities can be found in the California chaparral, New Caledonia, central Chile, in addition to these extensive heath areas, the vegetation type is found in scattered locations across all continents, except Antarctica. Heaths are dominated by low shrubs,20 centimetres to 2 metres tall, heath vegetation can be extremely plant-species rich, and heathlands of Australia are home to some 3,700 endemic or typical species in addition to numerous less restricted species.
The fynbos heathlands of South Africa are second only to tropical rainforests in plant biodiversity with over 7,000 species, in marked contrast, the tiny pockets of heathland in Europe are extremely depauperate with a flora consisting primarily of heather and gorse. The bird fauna of heathlands are usually species of the region. In the depauperate heathlands of Europe bird species tend to be characteristic of the community and include Montagus harrier. Australian heathlands are home to the worlds only nectar-feeding terrestrial mammal, the bird fauna of the South African fynbos includes sunbirds and siskins. Heathlands are an excellent habitat for insects including ants, moths and these heaths were originally created or expanded by centuries of human clearance of the natural forest and woodland vegetation, by grazing and burning. Referring to heathland in England, Rackham says, “Heaths are clearly the product of human activities and need to be managed as heathland, in recent years the conservation value of even these man-made heaths has become much more appreciated, and consequently most heathlands are protected.
However they are threatened by tree incursion because of the discontinuation of traditional management techniques such as grazing and burning that mediated the landscapes. Some are threatened by urban sprawl, anthropogenic heathlands are maintained artificially by a combination of grazing and periodic burning, or mowing, if not so maintained, they are rapidly re-colonised by forest or woodland. The re-colonising tree species will depend on what is available as the seed source. Bolster heath Chalk heath Garrigue Maquis shrubland Matorral Scrubland The Countryside Agency information on types of open land Origin of the word heath
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Lavandula is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. It is native to the Old World and is found from Cape Verde and the Canary Islands, Europe across to northern and eastern Africa, the Mediterranean, southwest Asia to southeast India. The most widely cultivated species, Lavandula angustifolia, is referred to as lavender. The genus includes annual or short-lived herbaceous perennial plants, and shrub-like perennials, leaf shape is diverse across the genus. They are simple in some commonly cultivated species, in other species they are pinnately toothed, or pinnate, sometimes multiple pinnate, in most species the leaves are covered in fine hairs or indumentum, which normally contain the essential oils. Flowers are borne in whorls, held on spikes rising above the foliage, some species produce coloured bracts at the apices. The flowers may be blue, violet or lilac in the wild species, the corolla is tubular, usually with five lobes. L. stoechas, L. pedunculata and L.
dentata were known in Roman times, from the Middle Ages onwards, the European species were considered two separate groups or genera and Lavandula, until Linnaeus combined them. He only recognised five species in Species Plantarum, L. multifida and L. dentata and L. stoechas, L. pedunculata was included within L. stoechas. By 1790, L. pinnata and L. carnosa were recognised, the latter was subsequently transferred to Anisochilus. By 1826 Frédéric Charles Jean Gingins de la Sarraz listed 12 species in three sections, and by 1848 eighteen species were known, one of the first modern major classifications was that of Dorothy Chaytor in 1937 at Kew. The six sections she proposed for 28 species still left many intermediates that could not easily be assigned and her sections included Stoechas, Subnudae, Pterostoechas and Dentatae. However all the cultivated and commercial forms resided in the Stoechas. There were four species within Stoechas while Spica had three and she believed that the garden varieties were hybrids between true lavender L. angustifolia and spike lavender.
More recently, work has been done by Upson and Andrews, subgenus Lavandula is mainly of woody shrubs with entire leaves. It contains the species grown as ornamental plants and for oils. They are found across the Mediterranean region to northeast Africa and western Arabia, subgenus Fabricia consists of shrubs and herbs, and it has a wide distribution from the Atlantic to India. Subgenus Sabaudia constitutes two species in the southwest Arabian peninsula and Eritrea, which are distinct from the other species
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae. This includes the plants and other gymnosperms, clubmosses, liverworts and the green algae. Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts and their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although reproduction is common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, green plants provide most of the worlds molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earths ecologies, especially on land. Plants that produce grains and vegetables form humankinds basic foodstuffs, Plants play many roles in culture.
They are used as ornaments and, until recently and in variety, they have served as the source of most medicines. The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology, Plants are one of the two groups into which all living things were traditionally divided, the other is animals. The division goes back at least as far as Aristotle, who distinguished between plants, which generally do not move, and animals, which often are mobile to catch their food. Much later, when Linnaeus created the basis of the system of scientific classification. Since then, it has become clear that the plant kingdom as originally defined included several unrelated groups, these organisms are still often considered plants, particularly in popular contexts. When the name Plantae or plant is applied to a group of organisms or taxon. The evolutionary history of plants is not yet settled. Those which have been called plants are in bold, the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies considerably between authors.
Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis, most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble land plants, but are classified among the brown and green algae. Each of these groups includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms
The Pinophyta, known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single class, Pinopsida. They are gymnosperms, cone-bearing seed plants, all extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth. The great majority are trees, though a few are shrubs, examples include cedars, Douglas firs, firs, kauri, pines, redwoods and yews. As of 1998, the division Pinophyta was estimated to contain eight families,68 genera, although the total number of species is relatively small, conifers are ecologically important. They are the dominant plants over large areas of land, most notably the taiga of the Northern Hemisphere, boreal conifers have many wintertime adaptations. The narrow conical shape of northern conifers, and their downward-drooping limbs, many of them seasonally alter their biochemistry to make them more resistant to freezing. While tropical rainforests have more biodiversity and turnover, the conifer forests of the world represent the largest terrestrial carbon sink.
Conifers are of economic value for softwood lumber and paper production. The earliest conifers in the record date to the late Carboniferous period, possibly arising from Cordaites. Pinophytes and Ginkgophytes all developed at this time, an important adaptation of these gymnosperms was allowing plants to live without being so dependent on water. Other adaptations are pollen and the seed, which allows the embryo to be transported and developed elsewhere, Conifers appear to be one of the taxa that benefited from the Permian–Triassic extinction event, and were the dominant land plants of the Mesozoic. They were overtaken by the plants, which first appeared in the Cretaceous. They were the food of herbivorous dinosaurs, and their resins and poisons would have given protection against herbivores. Reproductive features of modern conifers had evolved by the end of the Mesozoic era, Conifer is a Latin word, a compound of conus and ferre, meaning the one that bears cone. A descriptive name in use for the conifers is Coniferae.
Alternatively, descriptive botanical names may be used at any rank above family and this means that if conifers are considered a division, they may be called Pinophyta or Coniferae. As a class they may be called Pinopsida or Coniferae, as an order they may be called Pinales or Coniferae or Coniferales. Conifers are the largest and economically most important component group of the gymnosperms, the division Pinophyta consists of just one class, which includes both living and fossil taxa
Pinus mugo is native to the Pyrenees, Erzgebirge, northern Apennines, and higher Balkan Peninsula mountains. It is usually found from 1, 000–2,200 m, occasionally as low as 200 m in the north of the range in Germany and Poland, and as high as 2,700 m in the south of the range in Bulgaria and the Pyrenees. Pinus mugo was planted in coastal Denmark for sand dune stabilization and it has naturalized and become invasive. There are three subspecies, Pinus mugo subsp, mugo — in the east and south of the range, a low, often multi-stemmed plant to 3–6 m tall with symmetrical cones. Uncinata — in the west and north of the range, a larger, some botanists treat the western subspecies as a separate species, Pinus uncinata, others as only a variety, Pinus mugo var. rostrata. This subspecies in the Pyrenees marks the tree line or timberline. Rotundata — hybrid subspecies, of the two subspecies above that intergrade extensively in the western Alps and northern Carpathians, both subspecies have similar foliage, with dark green leaves in pairs, 3–7 cm long.
The cones are nut-brown,2. 5–5.5 cm long, mugo are symmetrical, thin-scaled and matt textured, and in subsp. Uncinata are asymmetrical with thick scales on the side of the cone, thin on the lower side. An old name for the species Pinus montana is still seen. Pinus mugo is widely cultivated as a plant, for use as a small tree or shrub, planted in gardens and in larger pots. It is used in Japanese garden style landscapes, and for bonsai specimens. The cultivar Pinus mugo Mops was given the Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit, cultivars with seasonal changes in foliage color include Pinus mugo Wintergold and Pinus mugo Ophir. A recent trend is the increase in use of the pine in cooking. Buds and young cones are harvested from the wild in the spring and left to dry in the sun over the summer, the cones and buds gradually drip syrup, which is boiled down to a concentrate and combined with sugar to make pine syrup. Menus use the terms pinecone syrup or pine cone syrup to refer to this ingredient, Pinus mugo is classed as a wilding conifer, an invasive species that spreads in the high country of New Zealand, in coastal Denmark and other Scandinavian areas.
Taxonomic revision of the Pinus mugo complex and P. × rhaetica, gymnosperm Database - Pinus mugo Arboretum de Villadebelle - photos of cones Pinus mugo and Pinus uncinata - information, genetic conservation units and related resources
A branch or tree branch is a woody structural member connected to but not part of the central trunk of a tree. Large branches are known as boughs and small branches are known as twigs, due to a broad range of species of trees and twigs can be seen in many different shapes and sizes. While branches can be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal. The term twig often refers to a terminus, while bough refers only to branches coming directly from the trunk, because of the enormous quantity of branches in the world, there are a variety of names in English alone for them. In general however, unspecific words for a branch have been replaced by the branch itself. A bough can be called a limb or arm, and though these are arguably metaphors, a crotch or fork is an area where a trunk splits into two or more boughs. A twig is frequently referred to as a sprig as well, other words for twig include branchlet and surcle, as well as the technical terms surculus and ramulus. Branches found under larger branches can be called underbranches, some branches from specific trees have their own names, such as osiers and withes or withies, which come from willows.
Often trees have certain words which, in English, are naturally collocated, such as holly and mistletoe, the branch of a cherry tree is generally referred to as a cherry branch, while other such formations carry no such alliance. A good example of this versatility is oak, which could be referred to as variously an oak branch, an oaken branch, a branch of oak, or the branch of an oak. Once a branch has been cut or in any other way removed from its source, it is most commonly referred to as a stick, flexible sticks are called switches, shrags, or vimina. In Old English, there are words for branch, including seten, telgor. There are numerous words, such as blēd, bōgincel, ōwæstm. Numerous other words for twigs and boughs abound, including tān, latin words for branch are ramus or cladus. The second term is a found in other modern words such as cladodonts or cladogram. Basal shoot Plant stem Root Shoot Stolon Switch Trunk Turion Twig Wand
The term refers to plants which have been shaped in this way. As an art form it is a type of living sculpture, the plants used in topiary are evergreen, mostly woody, have small leaves or needles, produce dense foliage, and have compact and/or columnar growth habits. Common species chosen for topiary include cultivars of European box, bay laurel, myrtle, the hedge is a simple form of topiary used to create boundaries, walls or screens. European topiary dates from Roman times, the clipping and shaping of shrubs and trees in China and Japan have been practised with equal rigor, but for different reasons. The goal is to achieve an artful expression of the form of venerably aged pines, given character by the forces of wind. Their most concentrated expressions are in the arts of Chinese penjing. Japanese cloud-pruning is closest to the European art, the forms of clipped growth are designed to be best appreciated after a fall of snow. Japanese Zen gardens make use of Karikomi and Hako-zukuri. Since its European revival in the 16th century, topiary has been seen on the parterres and terraces of gardens of the European elite, traditional topiary forms use foliage pruned and/or trained into geometric shapes such as balls or cubes, pyramids, cones, or tapering spirals.
Representational forms depicting people and man-made objects have been popular, sculptural forms were provided by stone and lead sculptures. In Holland, the fashion was established for more complicated topiary designs, the tower of Babel, not yet finished. St George in box, his arm scarce long enough, a quickset hog, shot up into a porcupine, by its being forgot a week in rainy weather. In the 1720s and 1730s, the generation of Charles Bridgeman and William Kent swept the English garden clean of its hedges, mazes and he accordingly built an authentically styled Tudor village to accommodate the overflow, with an Old English Garden including buttressed hedges and free-standing topiary. Topiary, which had featured in very few 18th-century American gardens, came into favour with the Colonial Revival gardens and the grand manner of the American Renaissance, 1880–1920. Interest in the revival and maintenance of gardens in the 20th century led to the replanting of the topiary maze at the Governors Palace, Colonial Williamsburg.
American portable style topiary was introduced to Disneyland around 1962, walt Disney helped bring this new medium into being - wishing to recreate his cartoon characters throughout his theme park in the form of landscape shrubbery. This style of topiary is based on a suitably shaped steel wire frame through which the plants eventually extend as they grow, the frame, which remains as a permanent trimming guide, may be either stuffed with sphagnum moss and planted, or placed around shrubbery. The sculpture slowly transforms into a permanent topiary as the fill in the frame
It is the national flower of Nepal. Most species have flowers which bloom from late winter through to early summer. Azaleas make up two subgenera of Rhododendron and they are distinguished from true rhododendrons by having only five anthers per flower. Rhododendron is a genus characterised by shrubs and small to large trees, the smallest species growing to 10–100 cm tall, the leaves are spirally arranged, leaf size can range from 1–2 cm to over 50 cm, exceptionally 100 cm in R. sinogrande. They may be evergreen or deciduous. In some species, the undersides of the leaves are covered with scales or hairs, Some of the best known species are noted for their many clusters of large flowers. There are alpine species with flowers and small leaves. Species in this genus may be part of the complex in oak-heath forests in eastern North America. They have frequently been divided based on the presence or absence of scales on the leaf surface. These scales, unique to subgenus Rhododendron, are modified hairs consisting of a scale attached by a stalk.
The Rhododendron genus is the largest of the genera in the Ericaceae family, with 1,024 species, though estimates vary from 850-1000 depending on the authority used, the taxonomy has been historically complex. He listed five species under Rhododendron, at that time he considered the known six species of Azalea that he had described earlier in 1735 in his Systema Naturae as a separate genus. Linnaeus six species of Azalea were Azalea indica, A. pontica, A. lutea, A. viscosa, A. lapponica and A. procumbens, which he distinguished from Rhododendron by having five stamens, as opposed to ten. As new species of what are now considered Rhododendron were discovered, for instance Rhodora for Rhododendron canadense and Hymenanthes for Rhododendron metternichii, now R. degronianum. Of these Tsutsutsi, Pogonanthum and Rhodora are still used, the sections being Lepipherum, Booram. Soon, as species became available in the nineteenth century so did a better understanding of the characteristics necessary for the major divisions.
Chief amongst these were Maximoviczs Rhododendreae Asiae Orientali and Planchon, maximovicz used flower bud position and its relationship with leaf buds to create eight Sections. Bentham and Hooker used a scheme, but called the divisions Series
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over a species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, species and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies, Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has used in the development of the wide range of garden roses. The leaves are borne alternately on the stem, most roses are deciduous but a few are evergreen or nearly so. The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red.
Beneath the petals are five sepals and these may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. There are multiple superior ovaries that develop into achenes, the aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination, the hips of most species are red, but a few have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 seeds embedded in a matrix of fine. Rose hips of some species, especially the dog rose and rugosa rose, are rich in vitamin C. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, some birds, particularly finches, eat the seeds. While the sharp objects along a stem are commonly called thorns. Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation growing over it.
Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer, a few species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points. Hesperrhodos contains Rosa minutifolia and Rosa stellata, from North America, platyrhodon with one species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii
In biology, the canopy is the aboveground portion of a plant community or crop, formed by the collection of individual plant crowns. In forest ecology, canopy refers to the layer or habitat zone, formed by mature tree crowns. Sometimes the term canopy is used to refer to the extent of the layer of leaves of an individual tree or group of trees. Shade trees normally have a canopy that blocks light from lower growing plants. Canopy structure is the organization or spatial arrangement of a plant canopy, leaf Area Index, leaf area per unit ground area, is a key measure used to understand and compare plant canopies. It is taller than the understory layer, dominant and co-dominant canopy trees form the uneven canopy layer. Canopy trees are able to photosynthesize relatively rapidly due to abundant light, the canopy layer provides protection from strong winds and storms, while intercepting sunlight and precipitation, leading to a relatively sparsely vegetated understory layer. Forest canopies are home to flora and fauna not found in other layers of forests.
The highest terrestrial biodiversity resides in the canopy of tropical rainforests, many rainforest animals have evolved to live solely in the canopy, and never touch the ground. The canopy of a rainforest is typically about 10m thick, the canopy is below the emergent layer, a sparse layer of very tall trees, typically one or two per hectare. With an abundance of water and an ideal temperature in rainforests, light. In the permaculture and forest gardening community, the canopy is the highest of seven layers, Canopy Canopy research Canopy walkway Hemispherical photography Stratification Treefall gap Wildfire Crown shyness Rainforest size-asymmetric competition Lowman, M. D. and H. B. ISBN 0-12-457553-6, ISBN 978-0-12-457553-0 Moffett, M. W, the High Frontier, Exploring the Tropical Rainforest Canopy. Plant Canopies, Their Growth and Function, ISBN 0-521-39563-1, ISBN 978-0-521-39563-2 International Canopy Access Network