Anna Mae Aquash
Annie Mae Aquash was a First Nations activist from Nova Scotia, Canada who moved to Boston in the 1960s and joined American Indians in education and resistance. She was part of the American Indian Movement in the Wounded Knee incident at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, United States in 1973. Aquash participated in the 1972 Trail of Broken Treaties and occupation of the Department of Interior headquarters in Washington, DC. After she disappeared in late 1975, there were rumors. On February 24, 1976, her body was found on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, her death was covered up and the body declared to be "unidentifiable". The FBI disseminated rumours. Aquash was thirty years old at the time of her death and had two young daughters and Denise. After decades of investigation and the hearing of testimony by three federal grand juries, in March 2003, Arlo Looking Cloud and John Graham were indicted for the murder of Aquash. Looking Cloud was convicted in 2004 and Graham in 2010.
Thelma Rios was indicted along with John Graham, but she pleaded guilty to charges as an accessory to the kidnapping. In 2008 Vine Richard "Dick" Marshall was charged with aiding the murder, but was acquitted of providing the gun. Numerous Aquash supporters and her daughters believe that higher-level AIM officials ordered her murder, fearing she was an FBI informant. Anna Mae Pictou was born into the Mi'kmaq First Nation at Indian Brook Reserve in Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia, her mother was her father Francis Thomas Levi. She had two older sisters and Becky Pictou, a younger brother Francis, her mother and sisters survived her death. Pictou and her siblings received their early educations on the reserve. In 1962, Pictou and James Maloney moved together from the reserve to Boston, they had two daughters together, born in 1964, Debbie, born in September 1965. They married that year, but divorced in mid-1970. Pictou married Nogeeshik Aquash, an Ojibwa activist, in a Native ceremony, she kept his last name.
In Boston, Pictou began to other First Nations people from Canada. About 1968-1969, she met members of the American Indian Movement, founded in Minneapolis in 1968, who were organizing among urban Indians to combat police brutality. Pictou became involved in the Teaching and Research in Bicultural Education School Project, a program in Bar Harbor, Maine, to teach young American Indians about their history. On Thanksgiving Day 1970, AIM activists in Boston held a major protest against the Mayflower II celebration at the harbor by boarding and seizing the ship. Pictou helped create the Boston Indian Council, to work to improve conditions for Indians in the city. In 1972 Pictou participated in the Trail of Broken Treaties march of American Indian activists to Washington, D. C. Protesters occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs national headquarters and presented a list of 20 demands to the government, 12 of them dealing with treaty issues. In Boston, Pictou had met Nogeeshik Aquash, from Walpole Island and they began a relationship.
In 1973 Nogeeshik and Anna Mae traveled together to the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota to join AIM activists and Oglala Lakota in what developed as the 71-day occupation of Wounded Knee. They were married there in a Native ceremony by a Lakota elder. Anna Mae took Aquash as her surname, keeping it after they separated. "These white people think this country belongs to them," Aquash wrote in a letter to her sister at the time. "The whole country changed with only a handful of raggedy-ass pilgrims that came over here in the 1500s. And it can take a handful of raggedy-ass Indians to do the same, I intend to be one of those raggedy-ass Indians." On her first night in South Dakota, Banks told her. "Mr. Banks," she replied, "I didn't come here to wash dishes. I came here to fight." Using the surname Aquash, in 1974 Annie Mae was based in Minneapolis. She worked on the Red Schoolhouse project, for a culturally based school for the numerous American Indian students who lived in the city; that year she participated in the armed occupation at Anicinabe Park in Kenora, Ontario, by Ojibwe activists and AIM supporters.
They were protesting treatment of the Ojibwe in Kenora and northwestern Ontario in relation to health, police harassment and other issues, failures by the national government's Office of Indian Affairs to improve conditions. In January 1975, Aquash worked with the Menominee Warriors Society in the month-long armed occupation of the Alexian Brothers Novitiate at Gresham, Wisconsin; the Catholic abbey had been closed and abandoned, the Menominee wanted the property returned to the tribe, as the land had been appropriated by the Alexian Brothers for their mission. That year, Aquash was arrested twice on federal weapons-related charges, but was released, her releases heightened internal AIM suspicions and rumors that Aquash might be a government informant. Leaders were nervous since they had discovered in late 1974 that Douglas Durham, a prominent member who by had been appointed as head of security for AIM, was an
A tidal bore simply given as bore in context, is a tidal phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave of water that travels up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the river or bay's current. Bores occur in few locations worldwide in areas with a large tidal range and where incoming tides are funneled into a shallow, narrowing river or lake via a broad bay; the funnel-like shape not only increases the tidal range, but it can decrease the duration of the flood tide, down to a point where the flood appears as a sudden increase in the water level. A tidal bore takes place during the flood tide and never during the ebb tide. A tidal bore may take on various forms, ranging from a single breaking wavefront with a roller – somewhat like a hydraulic jump – to undular bores, comprising a smooth wavefront followed by a train of secondary waves known as whelps. Large bores can be unsafe for shipping but present opportunities for river surfing. Two key features of a tidal bore are the intense turbulence and turbulent mixing generated during the bore propagation, as well as its rumbling noise.
The visual observations of tidal bores highlight the turbulent nature of the surging waters. The tidal bore induces a strong turbulent mixing in the estuarine zone, the effects may be felt along considerable distances; the velocity observations indicate a rapid deceleration of the flow associated with the passage of the bore as well as large velocity fluctuations. A tidal bore creates a powerful roar that combines the sounds caused by the turbulence in the bore front and whelps, entrained air bubbles in the bore roller, sediment erosion beneath the bore front and of the banks, scouring of shoals and bars, impacts on obstacles; the bore rumble is heard far away. The low-frequency sound is a characteristic feature of the advancing roller in which the air bubbles entrapped in the large-scale eddies are acoustically active and play the dominant role in the rumble-sound generation; the word bore derives through Old English from the Old Norse word bára, meaning "wave" or "swell." The tidal bores may be dangerous.
Many bores have had a sinister reputation: the River Seine, the Petitcodiac River, the Colorado River, to name a few. In China, despite warning signs erected along the banks of the Qiantang River, a number of fatalities occur each year by people who take too much risk with the bore; the tidal bores affect the shipping and navigation in the estuarine zone, for example, in Papua New Guinea and India. On the other hand, tidal bore-affected estuaries are rich feeding zones and breeding grounds of several forms of wildlife; the estuarine zones are the spawning and breeding grounds of several native fish species, while the aeration induced by the tidal bore contributes to the abundant growth of many species of fish and shrimps. The tidal bores provide opportunity for recreational inland surfing. Scientific studies have been carried out at the River Dee in Wales in the United Kingdom, the Garonne and Sélune in France, the Daly River in Australia; the force of the tidal bore flow poses a challenge to scientific measurements, as evidenced by a number of field work incidents in the River Dee, Rio Mearim, Daly River, Sélune River.
Rivers and bays that have been known to exhibit bores include those listed below. Ganges–Brahmaputra and Bangladesh Indus River, Pakistan Sittaung River, Burma Qiantang River, which has the world's largest bore, up to 9 m high, traveling at up to 40 km/h Batang Lupar or Lupar River, near Sri Aman, Malaysia; the tidal bore is locally known as benak. Batang Sadong or Sadong River, Malaysia. Bono, Kampar River, at Meranti Bay, Indonesia; the phenomenon is feared by the locals to sink ships. It is reported to break up to 130 km inland, but up to 40 km with 6 m height. Ready to develop as internationally tourist destinations Styx River, Queensland Daly River, Northern Territory River Shannon, up the Shannon Estuary to Limerick, Ireland: 21 September 2013 River Dee and England River Mersey; the second highest tidal bore after the Severn bore, up to 1.7 meters high. The bore tends to form around the Manchester Ship Canal; the Severn bore on the River Severn and England, up to 2 meters high The Trent Aegir on the River Trent, England, up to 1.5 meters high.
Other tributaries of the Humber Estuary. River Parrett River Welland The Arnside Bore on the River Kent River Great Ouse River Ouse, Yorkshire. Like the Trent bore, this is known as "the Aegir". River Eden River Esk River Nith River Lune, Lancashire River Ribble, Lancashire River Yealm, Devon River Leven, Cumbria Durme, Flanders The phenomenon is named un mascaret in French, but some other local names are preferred. Seine had a significant bore until the 1960s, locally named la barre. Since it has been eliminated by dredging and river training. Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel including Couesnon, Sélune, Sée Arguenon Baie de la Frênaye Vire Sienne Vilaine, locally named le mascarin Dordogne Garonne Fly River Turama River The Turnagain arm of Cook Inlet, Alaska. Up to 2 meters and 20 km/h; the Colorado River had a tidal bore up to 6 feet, that extended 47 miles up river. The Savannah River up to 10 miles inland. Small tidal bores, only a few inches in height, have been observed advancing up tidal bayous on the Mississippi Gulf Coast.
Most rivers draining into the upper Bay of Fundy be
Hants County, Nova Scotia
Hants County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. The county of Hants was established June 17, 1781, on territory taken from Kings County and consisted of the townships of Windsor and Newport; the name Hants is an old abbreviation for the English county of Hampshire, from the Old English name Hantescire. In 1861, Hants County was divided for court sessional purposes into two districts named East Hants and West Hants; the Miꞌkmaq are the indigenous peoples. In the course of their historical relationship with the Acadians, many Miꞌkmaq became Catholic and therefore played an active role in the Acadian resistance to the Protestant British annexation of Hants County, they were supporters of Abbe LeLoutre's work in protecting Acadian and Miꞌkmaq and Catholic interests in the region. Within Hants County, they fought in the Battle at St. Croix on the St. Croix River. There is a long history of missionary work in Hants County, such as the work of Silas Tertius Rand's work on Glooscap First Nation near Hantsport.
There are still Miꞌkmaq communities in Hants County such as Indian Brook 14 and Shubenacadie 13. Shubenacadie is the oldest community in Hants County. There is a significant monument in the middle of the reserve to Major Jean-Baptiste Cope, the signatory to the peace Treaty of 1752 with the British, upheld by the Supreme Court of Canada; the first Acadians to settle in present-day Hants County established farms at in the early 1680s, as the 1686 census shows a number of families on well established farms utilizing dyked pastures. More Acadian villages soon followed spreading along the shores of the St. Croix rivers. One of these was at present day Windsor. With an expanding population the region by 1722 was split into two parishes; the l'Assomption parish church was situated on a hill overlooking the confluence of the Pisiquit and Saint Croix rivers where in 1750 it was pulled down by the Acadians under orders from the British to make way for Fort Edward. By the early 1700s Acadians migrated all along the shore of Hants County to the Shubenacadie River.
One of the most prominent Acadians from this area was Noël Doiron, the namesake of the community of Noel. With the founding of both Halifax and Fort Edward, there was an Acadian Exodus that involved an emigration of most of the Acadians from the Municipality of East Hants and from West Hants as well, they left British Nova Scotia for French occupied Prince Edward Island. During the 1755 Expulsion of the Acadians the majority of those Acadians remaining were deported to various locations along the eastern seaboard of the Thirteen Colonies, most notably New England and Maryland; the Expulsion of the Acadians from Hants County began at the same time as it happened at Grand-Pré, with the Acadian men being imprisoned within the walls of Fort Edward. Fort Edward was one of four British forts in Acadia to imprison Acadians throughout the nine years of the expulsion. After the Acadians were removed from the area of present-day Hants County, New England Planters began to arrive and settle the vacated lands.
They formed the townships of Windsor and Newport. Many arrived from Rhode Island. One of the Planters of note during this period was Henry Alline who led the New Light revival of the Great Awakening in the region. Alline's movement had a significant impact on the stance the New Englander Planters took with respect to the troubles building in the colonies to the west, between their British masters, brethren who remained in New England, that led to the Revolutionary War. Alline's Newlight congregations were the progenitors of the Baptist movement in Canada; the next wave of immigration to Hants County was the Ulster Scots people who settled all along the Cobequid shore such as the O'Briens in Noel and the Putnams in Maitland. During the American Revolution, Fort Edward played a pivotal role defending Halifax from a possible land attack and serving as the headquarters in Atlantic Canada for 84th Regiment of Foot. After the American Revolution, the Rawdon Township and Douglas Township were created for American Loyalists.
The Douglas Township was settled by the 84th Regiment of Foot. The Rawdon Township was settled by loyalists from South Carolina whose lives had been saved in the Siege of Ninety-Six by Lord Rawdon and the 84th Regiment of Foot. Windsor developed its gypsum deposits selling it to American markets at Passamaquoddy Bay; this trade was illegal. In 1820 an effort to stop this smuggling trade resulted in the "Plaster War", in which local smugglers resoundingly defeated the efforts of New Brunswick officials to bring the trade under their control. Productive timber lands and tidal building sites made Hants County an important shipbuilding centre in the 19th century. Loyalist merchant Abraham Cunard was an early shipbuilder in the county. Cunard's efforts were surpassed by much larger yards by the mid 19th century, including the William Dawson Lawrence shipyard in Maitland which built the William D. Lawrence, the largest wooden ship built in Canada, Ezra Churchill's in Hantsport; the Honourable Joseph Howe was the first member of parliament for Hants County.
He campaigned in the county with an agenda to punish those politicians who have forced Nova Scotia to participate in the formation, become a part of Canada without a mandate or referendum from the people. Over the next two years in office, deciding not to mobilize to join America or become a colony independent of Britain, Howe determined that Nova Scotia's best option was to remain in Canada and to fight
Maitland, Hants County, Nova Scotia
Maitland, East Hants, Nova Scotia is a village in the East Hants, Nova Scotia municipal district, home to the historic Lawrence House Museum, part of the Nova Scotia Museum. The community was part of the Douglas Township until it was named Maitland after Governor General of Nova Scotia Peregrine Maitland, when building the Shubenacadie Canal was first attempted; the Canal was supposed to start at Maitland, Nova Scotia and run through the province to Maitland Street, the canal being "bookended" by two "Maitland" landmarks. Maitland was first settled by the Acadians. After the Acadian exodus from the region, the village was settled by Ulster Scots whose descendants became shipbuilders. Maitland was settled by son of Jean Denis Pitre, prior to the Acadian Exodus. Oral tradition states that the Oak Island Graveyard was an Acadian burial ground, consecrated by Abbe Jean-Louis Le Loutre. Oral tradition states that a path which connects the "French Field" in Selma to the cemetery in Maitland is the old Acadian roadway.
Several of Jean Denis Pitre’s children married the children of Noel Doiron and Robert Henry from the neighbouring communities of Vil Noel and Vil Robere respectively. In 1750 the Acadians at Maitland joined the Acadian Exodus during Father Le Loutre's War and moved to Riviere Nord-Est, Ile St. Jean; the former of inhabitants of Maitland died in 1758 during the Expulsion of the Acadians in the sinking of the Duke William. After the exodus of the Acadians from Maitland, the land was owned but never settled by Malachy Salter. Decades after the village was vacated by the Acadians, the village was settled by Ulster Scots people such as the Putnams. Maitland emerged as a major shipbuilding centre in the late 19th century. William Dawson Lawrence became the community's most famous shipbuilder, his ship, the William D. Lawrence, was the largest wooden ship built in Canada and third largest in the world, was launched at the William D. Lawrence Shipyard in Maitland on October 27, 1874 to one of the largest crowds assembled in Nova Scotia to that date.
Every September Maitland celebrates the launch of William D. Lawrence at a weekend festival called "Launch Days". Several other shipyards build large vessels as well, including the barque Calburga, the last large square rigger to sail under the Canadian flag. Today the only remaining remnant of the shipbuilding industry is Frieze and Roy, a general store, operating from the 1860s onward. During World War II the RCAF constructed a aerodrome near the village of Maitland; the Aerodrome acted as a relief landing field for CFS Debert, located nearby. In 1942 the aerodrome was listed at 45°20′N 63°32′W with a Var. 23.5 degrees W and no elevation specified. The field was listed as "Hard under construction" and had one runways listed as follows: Maitland was Nova Scotia's first Heritage Conservation District; the centre of the village is a Heritage Conservation District because of its many fine and well-preserved examples of Victorian architecture. The styles of architecture include Gothic, Colonial, Cape Cod, Greek Revival architecture, Second Empire and Italianate, of which style the Lawrence House shows many fine details.
William Dawson Lawrence was one of the most successful ship builders in the Maritimes, most famous for building Canada's largest wooden ship, the William D. Lawrence. In an unpublished manuscript written in 1880 toward the end of his life, he wrote of the maiden voyage of the William D. Lawrence, he described returning to the place of his birth, County Down, Ireland. He recollects being mortified by a bullfight that he saw in Peru and enjoying the masked ball he attended while in Paris. During one of his stays in London, Lawrence attended a sermon of the famous preacher and writer Charles Spurgeon. Lawrence was a politician and wrote passionately for Nova Scotia's independence in the anti-Confederation Campaign, he ran as a MLA with Joseph Howe running as an MP, both as anti-Confederates in the Hants County elections of 1867. Two years much to Lawrence's dismay, Joseph Howe conceded to Confederation and ran in a by-election on a platform for making "better terms" for Nova Scotia within Canada.
Howe won which led to Lawrence's defeat in the following election. Birthplace of Willard Miller, Spanish–American War hero, recipient of the Medal of Honor one of the famous "Miller Brothers". Kate McArthur, made famous through surviving for many days at sea in a lifeboat and giving birth upon being rescued; the story for the television drama "The Night They Killed Joe Howe", starring Douglas Rain, Austin Willis and Star Trek's James Doohan, was located in Maitland, Nova Scotia Staff writer. Pilots Handbook of Aerodromes and Seaplane Bases Vol. 1. Royal Canadian Air Force
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation occurring in rural areas. Depending on the type of vegetation present, a wildfire can be classified more as a brush fire, desert fire, forest fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat fire, vegetation fire, or veld fire. Fossil charcoal indicates that wildfires began soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants 420 million years ago. Wildfire's occurrence throughout the history of terrestrial life invites conjecture that fire must have had pronounced evolutionary effects on most ecosystems' flora and fauna. Earth is an intrinsically flammable planet owing to its cover of carbon-rich vegetation, seasonally dry climates, atmospheric oxygen, widespread lightning and volcanic ignitions. Wildfires can be characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties, the combustible material present, the effect of weather on the fire. Wildfires can cause damage to property and human life, although occurring wildfires may have beneficial effects on native vegetation and ecosystems that have evolved with fire.
High-severity wildfire creates complex early seral forest habitat, which has higher species richness and diversity than unburned old forest. Many plant species depend on the effects of fire for reproduction. Wildfires in ecosystems where wildfire is uncommon or where non-native vegetation has encroached may have negative ecological effects. Wildfire behavior and severity result from a combination of factors such as available fuels, physical setting, weather. Analyses of historical meteorological data and national fire records in western North America show the primacy of climate in driving large regional fires via wet periods that create substantial fuels, or drought and warming that extend conducive fire weather. Strategies for wildfire prevention and suppression have varied over the years. One common and inexpensive technique is controlled burning: intentionally igniting smaller fires to minimize the amount of flammable material available for a potential wildfire. Vegetation may be burned periodically to maintain high species diversity and limit the accumulation of plants and other debris that may serve as fuel.
Wildland fire use is the cheapest and most ecologically appropriate policy for many forests. Fuels may be removed by logging, but fuels treatments and thinning have no effect on severe fire behavior when under extreme weather conditions. Wildfire itself is "the most effective treatment for reducing a fire's rate of spread, fireline intensity, flame length, heat per unit of area", according to Jan Van Wagtendonk, a biologist at the Yellowstone Field Station. Building codes in fire-prone areas require that structures be built of flame-resistant materials and a defensible space be maintained by clearing flammable materials within a prescribed distance from the structure. Three major natural causes of wildfire ignitions exist: dry climate lightning volcanic eruptionThe most common direct human causes of wildfire ignition include arson, discarded cigarettes, power-lines arcs, sparks from equipment. Ignition of wildland fires via contact with hot rifle-bullet fragments is possible under the right conditions.
Wildfires can be started in communities experiencing shifting cultivation, where land is cleared and farmed until the soil loses fertility, slash and burn clearing. Forested areas cleared by logging encourage the dominance of flammable grasses, abandoned logging roads overgrown by vegetation may act as fire corridors. Annual grassland fires in southern Vietnam stem in part from the destruction of forested areas by US military herbicides and mechanical land-clearing and -burning operations during the Vietnam War; the most common cause of wildfires varies throughout the world. In Canada and northwest China, lightning operates as the major source of ignition. In other parts of the world, human involvement is a major contributor. In Africa, Central America, Mexico, New Zealand, South America, Southeast Asia, wildfires can be attributed to human activities such as agriculture, animal husbandry, land-conversion burning. In China and in the Mediterranean Basin, human carelessness is a major cause of wildfires.
In the United States and Australia, the source of wildfires can be traced both to lightning strikes and to human activities. Coal seam fires burn in the thousands around the world, such as those in Burning Mountain, New South Wales, they can flare up unexpectedly and ignite nearby flammable material. The spread of wildfires varies based on the flammable material present, its vertical arrangement and moisture content, weather conditions. Fuel arrangement and density is governed in part by topography, as land shape determines factors such as available sunlight and water for plant growth. Overall, fire types can be characterized by their fuels as follows: Ground fires are fed by subterranean roots and other buried organic matter; this fuel type is susceptible to ignition due to spotting. Ground fires burn by smoldering, can burn for days to months, such as peat fires in Kalimantan and Eastern Sumatra, which resulted from a riceland creation project that unintentionally drained and dried the peat.
Crawling or surface fires are fueled by low-lying vegetation on the forest floor such as leaf and timber litter, debris and low-lying shrubbery. This kind of fire burns at a lower temperature than crown fires and may spread
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies; the outnumbered French depended on the Indians. The European nations declared a wider war upon one another overseas in 1756, two years into the French and Indian war, some view the French and Indian War as being the American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63; the name French and Indian War is used in the United States, referring to the two enemies of the British colonists, while European historians use the term Seven Years' War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it the Fourth Intercolonial War; the British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois and Cherokee tribes, the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy member tribes Abenaki and Mi'kmaq, the Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Wyandot tribes.
Fighting took place along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from the Province of Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol. In 1755, six colonial governors met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster. British operations failed in the frontier areas of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, Indian warrior allies.
In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by Commander-in-Chief William Shirley without direction from Great Britain; the Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to the King. Indians were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England; the British colonial government fell in the region of Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry. William Pitt came to power and increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies who were now engaged in the Seven Years' War in Europe. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture French Canada.
They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and the city of Quebec. The British lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec, but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, as well as French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Spanish Florida. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in America. In British America, wars were named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. There had been a King George's War in the 1740s during the reign of King George II, so British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, it became known as the French and Indian War; this continues as the standard name for the war in the United States, although Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.
It led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies. Less used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name. "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756—two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. Canadians conflate both the American conflicts into the Seven Years' War. French Canadi