Stomach oil is the light oil composed of neutral dietary lipids found in the proventriculus of birds in the order Procellariiformes. All albatrosses and northern and austral storm petrels use the oil; the only Procellariiformes that do not are the diving petrels. The chemical make up of stomach oil varies from species to species and between individuals, but always contains both wax esters and triglycerides. Other compounds found in stomach oil include glycerol ethers and squalene. Stomach oil will solidify into a hard wax if allowed to cool, it was once thought that stomach oil was a secretion of the proventriculus, but it is now known to be a residue of the diet created by digestion of the prey items such as krill, squid and fish. It is thought to serve several functions for Procellariiformes as an energy store. For this reason a great deal more energy can be stored in oil form as opposed to undigested prey; this can be a real advantage for species that range over huge distances to provide food for hungry chicks, or as a store for lean times when ranging across the sea looking for patchy areas of prey.
Surface nesting petrels and albatross can eject this oil out of their mouths towards attacking predators or conspecific rivals. This oil can be deadly to birds, as it can cause matting of the feathers leading to the loss of flight or water repellency. Against threatening mammals it is not outright dangerous, but due to its offensive smell it is highly repulsive and liable to spoil a predator's hunting success for quite some time; the smell of the hydrophobic oil cannot be removed with water, can persist for months or years. Roby, Daniel D, Jan R E, Allen R "Significance of stomach oil for reproduction in seabirds: An interspecies cross-fostering experiment." The Auk 114 725-736. Warham, J. "The Incidence and ecological significance of petrel stomach oils." Proceedings of the New Zealand Ecological Society 24 84-93
The Australasian gannet known as Australian gannet and tākapu, is a large seabird of the booby and gannet family, Sulidae. Adults are white, with black flight feathers at the wingtips and lining the trailing edge of the wing; the central tail feathers are black. The head is tinged buff-yellow, with a pale blue-grey bill edged in black, blue-rimmed eyes. Young birds have mottled dark above and light below; the head is an intermediate mottled grey, with a dark bill. The birds acquire more white in subsequent seasons until they reach maturity after five years; the species range over water above the continental shelf along the southern and eastern Australian coastline, from Steep Point in Western Australia to Rockhampton, Queensland, as well as the North and South Islands of New Zealand, Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands. Nesting takes place in colonies along the coastlines of New Zealand and Tasmania—mostly on offshore islands, although there are several mainland colonies in both countries. Territorial when breeding, the Australasian gannet performs agonistic displays to defend its nest.
Potential and mated pairs engage in greeting displays. The nest is a cup-shaped mound composed of seaweed and other debris, built by the female from material gathered by the male. A single pale blue egg is laid yearly; the chick is soon covered in white down. Fed regurgitated fish by its parents, it grows and outweighs the average adult when it fledges; these birds are spectacular fishers, plunging into the ocean at high speed. They eat squid and forage fish that school near the surface; the species faces few natural or man-made threats, since its population is growing it is considered to be a least-concern species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Sir Joseph Banks shot three Australasian gannets in New Zealand waters on 24 December 1769 off Three Kings Islands; the birds were cooked in a goose pie, enjoyed by the sailors, for Christmas the next day. Daniel Solander wrote a formal description, noting its differences from the familiar northern gannet giving it the name Pelecanus chrysocephalus before crossing it out and changing it to Pelecanus sectator.
Sydney Parkinson illustrated the bird as P. sectator, misread as P. serrator by authorities. The species name has been translated as "sawyer", from serra "saw", linked to the serrated bill. John Gould described specimens from the Derwent River and Actaeon Island in Tasmania as Sula australis in 1841; the binomial name Sula australis had been used by J. F. Stephens for the red-footed booby. English zoologist George Robert Gray wrote of the species in 1843 using Gould's name but soon switching to Sula serrator, based on Parkinson's drawing. Although Gould stuck with S. australis, S. serrator became the preferred term over time."Australasian gannet" has been designated as the official common name for the species by the International Ornithologists' Union. It is known as Pacific gannet and, in Australia, as Australian gannet, booby, or solan goose. In New Zealand it is known by the Māori name tākapu or tākupu, a word of wider Polynesian origin for a gannet or booby; the Sulidae, the gannets and boobies, appeared about 30 million years ago.
Early Sulidae fossils most resembled the boobies, although they were more aquatic, the gannets splitting off about 16 million years ago. The gannets evolved in the northern hemisphere colonising the southern oceans; the most ancient extant species may be the Abbott's booby the sole survivor of an otherwise extinct separate lineage. A 2011 genetic study of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA suggests that the ancestor of the gannets arose around 2.5 million years ago before splitting into northern and southern lineages. The latter split into the Cape and Australasian gannets around 0.5 million years ago. The three gannets are considered to be separate species forming a superspecies, though they have formerly been classified as subspecies of the northern gannet. An adult Australasian gannet is 84–91 cm long, weighs 2.3 kg, has a 170–200 cm wingspan. The two sexes are of a similar size and appearance, though a 2015 field study at Pope's Eye and Point Danger colonies found females to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier respectively.
Females had a larger ulna and smaller bill. The plumage is white with black flight feathers on the wings, central retrices of the tail; some individuals have more extensive black plumage of their tail feathers. There is a sharp demarcation between dark plumage. Black primary feathers are more resilient to wear; the head and hindneck are tinged buff-yellow. The colour is more pronounced during breeding season; the eyes have a light grey iris surrounded by a pale blue eye ring, bare black skin on the face which merges into the bill. In adults, the bill is pearly grey with dark grey or black edges, a black groove running down the length of the upper mandible; the four-toed feet are dark grey and joined by a membrane of similar colour. There are light green lines running along the ridges of the toes that continue along up the front of the legs. Fledglings are brownish-grey speckled with white overall, they have dark brown bills, bare facial skin and eyes, dark grey legs and feet. Australasian gannets take 2–5 years to gain adult plumage.
Over this period, the upperparts and underparts whiten and the crown and nape become buff-coloured, but there is great variation
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda such as a squid, octopus or nautilus. These marine animals are characterized by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, a set of arms or tentacles modified from the primitive molluscan foot. Fishermen sometimes call; the study of cephalopods is a branch of malacology known as teuthology. Cephalopods became dominant during the Ordovician period, represented by primitive nautiloids; the class now contains two, only distantly related, extant subclasses: Coleoidea, which includes octopuses and cuttlefish. In the Coleoidea, the molluscan shell has been internalized or is absent, whereas in the Nautiloidea, the external shell remains. About 800 living species of cephalopods have been identified. Two important extinct taxa are the Belemnoidea. There are over 800 extant species of cephalopod. An estimated 11,000 extinct taxa have been described, although the soft-bodied nature of cephalopods means they are not fossilised. Cephalopods are found in all the oceans of Earth.
None of them can tolerate freshwater, but the brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis, found in Chesapeake Bay, is a notable partial exception in that it tolerates brackish water. Cephalopods are thought to be unable to live in freshwater due to multiple biochemical constraints, in their +400 million year existence have never ventured into freshwater habitats. Cephalopods occupy most of the depth of the ocean, from the abyssal plain to the sea surface, their diversity is decreases towards the poles. Cephalopods are regarded as the most intelligent of the invertebrates, have well developed senses and large brains; the nervous system of cephalopods is the most complex of the invertebrates and their brain-to-body-mass ratio falls between that of endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates. Captive cephalopods have been known to climb out of their aquaria, maneuver a distance of the lab floor, enter another aquarium to feed on the crabs, return to their own aquarium; the brain is protected in a cartilaginous cranium.
The giant nerve fibers of the cephalopod mantle have been used for many years as experimental material in neurophysiology. Many cephalopods are social creatures; some cephalopods are able to fly through the air for distances of up to 50 m. While cephalopods are not aerodynamic, they achieve these impressive ranges by jet-propulsion; the animals spread their fins and tentacles to form wings and control lift force with body posture. One species, Todarodes pacificus, has been observed spreading tentacles in a flat fan shape with a mucus film between the individual tentacles while another, Sepioteuthis sepioidea, has been observed putting the tentacles in a circular arrangement. Cephalopods have advanced vision, can detect gravity with statocysts, have a variety of chemical sense organs. Octopuses use their arms to explore their environment and can use them for depth perception. Most cephalopods rely on vision to detect predators and prey, to communicate with one another. Cephalopod vision is acute: training experiments have shown that the common octopus can distinguish the brightness, size and horizontal or vertical orientation of objects.
The morphological construction gives cephalopod eyes the same performance as sharks'. Cephalopods' eyes are sensitive to the plane of polarization of light. Unlike many other cephalopods, nautiluses do not have good vision, they have a simple "pinhole" eye. Instead of vision, the animal is thought to use olfaction as the primary sense for foraging, as well as locating or identifying potential mates. Given their ability to change color, all octopodes and most cephalopods are considered to be color blind. Coleoid cephalopods have a single photoreceptor type and lack the ability to determine color by comparing detected photon intensity across multiple spectral channels; when camouflaging themselves, they use their chromatophores to change brightness and pattern according to the background they see, but their ability to match the specific color of a background may come from cells such as iridophores and leucophores that reflect light from the environment. They produce visual pigments throughout their body, may sense light levels directly from their body.
Evidence of color vision has been found in the sparkling enope squid, which achieves color vision by the use of three distinct retinal molecules which bind to its opsin. In 2015, a novel mechanism for spectral discrimination in cephalopods was described; this relies on the exploitation of chromatic aberration. Numerical modeling shows that chromatic aberration can yield useful chromatic information through the dependence of image acuity on accommodation; the unusual off-axis slit and annular pupil sha
Procellariiformes is an order of seabirds that comprises four families: the albatrosses and shearwaters, 2 families of storm petrels. Called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English, they are referred to collectively as the petrels, a term, applied to all Procellariiformes, or more all the families except the albatrosses, they are exclusively pelagic, have a cosmopolitan distribution across the world's oceans, with the highest diversity being around New Zealand. Procellariiformes are colonial nesting on remote, predator-free islands; the larger species nest on the surface, while most smaller species nest in natural cavities and burrows. They exhibit strong philopatry, returning to their natal colony to breed and returning to the same nesting site over many years. Procellariiformes are monogamous and form long-term pair bonds that are formed over several years and may last for the life of the pair. A single egg is laid per nesting attempt, a single nesting attempt is made per year, although the larger albatrosses may only nest once every two years.
Both parents participate in chick rearing. Incubation times are long compared to other birds. Once a chick has fledged there is no further parental care. Procellariiformes have had a long relationship with humans, they have been important food sources for many people, continue to be hunted as such in some parts of the world. The albatrosses in particular have been the subject of numerous cultural depictions. Procellariiformes are one of the most endangered bird taxa, with many species threatened with extinction due to introduced predators in their breeding colonies, marine pollution and the danger of fisheries by-catch. Scientists, conservationists and governments around the world are working to reduce the threats posed to them, these efforts have led to the signing of the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels, a binding international treaty signed in 2001; the Procellariiformes have a cosmopolitan distribution across the world's oceans and seas, although at the levels of family and genus there are some clear patterns.
Antarctic petrels, Thalassoica antarctica, have to fly over 100 mi to get to the ocean from their breeding colonies in Antarctica, northern fulmars breed on the northeastern tip of Greenland, the furthest north piece of land. The most cosmopolitan family is the Procellariidae, which are found in tropical and polar zones of both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres, though the majority do not breed in the tropics, half the species are restricted to southern temperate and polar regions; the gadfly petrels, have a tropical and temperate distribution, whereas the fulmarine petrels are polar with some temperate species. The majority of the fulmarine petrels, along with the prions, are confined to the Southern Hemisphere; the storm petrels are as widespread as the procellariids, fall into two distinct subfamilies. Amongst the albatrosses the majority of the family is restricted to the Southern Hemisphere and nesting in cool temperate areas, although one genus, ranges across the north Pacific.
The family is absent from the north Atlantic. The diving-petrels are restricted to the Southern Hemisphere; the various species within the order have a variety of migration strategies. Some species undertake regular trans-equatorial migrations, such as the sooty shearwater which annually migrates from its breeding grounds in New Zealand and Chile to the North Pacific off Japan and California, an annual round trip of 64,000 km, the longest measured annual migration of any bird. A number of other petrel species undertake trans-equatorial migrations, including the Wilson's storm petrel and the Providence petrel, but no albatrosses cross the equator, as they rely on wind assisted flight. There are other long-distance migrants within the order. Many species in the order travel long distances over open water but return to the same nest site each year, raising the question of how they navigate so accurately; the Welsh naturalist Ronald Lockley carried out early research into animal navigation with the Manx shearwaters that nested on the island of Skokholm.
In release experiments, a Manx shearwater flew from Boston to Skokholm, a distance of 3,000 miles in 121⁄2 days. Lockley showed that when released "under a clear sky" with sun or stars visible, the shearwaters oriented themselves and "flew off in a direct line for Skokholm", making the journey so that they must have flown in a straight line, but if the sky was overcast at the time of release, the shearwaters flew around in circles "as if lost" and returned or not at all, implying that they navigated using astronomical cues. Procellariiformes range in size from the large wandering albatross, at 11 kg and a 3.6-metre wingspan, to tiny birds like the least storm petrel, at 20 g with a 32-centimetre wingspan, the smallest of the prions, the fairy prion, with a wingspan of 23 to 28 cm. Their nostrils are enclosed in one or two tubes on their straight deeply-grooved bills with hooked tips; the beaks are made up of several plates. Their wings are narrow.
Birds known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are less developed depending on the species. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites and diverse endemic island species of birds; the digestive and respiratory systems of birds are uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming; the fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier feathered dinosaurs within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs.
The closest living relatives of birds are the crocodilians. Primitive bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period, around 170 million years ago. Many of these early "stem-birds", such as Archaeopteryx, were not yet capable of powered flight, many retained primitive characteristics like toothy jaws in place of beaks, long bony tails. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified around the time of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which killed off the pterosaurs and all the non-avian dinosaur lineages, but birds those in the southern continents, survived this event and migrated to other parts of the world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. This makes them the sole surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics; some birds corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animals. Many species annually migrate great distances. Birds are social, communicating with visual signals and bird songs, participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting and mobbing of predators.
The vast majority of bird species are monogamous for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous or polyandrous. Birds produce offspring by laying eggs, they are laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching; some birds, such as hens, lay eggs when not fertilised, though unfertilised eggs do not produce offspring. Many species of birds are economically important as food for human consumption and raw material in manufacturing, with domesticated and undomesticated birds being important sources of eggs and feathers. Songbirds and other species are popular as pets. Guano is harvested for use as a fertiliser. Birds prominently figure throughout human culture. About 120–130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, hundreds more before then. Human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them.
Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry. The first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. Carl Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system in use. Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. Aves and a sister group, the clade Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria. During the late 1990s, Aves was most defined phylogenetically as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds and Archaeopteryx lithographica. However, an earlier definition proposed by Jacques Gauthier gained wide currency in the 21st century, is used by many scientists including adherents of the Phylocode system. Gauthier defined Aves to include only the crown group of the set of modern birds; this was done by excluding most groups known only from fossils, assigning them, instead, to the Avialae, in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placement of Archaeopteryx in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod dinosaurs.
Gauthier identified four different definitions for the same biological name "Aves", a problem. Gauthier proposed to reserve the term Aves only for the crown group consisting of the last common ancestor of all living birds and all of its descendants, which corresponds to meaning number 4 below, he assigned other names to the other groups. Aves can mean all archosaurs closer to birds than to crocodiles Aves can mean those advanced archosaurs with feathers Aves can mean those feathered dinosaurs that fly Aves can mean the last common ancestor of all the living birds and all of its descendants (a "c
Shearwaters are medium-sized long-winged seabirds. There are more than 30 species of shearwaters, a few larger ones in the genus Calonectris and many smaller species in the genus Puffinus; the Procellaria petrels and Bulweria were believed to belong to this group, but are only distantly related based on more recent studies, while the Pseudobulweria and Lugensa "petrels" are more related. The genus Puffinus can be divided into a group of small species close to Calonectris and a few larger ones more distantly related to both; these birds are most common in cold waters. They are pelagic outside the breeding season; these tubenose birds fly with stiff wings and use a "shearing" flight technique to move across wave fronts with the minimum of active flight. This technique gives the group its English name; some small species, like the Manx shearwater are cruciform in flight, with their long wings held directly out from their bodies. Many are long-distance migrants most spectacularly sooty shearwaters, which cover distances in excess of 14,000 km from their breeding colony on the Falkland Islands to as far as 70° north latitude in the North Atlantic Ocean off northern Norway.
One study found Sooty shearwaters migrating nearly 40,000 miles a year, which would give them the longest animal migration recorded electronically. Short-tailed shearwaters perform an longer "figure of eight" loop migration in the Pacific Ocean from Tasmania to as far north as the Arctic Ocean off northwest Alaska, they are long-lived. A Manx shearwater breeding on Copeland Island, Northern Ireland, is the oldest known wild bird in the world: ringed as an adult in July 1953, it was retrapped in July 2003, at least 55 years old. Manx shearwaters migrate over 10,000 km to South America in winter, using waters off southern Brazil and Argentina, so this bird has covered a minimum of 1,000,000 km on migration alone. Shearwaters come to coastal cliffs only to breed, they are nocturnal at the colonial breeding sites, preferring moonless nights to minimize predation. They nest in burrows and give eerie contact calls on their night-time visits, they lay a single white egg. They feed on fish and similar oceanic food.
Some will follow fishing boats to take scraps the sooty shearwater. Their primary feeding technique is diving, with some species diving to depths of 70 m. Shearwaters are part of the family Procellariidae, which includes fulmarine petrels and gadfly petrels. Calonectris Calonectris diomedea, Cory's shearwater Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde shearwater Calonectris leucomelas, Streaked shearwater Puffinus Puffinus nativatis, Christmas shearwater Puffinus subalaris, Galápagos shearwater Puffinus bryani, Bryan's shearwater Puffinus puffinus, Manx shearwater Puffinus yelkouan, Yelkouan shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus, Balearic shearwater Puffinus huttoni, Hutton's shearwater Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented shearwater Puffinus auriculatus, Townsend's shearwater Puffinus newelli, Newell's shearwater or Hawaiian shearwater Puffinus gavia, fluttering shearwater Puffinus assimilis, little shearwater Puffinus elegans, subantarctic shearwater Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon's shearwater Puffinus bailloni, tropical shearwater or Baillon's shearwater, not agreed upon as to whether a subspecies or species Puffinus baroli, Barolo shearwater or Macronesian shearwater, not agreed upon as to whether a subspecies or species Puffinus boydi, Boyd's shearwater, not agreed upon as to whether a subspecies or species Puffinus bannermani, Bannerman's shearwater, not agreed upon as to whether a subspecies or species Puffinus persicus, Persian shearwater, not agreed upon as to whether a subspecies or species Puffinus heinrothi, Heinroth's shearwater †Puffinus olsoni, lava shearwater or Olson's shearwater Ardenna Ardenna pacifica, wedge-tailed shearwater Ardenna bulleri, Buller's shearwater Ardenna grisea, sooty shearwater Ardenna tenuirostris, short-tailed shearwater or mutton bird Ardenna creatopus, pink-footed shearwater Ardenna carneipes, flesh-footed shearwater Ardenna gravis, great shearwater Pseudobulweria Pseudobulweria macgillivrayi, Fiji petrel Pseudobulweria rostrata, Tahiti petrel Pseudobulweria becki, Beck's petrel Pseudobulweria aterrima, Mascarene petrel Lugensa Lugensa brevirostris, Kerguelen petrel Bulweria Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer's petrel Bulweria fallax, Jouanin's petrel †Bulweria bifax, small St. Helena petrel Procellaria Procellaria cinerea, grey petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis, white-chinned petrel Procellaria conspicillata, spectacled petrel Procellaria parkinsoni, black petrel Procellaria westlandica, Westland petrel Shearwater videos on the Internet Bird Collection