The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Chalcis or Chalkida is the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point. The name is preserved from antiquity and is derived from the Greek χαλκός, though there is no trace of any mines in the area. In the late Middle Ages, it was known as Negropont, an Italian name, applied to the entire island of Euboea; the earliest recorded mention of Chalcis is in the Iliad, where it is mentioned in the same line as its rival Eretria. It is documented that the ships set for the Trojan War gathered at Aulis, the south bank of the strait nearby the city. Chamber tombs at Trypa and Vromousa dated to the Mycenaean period were excavated by Papavasiliou in 1910. In the 8th and 7th centuries BC, colonists from Chalcis founded thirty townships on the peninsula of Chalcidice and several important cities in Magna Graecia, such as Naxos and Cumae, its mineral produce, metal-work and pottery not only found markets among these settlements, but were distributed over the Mediterranean in the ships of Corinth and Samos.
With the help of these allies, Chalcis engaged the rival league of its neighbour Eretria in the so-called Lelantine War, by which it acquired the best agricultural district of Euboea and became the chief city of the island. Early in the 6th century BC, its prosperity was broken by a disastrous war with the Athenians, who expelled the ruling aristocracy and settled a cleruchy on the site. Chalcis subsequently became a member of both the Delian Leagues. Chalkis has had a Greco-Jewish presence since antiquity, sometimes claimed to have been continuous and to thus form Europe's oldest Jewish community, although there is no evidence of it through the early Middle Ages. In the Hellenistic period, it gained importance as a fortress by which the Macedonian rulers controlled central Greece, it was used by kings Antiochus III of Syria and Mithradates VI of Pontus as a base for invading Greece. Under Roman rule, Chalcis retained a measure of commercial prosperity within the province of Achaea, it is recorded as a city in the 6th-century Synecdemus and mentioned by the contemporary historian Procopius of Caesarea, who recorded that a movable bridge linked the two shores of the strait.
In Byzantine times, Chalcis was called Euripos, a name applied to the entire island of Euboea, although the ancient name survived in administrative and ecclesiastical usage until the 9th century. The town survived an Arab naval raid in the 880s and its bishop is attested in the 869–70 Church council held at Constantinople. By the 12th century, the town featured a Venetian trading station, being attacked by the Venetian fleet in 1171 and seized by Venice in 1209, in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade. For Westerners, its common name was Negroponte; this name comes indirectly from the Greek name of the Euripus Strait: the phrase στὸν Εὔριπον'to Evripos', was rebracketed as στὸ Νεὔριπον'to Nevripos', became Negroponte in Italian by folk etymology, the ponte'bridge' being interpreted as the bridge of Chalcis to Boeotia. The town was a condominium between Venice and the Veronese barons of the rest of Euboea, known as the "triarchs", who resided there. Chalcis or Negroponte became a Latin Church diocese.
A large hoard of late medieval jewellery dating from Venetian times was found in Chalcis Castle in the nineteenth century and is now in the British Museum. The synagogue dated to around 1400. Negroponte played a significant role in the history of Frankish Greece, was attacked by the Principality of Achaea in the War of the Euboeote Succession, the Catalan Company in 1317, the Turks in 1350/1, until it was captured by the Ottoman Empire after a long siege in 1470; that siege is the subject of the Rossini opera Maometto II. The Ottomans made it the seat of the Admiral of the Archipelago. In 1688, it was held by the Ottomans against a strong Venetian attack; the modern city presents the faceless modernity that Greek citizens have given to all the cities of their country from the 1960s onward. Chalkida became part of the newborn Greek state after the Greek War of Independence; the modern town received an impetus in its export trade from the establishment of railway connection with Athens and its port Piraeus in 1904.
In the early 20th century it was composed of two parts—the old walled town at the bridge over the Euripus, where a number of Turkish families continued to live until the late 19th century, a sizeable Jewish community lived until World War II, the more modern suburb that lies outside it, chiefly occupied by Greeks. The old town, called the Castro, was surrounded by a full circuit of defense walls until they were razed for urban development around the start of the 20th century; the Byzantine diocese of Chalkis was a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Corinth, but in the 9th century was transferred to the Metropolitan of Athens, remaining in the sway of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. It was known as Euripo, like it's mentioned in the Byzantine imperial Notitia Episcopatuum since emperor Leo VI the Wise. Several of its Greek bishops are recorded, but some disputed: Constantinus, signed in 458 a letter by the bishops of Greece to Byzantine emperor Leo I the Thracian after the murder by Coptic mobs of patriarch Proterius of Alexandria.
Lequien list before him Anatolius, but he was bishop o
Agira is a town and comune in the province of Enna, Sicily. It is located in the mid-valley of 35 kilometres from Enna; until 1861 it was called San Filippo d'Argiriò, in honour of its saint Philip of Agira. Agira is 141 kilometres from Agrigento, 69 kilometres from Caltanissetta, 66 kilometres from Catania, 34 kilometres from Enna, 162 kilometres from Messina, 184 kilometres from Palermo, 144 kilometres from Ragusa, 124 kilometres from Siracusa, 291 kilometres from Trapani; the Pozzillo artificial lake lies near the town in a eucalyptus wood, provides a habitat for a large variety of birds, a way-stage for migrators. Another reserve – the Riserva di Piano della Corte – has been created in the Erean Mountains, the Mediterranean forest of the Vallone di Piano della Corte is scheduled to become another reserve; the area contains sulphur springs. Agira stands on the site of the ancient Sicel city of Agyrion, or Agyrium, ruled by tyrants, one of whom, was the most powerful ruler in the centre of Sicily.
He was a contemporary of Dionysius the Elder, with him resisted the Carthaginian forces led by Mago when they invaded the territory of Agyrium in 392 BC. Agira was not colonised by the Greeks until the Corinthian general Timoleon drove out the last tyrant in 339 BC, settled 10,000 Greeks, according to Diodorus Siculus, a native of the city, erected various splendid buildings. Diodorus Siculus credits Heracles with the foundation of sacred precincts of Iolaus and of Geryon, the creation of a nearby lake. In the mid fifth century, Agyrium was the first Sicilian city to mint bronze coinage in the Greek fashion; the Romans called it Agirium. Under their control it underwent a decline, as a result of the heavy taxation imposed on it. In 1063, it was taken by the Normans under Count Roger I of Sicily, who defeated the Saracens near the river Salso. Agira is mentioned by Muhammad al-Idrisi by the name Shanta Fīlibb, written as شنت فيلب in the Arabic script. Agira passed through the hands of the Hohenstaufen, the Angevines and Aragonese, in about 1400 it became state property of Sicily.
Over the years the town has been influenced by Spanish and Jewish arrivals, both leaving their architectural mark, the latter a synagogue. The main buildings of note are its numerous churches, most of which contain collections of art works, they include the Norman Chiesa Madre dedicated to Santa Maria Maggiore, the Norman church of Santa Margherita, the largest in the diocese, with thirteen altars, which dates from the early 13th century, the church of St Filippo, which has a nave and two aisles, contains paintings by Olivo Sozzi, the 16th-century church of Sant'Antonio da Padova, which has three naves, the 16th-century church of Sant'Antonio Abate, containing fourteen small paintings of the Venetian school, the church of San Salvatore, with Gothic bell-tower. There is an Arab–Byzantine castle rebuilt by the Hohenstaufen, of which two towers still stand; the town is a centre of agriculture: productions include cereals, almonds and grapes. The large areas of pasture make possible the breeding of cattle and horses.
There is a railway station south of the town. Agira is twinned with: Żebbuġ, Malta Official website Agira — from La Sicilia in dettaglio — Sicily in full detail Gallery of photographs of Agira Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopædia of Classical Sites, 1976: "Agyrion, Sicily" History of Agira
Megara Hyblaea – identical with Hybla Major – is an ancient Greek colony in Sicily, situated near Augusta on the east coast, 20 kilometres north-northwest of Syracuse, Italy, on the deep bay formed by the Xiphonian promontory. There were at least three cities named "Hybla" in ancient accounts of Sicily which are confounded with each other, among which it is sometimes difficult to distinguish, it was unquestionably a Greek colony, deriving its origin from the Megara in Greece. He tells us that a colony from Megara, under the command of a leader named Lamis, arrived in Sicily about the time that Leontini was founded by the Chalcidic colonists, settled themselves first near the mouth of the river Pantagias, at a place called Trotilon. From thence they removed to Leontini itself, where they dwelt for a time together with the Chalcidians. Hence they again removed after the death of Lamis, and, at the suggestion of Hyblon, a Sicilian chief of the surrounding country settled at a place afterwards called the Hyblaean Megara.
Scymnus Chius follows a different tradition, as he describes the establishment of the Chalcidians at Naxos and that of the Megarians at Hybla as contemporary, both preceding the foundation of Syracuse, 734 BC. Strabo adopts the same view of the subject, as he represents Megara as founded about the same time with Naxos, before Syracuse, it is impossible to reconcile the two accounts, but that of Thucydides is the most trustworthy. According to this the foundation of Megara may be placed about 726 BC. Professor Miller, in her reinvestigation of ancient source materials has determined that they point to various dates of foundation from 758 BC to 728 BC. Of its earlier history we have scarcely any information, but it would appear to have attained to a flourishing condition, as 100 years after its foundation it sent out, in its turn, a colony to the other end of Sicily, where it founded the city of Selinus, destined to rise to far greater power than its parent city. Nothing more is known of Megara till the period of its destruction by Gelon of Syracuse, about 483 BC, after a long siege, made himself master of the city by a capitulation.
Among the persons thus removed was the celebrated comic poet Epicharmus, who had received his education at Megara, though not a native of that city. According to Thucydides, this event took place 245 years after the foundation of Megara, may therefore be placed about 483 BC, it is certain that Megara never recovered its independence. Thucydides distinctly alludes to it as not existing in his time as a city, but mentions the locality, on the sea-coast, at that time occupied by the Syracusans, but which the Athenian general Lamachus, during the expedition against Syracuse, proposed to make the headquarters of their fleet. From this time we meet with repeated mention of a place named Megara or Megaris, which it seems impossible to separate from Hybla, it is probable that the two were, in fact, identical; the site of this Megara or Hybla may be fixed, with little doubt, at the mouth of the river Alabus. It is difficult to believe that this position, the port of, at least equal to that of Syracuse, while the peninsula itself has the same advantages as that of Ortygia, should have been wholly neglected in ancient times.
Excavations carried on in 1891 led to the discovery of the northern portion of the western town wall, which in one section served at the same time as an embankment against floods — it was more conspicuous in the time of Philipp Cluver, p. 133 — of an extensive necropolis, about 1500 tombs of which have been explored, of a deposit of votive objects from a temple. The harbour lay to the north of the town. In the mid-seventh century, the city was organised according to a regularised plan. An agora emerged with stoas on eastern sides; this is among one of the earliest known agoras. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Megara Hyblaea". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 76–77. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray
Ducetius was a Hellenized leader of the Sicels and founder of a united Sicilian state and numerous cities. It is thought, his story is told through the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BCE, who drew on the work of Timaeus. He was a native Sicilian, but his education was Greek and was much influenced by Greek civilization in Sicily, he is sometimes known by the Hellenized name of Douketios. Sicily at this time was under the tyranny of his brother Hiero. After the death of Hiero in 467 BCE, Syracuse became a democracy. There were however, troubles in the aftermath of the tyranny's collapse. War had broken out between Syracuse and its former colony Catana in 460 BCE. Ducetius assisted Syracuse because Catana had occupied Sicel land, together defeated them. Ducetius went on to found the city of occupy Morgantina. By 452 BCE he had united central Sicily and founded the city of Palice, the seat of his power, near Lago Naftia two holy crater lakes and site of a sanctury of a pair of Sicel gods called the Palici.
The city grew as it became a place of refuge for runaway slaves. Ducetius conquered Aetna, southwest of Mount Etna, before moving into Agrigentum. Syracuse, although an ally, became concerned by Ducetius' unchecked expansion. However, Ducetius did not pose a threat to Syracuse in the same way Carthage had, but with Ducetius' taking in 451 BCE of Motyon, a stronghold held by Agrigentum, Syracuse decided to assist Agrigentum, but was not able to defeat him. It was in this year. Only a year in 450 BCE, it would be decisively defeated at Nomae, his surviving army was scattered amongst the Sicel cities, Ducetius was left with only a handful of followers. Agrigentum retook Ducetius fled to Syracuse. Ducetius was tried by a general assembly in Syracuse, they voted to pay to have him exiled to Corinth, Syracuse's mother-city, on the condition that he never return to Sicily. However, Ducetius did return and, according to Diodorus, in 446 BCE founded the city of Kale Akte on the instructions of an oracle; the city comprised both Corinthian settlers.
In 440 BCE, Ducetius died of illness. This traditional version is, not without problems. Diodorus Siculus, in another passage, says that Ducetius colonised Kale Akte in 440 BCE, the same year he died. Thus, the date of foundation seems to be uncertain. In addition, recent excavations at Caronia, the site of the Hellenistic and Roman Caleacte, have revealed only sparse remains from the 5th century BCE, show that a Sicel settlement existed in the early 5th century BCE. Ducetius died before a more lasting colony could be established, in the aftermath of his death, the Sicels revolted against Syracuse; the Sicel federation fell apart immediately after Ducetius' death, Palice was sacked shortly thereafter and its inhabitants sold into slavery. Thus, the particular conditions of concord which had existed after the return of Ducetius between the Sicels and Syracuse vanished; some scholars have hypothesised that Ducetius returned without the consent of Syracuse, but this is improbable. He must have had the permission of Syracuse to end the exile at Corinth, according to Diodorus, he brought Corinthian settlers for the colonising project at Kale Akte.
Syracuse would have had an interest of establishing an allied Sicel-Greek colony on the north coast, without risking too much in a hostile Sicel-dominated area. Livius.org: Ducetius of Sicily
The Illyrians were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans. The territory the Illyrians inhabited came to be known as Illyria to Greek and Roman authors, who identified a territory that corresponds to Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, part of Serbia and most of central and northern Albania, between the Adriatic Sea in the west, the Drava river in the north, the Morava river in the east and the mouth of the Aoos river in the south; the first account of Illyrian peoples comes from the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, an ancient Greek text of the middle of the 4th century BC that describes coastal passages in the Mediterranean. The name "Illyrians", as applied by the ancient Greeks to their northern neighbors, may have referred to a broad, ill-defined group of peoples; the Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as'Illyrians', it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves. In fact, Illyrians seems to be the name of a specific Illyrian tribe, among the first to come in contact with the ancient Greeks during the Bronze Age, with the Greeks applying pars pro toto the name Illyrians to all people with similar language and customs.
At present it is unclear to what extent the Illyrians were linguistically and culturally homogeneous. In fact, Illyric origin was and still is attributed to a few ancient peoples residing in Italy: the Iapyges and Messapi, who are thought to have most followed Adriatic shorelines to the Italian peninsula from the geographic "Illyria"; the term "Illyrians" last appears in the historical record in the 7th century, referring to a Byzantine garrison operating within the former Roman province of Illyricum. In Greek mythology, Illyrius was the son of Cadmus and Harmonia who ruled Illyria and became the eponymous ancestor of the whole Illyrian people. Illyrius had multiple daughters. From these, sprang the Taulantii, Dardani, Autariates and the Daors. Autareius had a son Pannonius or Paeon and these had sons Scordiscus and Triballus. A version of this mythic genealogy gives as parents Polyphemus and Galatea, who gave birth to Celtus and Illyrius, three brothers, progenitors of Celts and Illyrians expresses perceived similarities to Celts and Gauls on the part of the mythographe.
Scholars have long recognized a "difficulty in producing a single theory on the ethnogenesis of the Illyrians" given their heterogeneous nature. Modern scholarship is unable to refer to the Illyrians as a unique and compact people and agrees that they were a sum of ill-defined communities without common origins that never merged to a single ethnic entity. Older Pan-Illyrian theories are now dismissed by scholars, based as they were on racialistic notions of Nordicism and Aryanism; the specific theories have found little archaeological corroboration, as no convincing evidence for significant migratory movements from the Luzatian culture into the west Balkans have been found. Rather, archaeologists from the former Yugoslavia highlighted the continuity between the Bronze and succeeding Iron Age developing the so-called "autochthonous theory" of Illyrian genesis; the "autochthonous" model was most elaborated upon by Alojz Benac and B. Čović. They argued that the'proto-Illyrians' had arrived much earlier, during the Bronze Age as nomadic Indo-Europeans from the steppe.
From that point, there was a gradual Illyrianization of the western Balkans leading to historic Illyrians, with no early Iron Age migration from northern Europe. He did not deny a minor cultural impact from the northern Urnfield cultures, however "these movements had neither a profound influence on the stability.. of the Balkans, nor did they affect the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian ethnos". Aleksandar Stipčević raised concerns regarding Benac's all-encompassing scenario of autochthonous ethnogenesis, he points out "can one negate the participation of the bearers of the field-urn culture in the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian tribes who lived in present-day Slovenia and Croatia" or "Hellenistic and Mediterranean influences on southern Illyrians and Liburnians?". He concludes that Benac's model is only applicable to the Illyrian groups in Bosnia, western Serbia and a part of Dalmatia, where there had indeed been a settlement continuity and'native' progression of pottery sequences since the Bronze Age.
Following prevailing trends in discourse on identity in Iron Age Europe, current anthropological perspectives reject older theories of a longue duree ethnogenesis of Illyrians where'archaeological continuity' can be demonstrated to Bronze Age times. They rather see the emergence of historic Illyrians tribes as a more recent phenomenon - just prior to their first attestation; the impetus behind the emergence of larger regional groups, such as "Iapodes", "Liburnians", "Pannonians" etc. is traced to increased contacts with the Mediterranean and La Tène'global worlds'. This catalyzed "the development of more complex political institutions and the increase in differences between individual communities". Emerging local elites selectively adopted either La Tène or Hellenistic and Roman cultural templates "in order to legitimise and strengthen domination within their communities, they were competing fiercely through either conflict and resistance to Roman expansion. Thus, they established more complex political alliances, which convinced
The Ionian Sea is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea. It is bounded by Southern Italy including Calabria and the Salento peninsula to the west, southern Albania to the north, the west coast of Greece. All major islands in the sea belong to Greece, they are collectively named the Ionian Islands, the main ones being Corfu, Zakynthos and Ithaca. There are ferry routes between Patras and Igoumenitsa and Brindisi and Ancona, that cross the east and north of the Ionian Sea, from Piraeus westward. Calypso Deep, the deepest point in the Mediterranean at −5,267 m, is located in the Ionian Sea, at 36°34′N 21°8′E; the sea is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. The name Ionian comes from the Greek language Ἰόνιον, its etymology is unknown. Ancient Greek writers Aeschylus, linked it to the myth of Io. In Ancient Greek the adjective Ionios was used as an epithet for the sea because Io swam across it. According to the Oxford Classical Dictionary, the name may derive from Ionians who sailed to the West.
There were narratives about other eponymic legendary figures. When Dyrrhachus was attacked by his own brothers, passing through the area, came to his aid, but in the fight the hero killed his ally's son by mistake; the body was cast into the water, thereafter was called the Ionian Sea. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Ionian Sea as follows: On the North. A line running from the mouth of the Butrinto River in Albania, to Cape Karagol in Corfu, along the North Coast of Corfu to Cape Kephali and from thence to Cape Santa Maria di Leuca in Italy. On the East. From the mouth of the Butrinto River in Albania down the coast of the mainland to Cape Matapan. On the South. A line from Cape Matapan to Cape Passero, the Southern point of Sicily. On the West; the East coast of Sicily and the Southeast coast of Italy to Cape Santa Maria di Leuca. From south to north in the west north to south in the east: Syracuse, port, W Catania, port, W Messina, port, W Taranto, port N Himara, small port, NE Saranda, port and a beach, NE Kerkyra, port, E Igoumenitsa, port, E Parga, small port, E Preveza, port, E Astakos, port, E Argostoli, port, E Patra, port, E Kyparissia, port, E Pylos, port, E Methoni, small port and a beach Ionian Islands Strait of Messina, W Gulf of Catania, W Gulf of Augusta, W Gulf of Taranto, NW Gulf of Squillace, NW Ambracian Gulf, E Gulf of Patras, connecting the Gulf of Corinth, ESE Gulf of Kyparissia, SE Messenian Gulf, SE Laconian Gulf, ESE Corfu Kefalonia Ithaca Zakynthos Lefkada Paxi Kythira Calypso Deep The Ionian-Puglia Network of Ground Meteorological Stations