High yellow simply yellow, is a term used to describe persons classified as black who have a high proportion of white ancestry. The term was in common use in the United States at the end of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th century, is reflected in such popular songs of the era as "The Yellow Rose of Texas", it is now considered offensive. "High" is considered a reference to a social class system in which skin color is a major factor, placing those of lighter skin at the top and those of darker skin at the bottom. High yellows, while still considered part of the African-American ethnic group, were thought to gain privileges because of their skin and ancestry. "Yellow" is in reference to the very pale undertone to the skin color of members of this group, due to mixture with Europeans. Another reading of the etymology of the word "high" is that it is a slang word for "very" used in Southern English, therefore "very yellow". In an aspect of colorism, "high yellow" was related to social class distinctions among people of color.
In post-Civil War South Carolina, according to one account by historian Edward Ball, "Members of the colored elite were called'high yellow' for their shade of skin", as well as slang terms meaning snobbish. In New Orleans, the term "high-yellow" was associated with Creoles of colour "brahmins". In his biography of Duke Ellington, a native of Washington, D. C. David Bradbury wrote that Washington's social life was dominated by light-skinned'high yellow' families, some pale enough to'pass for white,' who shunned and despised darker African-Americans; the behaviour of high yellow society was a replica of high white, except that whereas the white woman invested in curled permanents and, at least if young, cultivated a deep sun tan, the colored woman used bleach lotions and Mrs. Walker's "Anti-Kink" or the equivalent to straighten hair. In some cases the confusion of color with class came about because some of the lighter-skinned blacks came from families of mixed heritage free before the Civil War, who had begun to accumulate education and property.
In addition, some wealthier white planters made an effort to have their "natural sons" educated or trained as apprentices. For instance, in 1860, most of the 200 subscription students at Wilberforce College were the mixed-race sons of white planters, who paid for their education; these social distinctions made the cosmopolitan Harlem more appealing to many blacks. The Cotton Club of the Prohibition era "had a segregated, white-only audience policy and a color-conscious,'high yellow' hiring policy for chorus girls", it was common for lighter-skinned African Americans to hold "paper bag parties," which admitted only those whose complexion was lighter than that of a brown paper bag. In her 1942 Glossary of Harlem Slang, Zora Neale Hurston placed "high yaller" at the beginning of the entry for colorscale, which ran: high yaller, high brown, vaseline brown, seal brown, low brown, dark brown The French author Alexandre Dumas, père was the son of a French mulatto general and his French wife, he was described as having skin "with a yellow so high it was white".
In a 1929 review, Time referred to him as a "High Yellow Fictioneer". The terminology and its cultural aspects were explored in Dael Orlandersmith's play Yellowman, a 2002 Pulitzer Prize Finalist in drama; the play depicts a dark-skinned girl whose own mother "inadvertently teaches her the pain of rejection and the importance of being accepted by the'high yellow' boys". One reviewer described the term as having "the inherent, unwieldy power to incite black Americans with such intense divisiveness and fervor" as few others; the phrase survives in folk songs such as "The Yellow Rose of Texas", which referred to Emily West Morgan, a "mulatto" indentured servant apocryphally associated with the Battle of San Jacinto. Blind Willie McTell's song "Lord, Send Me an Angel" has its protagonist forced to choose among three women, described as "Atlanta yellow", "Macon brown", a "Statesboro blackskin". Bessie Smith's song "I've Got What It Takes", by Clarence Williams, refers to "a slick high yeller" boyfriend who "turned real pale" when she wouldn't wait for him to get out of jail.
Curtis Mayfield's song "We the People Who Are Darker Than Blue" makes reference to a "high yellow girl". In "Big Leg Blues", Mississippi John Hurt sings: "Some crave high yellow. I like black and brown."Digital Underground's 1991 album "Sons of the P" featured "No Nose Jobs", a song in which Shock G as Humpty Hump opines: "They say the lighter the righter - Oh yeah?! Well'at's tough - Sometimes I feel that I'm not black enough - I'm high yellow, my nose is brown to perfection - And if I was to change it'd be further in that direction - So catch me on the beach, I'll be gettin' a tan - But yo there's no mistake that - Humpty-Hump is from the motherland". On the 1988 album Chalk Mark in a Rain Storm by Joni Mitchell, the song "Dancin' Clown" contains the lyrics "Down the street comes last word Susie, she's high yellow, looking top nice." On Ice Cube's album War & Peace Vol. 2 released in 2000, the song "Hello" contains the lyrics "I'm looking for a big yellow, in 6-inch stilettos". As as 2004, white R&B singer-songwriter Teena Marie released a song titled "High Yellow Girl", said to be about her daughter Alia Rose, biracial.
The related phrase "high brown" was used in Irving Berlin's original lyrics for "Puttin' on the Ritz". High Yaller, a 1936 painting by Reginald Marsh
James Mercer Langston Hughes was an American poet, social activist, novelist and columnist from Joplin, Missouri. He moved to New York City as a young man. One of the earliest innovators of the then-new literary art form called jazz poetry, Hughes is best known as a leader of the Harlem Renaissance in New York City, he famously wrote about the period that "the negro was in vogue", paraphrased as "when Harlem was in vogue". Like many African Americans, Hughes had a complex ancestry. Both of Hughes' paternal great-grandmothers were enslaved African Americans and both of his paternal great-grandfathers were white slave owners in Kentucky. According to Hughes, one of these men was Sam Clay, a Scottish-American whiskey distiller of Henry County, said to be a relative of statesman Henry Clay; the other was a Jewish-American slave trader of Clark County. Hughes's maternal grandmother Mary Patterson was of African-American, French and Native American descent. One of the first women to attend Oberlin College, she married Lewis Sheridan Leary of mixed race, before her studies.
Lewis Leary subsequently joined John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry in West Virginia in 1859, where he was fatally wounded. Ten years in 1869, the widow Mary Patterson Leary married again, into the elite, politically active Langston family, her second husband was Charles Henry Langston, of African-American, Euro-American and Native American ancestry. He and his younger brother John Mercer Langston worked for the abolitionist cause and helped lead the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society in 1858. After their marriage, Charles Langston moved with his family to Kansas, where he was active as an educator and activist for voting and rights for African Americans, his and Mary's daughter Caroline became married James Nathaniel Hughes. They had two children. Langston Hughes grew up in a series of Midwestern small towns, his father left the family soon after the boy was born and divorced Carrie. The senior Hughes traveled to Cuba and Mexico, seeking to escape the enduring racism in the United States. After the separation, Hughes's mother traveled.
Langston was raised in Lawrence, Kansas, by his maternal grandmother, Mary Patterson Langston. Through the black American oral tradition and drawing from the activist experiences of her generation, Mary Langston instilled in her grandson a lasting sense of racial pride. Imbued by his grandmother with a duty to help his race, Hughes identified with neglected and downtrodden black people all his life, glorified them in his work, he lived most of his childhood in Lawrence. In his 1940 autobiography The Big Sea, he wrote: "I was unhappy for a long time, lonesome, living with my grandmother, it was that books began to happen to me, I began to believe in nothing but books and the wonderful world in books—where if people suffered, they suffered in beautiful language, not in monosyllables, as we did in Kansas."After the death of his grandmother, Hughes went to live with family friends and Auntie Mary Reed, for two years. Hughes lived again with his mother Carrie in Lincoln, Illinois, she had remarried.
The family moved to the Fairfax neighborhood of Cleveland, where he attended Central High School and was taught by Helen Maria Chesnutt, whom he found inspiring. His writing experiments began. While in grammar school in Lincoln, Hughes was elected class poet, he stated that in retrospect he thought it was because of the stereotype about African Americans having rhythm. I was a victim of a stereotype. There were only two of us Negro kids in the whole class and our English teacher was always stressing the importance of rhythm in poetry. Well, everyone knows, except us. During high school in Cleveland, Hughes wrote for the school newspaper, edited the yearbook, began to write his first short stories and dramatic plays, his first piece of jazz poetry, ``. Hughes had a poor relationship with his father, whom he saw when a child, he lived with his father in Mexico in 1919. Upon graduating from high school in June 1920, Hughes returned to Mexico to live with his father, hoping to convince him to support his plan to attend Columbia University.
Hughes said that, prior to arriving in Mexico, "I had been thinking about my father and his strange dislike of his own people. I didn't understand it, because I was a Negro, I liked Negroes much." His father had hoped Hughes would choose to study at a university abroad, train for a career in engineering. On these grounds, he was willing to provide financial assistance to his son, but did not support his desire to be a writer. Hughes and his father came to a compromise: Hughes would study engineering, so long as he could attend Columbia, his tuition provided, Hughes left his father after more than a year. While at Columbia in 1921, Hughes managed to maintain a B+ grade average, he left in 1922 because of racial prejudice among teachers. He was attracted more to the African-American people and neighborhood of Harlem than to his studies, but he continued writing poetry. Harlem was a center of vibrant cultural life. Hughes worked at various odd jobs, before serving a brief tenure as a crewman aboard the S.
S. Malone in 1923, spending six months traveling to West Europe. In Europe, Hughes left the S. S. Malone for a temporary stay in Paris. There he met and had a romance with Anne Marie Coussey
Harlem is a neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is bounded by Frederick Douglass Boulevard, St. Nicholas Avenue, Morningside Park on the west, it is part of greater Harlem, an area that encompasses several other neighborhoods and extends west to the Hudson River, north to 155th Street, east to the East River, south to 96th Street. A Dutch village, formally organized in 1658, it is named after the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands. Harlem's history has been defined by a series of economic boom-and-bust cycles, with significant population shifts accompanying each cycle. Harlem was predominantly occupied by Jewish and Italian Americans in the 19th century, but African-American residents began to arrive in large numbers during the Great Migration in the 20th century. In the 1920s and 1930s, Central and West Harlem were the focus of the "Harlem Renaissance", an outpouring of artistic work without precedent in the American-black community. However, with job losses during the Great Depression of 1929–1933 and the deindustrialization of New York City after World War II, rates of crime and poverty increased and from the second half of the 20th century to the early 2000s, most of greater Harlem's residents were black.
Since New York City's revival in the late 20th century, Harlem has been experiencing the effects of gentrification and new wealth. Harlem is part of Manhattan Community District 10 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10026, 10027, 10030, 10037, 10039, it is patrolled by the 32nd Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Harlem is located in Upper Manhattan referred to as Uptown by locals. Greater Harlem stretches from the Harlem River and East River in the east, to the Hudson River to the west. Central Harlem is the name of Harlem proper; this section is bounded by Fifth Avenue on the east, Central Park on the south, Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Avenue and Edgecombe Avenue on the west, the Harlem River on the north. A chain of three large linear parks—Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Park and Jackie Robinson Park—are situated on steeply rising banks and form most of the district's western boundary. On the east, Fifth Avenue and Marcus Garvey Park known as Mount Morris Park, separate this area from East Harlem.
The bulk of the area falls under Manhattan Community Board No. 10. In the late 2000s, South Harlem, emerged from area redevelopment, running along Frederick Douglass Boulevard from West 110th to West 138th Streets. Central Harlem includes the Mount Morris Park Historic District. West Harlem is composed of Manhattanville and Hamilton Heights, which collectively comprise Manhattan Community District 9 and are not part of Harlem proper; the two neighborhoods' area is bounded by Cathedral Parkway on the south. Nicholas/Bradhurst/Edgecome Avenues on the east. Manhattanville begins at 123rd Street and extends northward to 135th Street; the northernmost section of West Harlem is Hamilton Heights. East Harlem called Spanish Harlem or El Barrio, within Manhattan Community Board 11, is bounded by East 96th Street on the south, East 138th Street on the north, Fifth Avenue on the west, the Harlem River on the east, it is not part of Harlem proper. In the 2010s, some real estate professionals started called Morningside Heights "SoHa" in an attempt to gentrify the neighborhood.
New York City politicians have initiated legislative efforts to curtail this practice of neighborhood rebranding. Politically, central Harlem is in New York's 13th congressional district, it is in the New York State Senate's 30th district, the New York State Assembly's 68th and 70th districts, the New York City Council's 7th, 8th, 9th districts. Before the arrival of European settlers, the area that would become Harlem was inhabited by the Manhattans, a native tribe, who along with other Native Americans, most Lenape, occupied the area on a semi-nomadic basis; as many as several hundred farmed the Harlem flatlands. Between 1637 and 1639, a few settlements were established. During the American Revolution, the British burned Harlem to the ground, it took a long time to rebuild, as Harlem grew more than the rest of Manhattan during the late 18th century. After the American Civil War, Harlem experienced an economic boom starting in 1868; the neighborhood continued to serve as a refuge for New Yorkers, but those coming north were poor and Jewish or Italian.
The New York and Harlem Railroad, as well as the Interborough Rapid Transit and elevated railway lines, helped Harlem's economic growth, as they connected Harlem to lower and midtown Manhattan. The Jewish and Italian demographic decreased, while the black and Puerto Rican population increased in this time; the early-20th century Great Migration of blacks to northern industrial cities was fueled by their desire to leave behind the Jim Crow South, seek better jobs and education for their children, escape a culture of lynching violence. In 1910, Central Harlem was about 10% black. By 1930, it had reached 70%. Starting around the time of the end of World War I, Harlem became associated with the New Negro movement, the artistic
A revue is a type of multi-act popular theatrical entertainment that combines music and sketches. The revue has its roots in 19th century popular entertainment and melodrama but grew into a substantial cultural presence of its own during its golden years from 1916 to 1932. Though most famous for their visual spectacle, revues satirized contemporary figures, news or literature. Similar to the related subforms of operetta and musical theatre, the revue art form brings together music and sketches to create a compelling show. In contrast to these, revue does not have an overarching storyline. Rather, a general theme serves as the motto for a loosely-related series of acts that alternate between solo performances and dance ensembles. Due to high ticket prices, ribald publicity campaigns and the occasional use of prurient material, the revue was patronized by audience members who earned more and felt less restricted by middle-class social mores than their contemporaries in vaudeville. Like much of that era's popular entertainments, revues featured material based on sophisticated, irreverent dissections of topical matter, public personae and fads, though the primary attraction was found in the frank display of the female body.
George Lederer's The Passing Show is held to be the first successful American "review." The English spelling was used until 1907. "Follies" is now sometimes employed as an analog for "revue," though the term was proprietary to Ziegfeld until his death in 1932. Other popular proprietary revue names included George White's "Scandals" and Earl Carroll's "Vanities." Revues are most properly understood as having amalgamated several theatrical traditions within the corpus of a single entertainment. Minstrelsy's olio section provided a structural map of popular variety presentation, while literary travesties highlighted an audience hunger for satire. Theatrical extravaganzas, in particular, moving panoramas, demonstrated a vocabulary of the spectacular. Burlesque, itself a bawdy hybrid of various theatrical forms, lent to classic revue an open interest in female sexuality and the masculine gaze. Revues enjoyed great success on Broadway from the World War I years until the Great Depression, when the stock market crash forced many revues from cavernous Broadway houses into smaller venues.
The high ticket prices of many revues helped ensure audiences distinct from other live popular entertainments during their height of popularity. In 1914, the Follies charged $5.00 for an opening night ticket. Among the many popular producers of revues, Florenz Ziegfeld played the greatest role in developing the classical revue through his glorification of a new theatrical "type," "the American girl." Famed for his bizarre publicity schemes and continual debt, Ziegfeld joined Earl Carroll, George White, the Shubert Brothers as the leading producing figure of the American revue's golden age. Revues took advantage of their high revenue stream to lure away performers from other media offering exorbitant weekly salaries without the unremitting travel demanded by other entertainments. Performers such as Eddie Cantor, Anna Held, W. C. Fields, Bert Williams, Ed Wynn, the Marx Brothers and the Fairbanks Twins found great success on the revue stage. One of Cole Porter's early shows was Raymond Hitchcock's revue Hitchy-Koo.
Composers or lyricists such as Richard Rodgers, Lorenz Hart, Irving Berlin, George M. Cohan enjoyed a tremendous reception on the part of audiences. Sometimes, an appearance in a revue provided a key early entry into entertainment. Due to their centralization in New York City and adroit use of publicity, revues proved adept at introducing new talents to the American theatre. Rodgers and Hart, one of the great composer/lyricist teams of the American musical theatre, followed up their early Columbia University student revues with the successful Garrick Gaieties. Comedian Fanny Brice, following a brief period in burlesque and amateur variety, bowed to revue audiences in Ziegfeld's Follies of 1910. Specialist writers and composers of revues have included Sandy Wilson, Noël Coward, John Stromberg, George Gershwin, Earl Carroll, the British team and Swann. In Britain predominantly, Tom Arnold specialised in promoting series of revues and his acts extended to the European continent and South Africa.
With the introduction of talking pictures, in 1927, studios began filming acts from the stage. Such film shorts replaced the live entertainment that had accompanied cinema exhibition. By 1928, studios began planning to film feature-length versions of popular musicals and revues from the stage; the lavish films, noted by many for a sustained opulence unrivaled in Hollywood until the 1950s epics, reached a breadth of audience never found by the stage revue, all while underpricing the now-faltering theatrical shows. A number of revues were released by the studios, many of which were filmed in color; the most notable examples of these are The Show of Shows, The Hollywood Revue of 1929, Fox Movietone Follies of 1929, Paramount on Parade, New Movietone Follies of 1930 and King of Jazz. Britain jumped on the bandwagon and produced expensive revues such as Harmony Heaven
The Harlem Renaissance was an intellectual and artistic explosion centered in Harlem, New York, spanning the 1920s. At the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after The New Negro, a 1925 anthology edited by Alain Locke; the movement included the new African-American cultural expressions across the urban areas in the Northeast and Midwest United States affected by the Great Migration, of which Harlem was the largest. Though it was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City, many francophone black writers from African and Caribbean colonies who lived in Paris were influenced by the movement, considered to have spanned from about 1918 until the mid-1930s. Many of its ideas lived on much longer; the zenith of this "flowering of Negro literature", as James Weldon Johnson preferred to call the Harlem Renaissance, took place between 1924—when Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life hosted a party for black writers where many white publishers were in attendance—and 1929, the year of the stock-market crash and the beginning of the Great Depression.
The Harlem Renaissance is considered to have been a rebirth of the African-American arts. Until the end of the Civil War, the majority of African Americans had been enslaved and lived in the South. During the Reconstruction Era, the emancipated African Americans, began to strive for civic participation, political equality and economic and cultural self-determination. Soon after the end of the Civil War the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 gave rise to speeches by African-American Congressmen addressing this Bill. By 1875 sixteen African Americans had been elected and served in Congress and gave numerous speeches with their newfound civil empowerment; the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 was denounced by black Congressmen and resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1875, part of Reconstruction legislation by Republicans. By the late 1870s, Democratic whites managed to regain power in the South. From 1890 to 1908 they proceeded to pass legislation that disenfranchised most African Americans and many poor whites, trapping them without representation.
They established white supremacist regimes of Jim Crow segregation in the South and one-party block voting behind southern Democrats. The Democratic whites denied African Americans their exercise of civil and political rights by terrorizing black communities with lynch mobs and other forms of vigilante violence as well as by instituting a convict labor system that forced many thousands of African Americans back into unpaid labor in mines, on plantations, on public works projects such as roads and levees. Convict laborers were subject to brutal forms of corporal punishment and disease from unsanitary conditions. Death rates were extraordinarily high. While a small number of African Americans were able to acquire land shortly after the Civil War, most were exploited as sharecroppers; as life in the South became difficult, African Americans began to migrate north in great numbers. Most of the African-American literary movement arose from a generation that had memories of the gains and losses of Reconstruction after the Civil War.
Sometimes their parents or grandparents had been slaves. Their ancestors had sometimes benefited by paternal investment in cultural capital, including better-than-average education. Many in the Harlem Renaissance were part of the early 20th century Great Migration out of the South into the African-American neighborhoods of the Northeast and Midwest. African Americans sought a better standard of living and relief from the institutionalized racism in the South. Others were people of African descent from racially stratified communities in the Caribbean who came to the United States hoping for a better life. Uniting most of them was their convergence in Harlem. During the early portion of the 20th century, Harlem was the destination for migrants from around the country, attracting both people seeking work from the South, an educated class who made the area a center of culture, as well as a growing "Negro" middle class; the district had been developed in the 19th century as an exclusive suburb for the white middle and upper middle classes.
During the enormous influx of European immigrants in the late 19th century, the once exclusive district was abandoned by the white middle class, who moved farther north. Harlem became an African-American neighborhood in the early 1900s. In 1910, a large block along 135th Street and Fifth Avenue was bought by various African-American realtors and a church group. Many more African Americans arrived during the First World War. Due to the war, the migration of laborers from Europe ceased, while the war effort resulted in a massive demand for unskilled industrial labor; the Great Migration brought hundreds of thousands of African Americans to cities such as Chicago, Philadelphia and New York. Despite the increasing popularity of Negro culture, virulent white racism by more recent ethnic immigrants, continued to affect African-American communities in the North. After the end of World War I, many African-American soldiers—who fought in segregated units such as the Harlem Hellfighters—came home to a nation whose citizens did not respect their accomplishments.
Race riots and other civil uprisings occurred throughout the US during the Red Summer of 1919, reflecting economic competition over jobs and housing in many cities, as well as tensions over social territories. The first stage of the Harlem Renaissance started in the late 1910s. In 1917, the premiere of Three Plays; these plays, written
Sally is a musical comedy with music by Jerome Kern, lyrics by Clifford Grey and book by Guy Bolton, with additional lyrics by Buddy De Sylva, Anne Caldwell and P. G. Wodehouse; the plot hinges on a mistaken-identity: Sally, a waif, is a dishwasher at the Alley Inn. She rises to fame through joining the Ziegfeld Follies. There is a rags to riches story, a ballet as a centrepiece, a wedding as a finale. "Look for the Silver Lining" continues to be one of Kern's most familiar songs. The song is lampooned by another song, "Look for a Sky of Blue," in Rick Besoyan's satirical 1959 musical Little Mary Sunshine; the piece was first produced by Florenz Ziegfeld on Broadway in 1920 and ran for 570 performances, one of the longest runs on Broadway up to that time. The show was designed as a debut star vehicle for Marilyn Miller, it was revived several times on Broadway and in the West End. Since World War II, it has had few productions; the musical was adapted into a 1929 musical film. Kern and Wodehouse had collaborated on a number of musical comedies at the Princess Theatre.
The story combined the innocence of these earlier "Princess musicals" with the lavishness of the "Ziegfeld Follies" formula. The score recycles some material from previous Kern shows, including "Look for the Silver Lining" and "Whip-poor-will". Grey supplied the lyrics for the few new songs in the score. At the request of Ziegfeld, Victor Herbert was engaged to write the music to "The Butterfly Ballet" in Act Three; the musical was produced by Florenz Ziegfeld, opening on December 21, 1920 at the New Amsterdam Theatre on Broadway. It ran for 570 performances, one of the longest runs on Broadway up to that time. By the time it closed in 1924, it would prove to be among the top five money makers of the 1920s; the show was designed as the musical comedy debut of Marilyn Miller, a 22-year-old Ziegfeld Follies girl. Miller would continue to be a star on Broadway until her death in 1936. "Pops", proprietor of the Alley Inn, New York – Alfred P. James Rosalind Rafferty, a manicurist – Mary Hay Madame Nookerova's maid – Mary Hay Sascha, Violinist at the Alley Inn – Jacques Rebiroff Otis Hooper, a theatrical agent – Walter Catlett Mrs. Ten Broek, a settlement worker – Dolores Sally of the Alley, a foundling – Marilyn Miller Madame Nookerova, a Wild Rose – Marilyn Miller Premier Star of the Follies – Marilyn Miller Connie, a waiter at the Alley Inn – Leon Errol Duke of Czechogovinia – Leon Errol Miss New York, a niece – Agatha Dehussey Admiral Travers, a gay one – Phil Ryley Blair Farquar, an only son – Irving Fisher Jimmie Spelvin – Stanley Ridges Billy Porter – Wade Boothe Harry Burton – Jack Barker Act IThe Night Time - Jimmie Spelvin and Ensemble Way Down East - Rosalind Rafferty and Ensemble On with the Dance - Otis Hooper, Rosalind and Harry Burton This Little Girl - Mrs. Ten Broek, "Pops" and Foundlings Joan of Arc - Sally of the Alley and Foundlings Look for the Silver Lining - Sally and Blair Farquar Sally - Blair and Ensemble Act IIThe Social Game - Jimmie and Ensemble Wild Rose - Sally and Diplomats The Schnitza Komisski - Duke of Czechogovinio and Ensemble Pzcherkatrotsky - Duke of Czechogovinio Whip-poor-will - Sally and Blair The Lorelei - Otis Hooper and Jimmie The Church Around the Corner - Rosalind and Otis Act IIILand of Butterflies Finale - Dear Little Church'Round the Corner The musical enjoyed a successful production in 1921 in London at the Winter Garden Theatre, starring British musical comedy veterans George Grossmith, Jr. and Leslie Henson, which ran for 387 performances.
It played well in 1923 in Australia, produced by the J. C. Williamson company. There were Broadway revivals in 1923 and 1948 and London revivals in 1942 and 1952. Other productions included a 1944 LACLO Production in Los Angeles, California and a 1988 concert production Off-Broadway at the Academy Theatre. A 1925 silent romantic comedy film of the same name starred Colleen Moore and was directed by Alfred E. Green, produced by Moore's husband John McCormick; the screenplay was adapted by June Mathis. The 1929 musical film version was only the third all talking all-color feature movie made, it retains three of Kern's songs. The rest of the music newly written for the film by Al Dubin and Joe Burke. Miller was hired by the Warner Brothers to reprise her role at an extravagant sum; the film was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Art Direction by Jack Okey in 1930. Sally was presented on The Railroad Hour April 6, 1953; the 30-minute radio adaptation starred Lucille Norman. References SourcesDescription of the musical Synopsis and other information about the musical Midi files and links Vocal score Sally at the Internet Broadway Database NY Times review of a 1988 staged concert Information about the Australian production Site gives length of long-running shows