Sicherheitsdienst, full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS, or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany. Originating in 1931, the organization was the first Nazi intelligence organization to be established and was considered a sister organization with the Gestapo through integration of SS members and operational procedures. Between 1933 and 1939, the SD was administered as an independent SS office, after which it was transferred to the authority of the Reich Main Security Office, as one of its seven departments/offices, its first director, Reinhard Heydrich, intended for the SD to bring every single individual within the Third Reich's reach under "continuous supervision". Following Germany's defeat in World War II, the tribunal at the Nuremberg Trials declared the SD a criminal organisation, along with the rest of Heydrich's RSHA both individually and as branches of the SS in the collective. Heydrich's successor, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg trials, sentenced to death and hanged in 1946.

The SD, one of the oldest security organizations of the SS, first formed in 1931 as the Ic-Dienst operating out of a single apartment and reporting directly to Heinrich Himmler. Himmler appointed Reinhard Heydrich, to organise the small agency; the office was renamed Sicherheitsdienst in the summer of 1932. The SD became more powerful after the Nazi Party took control of Germany in 1933 and the SS started infiltrating all leading positions of the security apparatus of the Reich. Before Hitler became Chancellor in January 1933, the SD was a veritable "watchdog" over the SS and over members of the Nazi Party and played a critical role in consolidating political-police powers into the hands of Himmler and Heydrich. Once Hitler was appointed Chancellor by German President Paul von Hindenburg, he made efforts to manipulate the aging president. On 28 February 1933, Hitler convinced Hindenburg to declare a state of emergency which suspended all civil liberties throughout Germany, due at least in part to the Reichstag fire the night before.

Hitler assured Hindenburg throughout that he was attempting to stabilize the tumultuous political scene in Germany by taking a "defensive measure against Communist acts of violence endangering the state." Wasting no time, Himmler set the SD in motion as they began creating an extensive card-index of the Nazi regime's political opponents, arresting labor organizers, Jewish leaders and communists in the process, sending them to the newly-established prison facility near Munich, Dachau. Himmler's SS and SD made their presence felt at once by helping rid the regime of its known political enemies and its perceived ones, as well; as far as Heydrich and Himmler were concerned, the SD left their mission somewhat vaguely defined so as to "remain an instrument for all eventualities". One such eventuality would soon arise. For a while, the SS competed with the Sturmabteilung for influence within Germany. Himmler distrusted the SA and came to deplore the "rabble-rousing" brownshirts and what he saw as indecent sexual deviants amid its leadership.

At least one pretext to secure additional influence for Himmler's SS and Heydrich's SD in "protecting" Hitler and securing his absolute trust in their intelligence collection abilities, involved thwarting a plot from Ernst Roehm's SA using subversive means. On 20 April 1934 Hermann Göring handed over control of the Geheime Staatspolizei to Himmler. Heydrich, named chief of the Gestapo by Himmler on 22 April 1934 continued as head of the SD; these events further extended Himmler's control of the security mechanism of the Reich, which by proxy strengthened the surveillance power of Heydrich's SD, as both entities methodically infiltrated every police agency in Germany. Subsequently, the SD was made the sole "party information service" on 9 June 1934. Under pressure from the Reichswehr leadership and with the collusion of Göring, Joseph Goebbels, the Gestapo and SD, Hitler was led to believe that Röhm's SA posed a serious conspiratorial threat requiring a drastic and immediate solution. For its part, the SD provided fictitious information that there was an assassination plot on Hitler's life and that an SA putsch to assume power was imminent since the SA were amassing weapons.

Additionally, reports were coming into the SD and Gestapo that the vulgarity of the SA's behavior was damaging the party and was making antisemitism less palatable. On 30 June 1934 the SS and Gestapo acted in coordinated mass arrests; the SS took one of its most decisive steps in eliminating its competition for command of security within Germany and established itself in the Nazi hierarchy, making the SS and its intelligence organ, the SD, responsible only to the Führer. The purge became known with up to 200 people killed in the action. Moreover, the brutal crushing of the SA and its leadership sent a clear message to everyone that opposition to Hitler's regime could be fatal, it struck fear across the Nazi leadership as to the tangible concern of the reach and influence of Himmler's intelligence collection and policing powers. During the autumn of 1937, Hitler secured Mussolini's support to annex Austria and informed his generals of his intentions to invade both Austria and Czechoslovakia. Get

Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy

Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy is an optical technique for sensing and analysis of gas located within porous and scattering solids, e.g. powders, wood, translucent packages, pharmaceutical tablets, human paranasal sinuses etc. It was introduced in 2001 by co-workers at Lund University; the technique is related to conventional high-resolution laser spectroscopy for sensing and spectroscopy of gas, but the fact that the gas here is "hidden" inside solid materials give rise to important differences. Free gases exhibit sharp spectral features, different gas species have their own unique spectral fingerprints. At atmospheric pressure, absorption linewidths are on the order of 0.1 cm−1, while solid media have dull spectral behavior with absorption features thousand times wider. By looking for the sharp absorption imprints in light emerging from porous samples, it is thus possible to detect gases confined in solids – though the solid attenuates light much stronger than the gas itself.

The basic principle of GASMAS is shown in figure 1. Laser light is sent into a sample with gas cavities, which could either be small pores or larger gas-filled chambers; the heterogeneous nature of the porous material give rise to strong light scattering, pathlengths are surprisingly long. In addition, light will experience absorption related to the solid material; when travelling through the material, light will travel through the pores, will thus experience the spectrally sharp gas absorption. Light leaving the material will carry this information, can be collected by a detector either in a transmission mode or in a reflection mode. In order to detect the spectrally sharp fingerprints related to the gas, GASMAS has so far relied on high-resolution tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. In principle, this means that a nearly monochromatic laser is scanned across an absorption line of the gas, a detector records the transmission profile. In order to increase sensitivity, modulation techniques are employed.

The strength of the gas absorption will depend, as given by the Beer-Lambert law, both on the gas concentration and the path-length that the light has travelled through the gas. In conventional TDLAS, the path-length is known and the concentration is calculated from the transmittance. In GASMAS, extensive scattering renders the pathlength unknown and the determination of gas concentration is aggravated. In many applications, the gas concentration is known and other parameters are in focus. Furthermore, as discussed in 2.2, there are complementing techniques that can provide information on the optical pathlength, thus allowing evaluation of gas concentrations. It is well known that optical interference is a major problem in laser-based gas spectroscopy. In conventional laser-based gas spectrometers, the optical interference originates from e.g. etalon-type interference effects in optical components and multi-pass gas cells. Throughout the years, great efforts have been devoted to handle this problem.

Proper optical design is important to minimize interference from the beginning, but interference patterns can not be avoided and are difficult to separate from gas absorption. Since gas spectroscopy involves measurement of small absorption fractions, appropriate handling of interference is crucial. Utilised countermeasures include customized optical design, tailored laser modulation, mechanical dithering, signal post-processing, sample modulation, baseline recording and interference subtraction. In the case of GASMAS, optical interference is cumbersome; this is related to the severe speckle-type interference that originates from the interaction between laser light and scattering solid materials. Since this non-uniform interference is generated in same place as the utility signal, it cannot be removed by design; the optical properties of the porous material under study determines the interference pattern, the level of interference is not much stronger than actual gas absorption signals. Random mechanical dithering has been found effective in GASMAS.

However, this approach converts stable interference into a random noise that must be averaged away, thus requiring longer acquisition times. Baseline recording and interference subtraction may be applicable in some GASMAS applications, as may other of the methods described above. See See See See Much of the food that we consume today is put in a wide variety of packages to ensure food quality and provide a possibility for transportation and distribution. Many of these packages are air or gas tight, making it difficult to study the gas composition without perforation. In many cases it is of great value to study the composition of gases without destroying the package; the best example is studies of the amount of oxygen in food packages. Oxygen is present in most food and food packages as it is a major component in air. However, oxygen is one of the great causes or needs for aging of biological substances, due to its source for increase of chemical and microbiological activity. Today, methods like and packaging are implemented to reduce and control the oxygen content in food packages to prolong and ensure safe food.

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Kat McSnatch

Kat McSnatch is an Australian-born songwriter and comedian. McSnatch's musical comedy is displayed on her first song, "You Are a Cunt", released on YouTube. Soon Blink 182 adopted it for their 2014 tour of Europe and United Kingdom, playing it as their "intro song" at every live show, including the 2014 Reading Festival, broadcast on BBC television, her social media presence grew as people joined her accounts on Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and SoundCloud. Her music is influenced by Bill Hicks, Daft Punk, Blink 182, Rage Against the Machine, Lady Gaga, Eva Cassidy, Tori Amos, Weird Al Yankovic. McSnatch released her debut album, Respectable Member, on 14 November 2014, which features vocal artist, Moe Keys, was produced by Damien Slingsby and mastered by Ryan Smith at Sterling Sound, New York, United States. McSnatch provides parody and cover versions, including Bobby McFerrin's song, "Don't Worry Be Happy", as "Don't Worry Be Ugly", she sang vocals on MainFrame - Borderlands: The Pre-Sequel's Claptastic Voyage, produced by Justin Mullins for 2K Games.

Kat McSnatch was born in Australia. She grew up in Melbourne and lived in different towns in Queensland and South Australia relocating to Sydney to focus on her music, she keeps her personal life private and prefers to let her music and lyrics speak for themselves. Kat McSnatch on Facebook "Kat McSnatch" on The Dread Report