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Sibyl

The sibyls were oracles in Ancient Greece. The earliest sibyls, according to legend, prophesied at holy sites, their prophecies were influenced by divine inspiration from a deity. In Late Antiquity, various writers attested to the existence of sibyls in Greece, the Levant, Asia Minor; the English word sibyl comes — via the Old French sibile and the Latin sibylla — from the ancient Greek Σίβυλλα. Varro derived the name from theobule, but modern philologists propose an Old Italic or alternatively a Semitic etymology; the first known Greek writer to mention a sibyl is Heraclitus, in the 5th century BC: The Sibyl, with frenzied mouth uttering things not to be laughed at, unadorned and unperfumed, yet reaches to a thousand years with her voice by aid of the god.' Walter Burkert observes that "frenzied women from whose lips the god speaks" are recorded much earlier in the Near East, as in Mari in the second millennium and in Assyria in the first millennium". Until the literary elaborations of Roman writers, sibyls were not identified by a personal name, but by names that refer to the location of their temenos, or shrine.

In Pausanias, Description of Greece, the first sibyl at Delphi mentioned was of great antiquity, was thought, according to Pausanias, to have been given the name "sibyl" by the Libyans. Sir James Frazer calls the text defective; the second sibyl referred to by Pausanias, named "Herophile", seems to have been based in Samos, but visited other shrines, at Clarus and Delphi and sang there, but that at the same time, Delphi had its own sibyl. James Frazer writes, in his translation and commentary on Pausanias, that only two of the Greek sibyls were historical: Herophile of Erythrae, thought to have lived in the 8th century BC, Phyto of Samos who lived somewhat later, he observes that the Greeks at first seemed to have known only one sibyl, instances Heraclides Ponticus as the first ancient writer to distinguish several sibyls: Heraclides names at least three sibyls, the Phrygian, the Erythraean, the Hellespontine. The scholar David S. Potter writes, "In the late fifth century BC it does appear that'Sibylla' was the name given to a single inspired prophetess".

Like Heraclitus, Plato speaks of only one sibyl, but in course of time the number increased to nine, with a tenth, the Tiburtine Sibyl Etruscan in origin, added by the Romans. According to Lactantius' Divine Institutions, Varro lists these ten: the Persian, the Libyan, the Delphic, the Cimmerian, the Erythræan, the Samian, the Cumæan, the Hellespontine, the Phrygian, the Tiburtine; the Persian Sibyl was said to be a prophetic priestess presiding over the Apollonian Oracle. Named Sambethe, she was reported to be of the family of Noah; the 2nd-century AD traveller Pausanias, pausing at Delphi to enumerate four sibyls, mentions the "Hebrew Sibyl", brought up in Palestine named Sabbe, whose father was Berosus and her mother Erymanthe. Some say; the medieval Byzantine encyclopedia, the Suda, credits the Hebrew Sibyl as author of the Sibylline oracles. The so-called Libyan Sibyl was identified with prophetic priestess presiding over the ancient Zeus-Amon oracle at the Siwa Oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt.

The oracle here was consulted by Alexander after his conquest of Egypt. The mother of the Libyan Sibyl was the daughter of Poseidon. Euripides mentions the Libyan Sibyl in the prologue to his tragedy Lamia; the Delphic Sibyl was a mythical woman from before the Trojan Wars mentioned by Pausanias writing in the 2nd century AD about stories he had heard locally. The Sibyl would have predated the real Pythia, the oracle and priestess of Apollo, originating from around the 8th century BC. Naevius names the Cimmerian Sibyl in his books of the Punic War and Piso in his annals; the Sibyl's son Evander founded in Rome the shrine of Pan, called the Lupercal. The Erythraean Sibyl was sited at a town in Ionia opposite Chios. Apollodorus of Erythrae affirms the Erythraean Sibyl to have been his own countrywoman and to have predicted the Trojan War and prophesied to the Greeks who were moving against Ilium both that Troy would be destroyed and that Homer would write falsehoods; the word acrostic was first applied to the prophecies of the Erythraean Sibyl, which were written on leaves and arranged so that the initial letters of the leaves always formed a word.

The Samian sibyl's oracular site was at Samos. The sibyl who most concerned the Romans was the Cumaean Sibyl, located near the Greek city of Naples, whom Virgil's Aeneas consults before his descent to the lower world. Burkert notes that the conquest of Cumae by the Oscans in the 5th century destroyed the tradition, but provides a terminus ante quem for a Cumaean sibyl, she is said to have sold the original Sibylline books to the last king of Rome. In Virgil's Fourth Eclogue, the Cumaean sibyl foretells the coming of a savior – a flattering reference to the poet's patron, Augustus. Christians identified this saviour as Jesus; the Hellespontine, or Trojan Sibyl presided over the Apollonian oracle at Dardania. The Hellespontian Sibyl was born in the village of Marpessus near the small town of Gergitha, during the lifetimes of Solon and Cyrus the Great. Marpessus, according to Heraclides of Pontus, was within

Shoal Creek Township, Bond County, Illinois

Shoal Creek Township is one of nine townships in Bond County, Illinois, USA. As of the 2010 census, its population was 1,783 and it contained 813 housing units. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 58.25 square miles, of which 58.23 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. Donnellson Panama Sorento Bunje Gilmore Reno The township contains these seven cemeteries: Bethel, Peterson, Sunny Side, Tisdale and Wade. Illinois State Route 127 Mueller Airport Bond County Community Unit School District 2 Highland Community Unit School District 5 Hillsboro Community Unit School District 3 Illinois' 19th congressional district State House District 102 State Senate District 51 "Shoal Creek Township, Bond County, Illinois". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-01-04. United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States National Atlas City-Data.com Illinois State Archives

Heroes and Villains (Only Fools and Horses)

"Heroes and Villains" is an episode of the BBC sitcom Only Fools and Horses, first screened on 25 December 1996 as the first part of the 1996 Christmas trilogy and the thirteenth Christmas special. It attracted a UK television audience of 21.3 million, at the time a record for the show. In the episode and Rodney are invited to a fancy dress party, they arrive dressed as Robin. The episode opens with Rodney's futuristic dream, in which Damien, head of the now multinational and all-powerful Trotters Independent Traders rules the Western world in the year 2026, barking orders to President Keanu Reeves to declare war on China, claiming that "war is good". Del Boy and Raquel live in a luxurious office block, Trotter Towers, but Rodney himself is an old messenger, Cassandra is a maid, Uncle Albert's body has been preserved. Rodney wakes up back in the present day on his birthday, on which he receives an identity bracelet from Del with the name "Rooney". Del's application for a council grant has been rejected, Raquel receives a letter from her estranged parents, who want to meet her again.

It emerges that Rodney and Cassandra have been trying for a baby, which leads to an unsuspecting Uncle Albert drinking one of Cassandra's urine specimens, believing it to be apple juice. Meanwhile, at Sid's cafe, Trigger is telling everyone in earshot about a medal he received from the local council for using the same broom for twenty years, despite the fact that it has had 17 new heads and 14 new handles in that time. Del buys tickets for himself and Rodney to attend a publican's fancy dress birthday party, Cassandra goes to Spain with her mother, Raquel and Damien visit her parents. At Del's insistence, he and Rodney go to the party dressed as Batman and Robin but their Reliant Regal van breaks down halfway there and they have to run the rest of the way. En route they interrupt an attempt to mug Councillor Murray and, emerging from the fog dressed as Batman and Robin, promptly scare away the thieves. Del and Rodney arrive at the party, unaware that the publican, Harry Malcolm, had in fact died the day before and the fancy dress has thus been cancelled in favour of a wake, they burst into the main room singing the Batman theme tune.

Del and Rodney are in the market the next day and see the gang of muggers again, this time attacking an elderly woman. Rodney gives chase, before one of the muggers starts chasing him. Del receives a medal for apprehending the gang. While at the awards ceremony, he meets Councillor Murray again, who offers to do him a favour in return for rescuing her; that night Del announces that his application for a council grant has now been approved, Rodney reveals that Cassandra is pregnant. In a 2001 poll and Villains was voted the UK's favourite Christmas show of all time, it received 35% of the vote in the survey of 1,500 viewers. The Batman and Robin scene from the episode was re-created by actors during the 2012 Summer Olympics closing ceremony. M People: Sight for Sore Eyes UB40 & Chrissie Hynde: I Got You Babe The Children Of Dunblane: Knockin' on Heaven's Door Dodgy: Good Enough Boyzone: Coming Home Now Spice Girls: 2 Become 1 Neal Hefti: Batman Theme Del Boy & Rodney Trotter: Three Lions "Heroes and Villains" at bbc.co.uk Heroes and Villains at IMDb Heroes and Villains at OFAH.net Episode Script