Bronze Age Europe
The European Bronze Age is characterized by bronze artifacts and the use of bronze implements. The regional Bronze Age succeeds the Neolithic and it starts with the Aegean Bronze Age in 3200 BC, and spans the entire 2nd millennium BC in Northern Europe, lasting until c.600 BC. The Aegean Bronze Age begins around 3200 BC when civilizations first established a trade network. This network imported tin and charcoal to Cyprus, where copper was mined and alloyed with the tin to produce bronze, Bronze objects were exported far and wide, and supported the trade. Isotopic analysis of the tin in some Mediterranean bronze objects indicates it came from as far away as Great Britain, the Minoan civilization based from Knossos, appears to have coordinated and defended its Bronze Age trade. One crucial lack in this period was that modern methods of accounting were not available, the eruption of Thera, which according to archaeological data occurred in c.1500 BC, resulted in the decline of the Minoan. This turn of events gave the opportunity to the Mycenaeans to spread their influence throughout the Aegean, around c.1450 BC, they were in control of Crete itself and colonized several other Aegean islands, reaching as far as Rhodes.
Thus the Mycenaeans became the dominant power of the region, marking the beginning of the Mycenaean Koine era, a highly uniform culture that spread in mainland Greece and the Aegean. Their syllabic script, the Linear B, offers the first written records of the Greek language, Mycenaean Greece was dominated by a warrior elite society and consisted of a network of palace states that developed rigid hierarchical, political and economic systems. At the head of this societies was the king, known as wanax, the Maykop culture was the major early Bronze Age culture in the North Caucasus. Some scholars date arsenical bronze artifacts in the region as far back as the mid-4th millennium BC, the Yamna culture was a late copper age/early Bronze Age culture dating to the 36th–23rd centuries BC. The culture was nomadic, with some agriculture practiced near rivers. Parallels with the Afanasevo culture, including provoked cranial deformations, provide a link to the East and it was preceded by the Yamna culture and succeeded by the western Corded Ware culture.
The Catacomb culture in the Pontic steppe was succeeded by the Srubna culture from c. the 17th century BC. Some very rich burials, such as the one located at Leubingen with grave gifts crafted from gold, all in all, cemeteries of this period are rare and of small size. The Unetice culture is followed by the middle Bronze Age Tumulus culture, in the eastern Hungarian Körös tributaries, the early Bronze Age first saw the introduction of the Makó culture, followed by the Otomani and Gyulavarsánd cultures. The late Bronze Age Urnfield culture is characterized by cremation burials and it includes the Lusatian culture in eastern Germany and Poland that continues into the Iron Age. The Central European Bronze Age is followed by the Iron Age Hallstatt culture, in northern Germany, Denmark and Norway, Bronze Age cultures manufactured many distinctive and artistic artifacts
Falx is a Latin word originally meaning sickle but was used to mean any of a number of tools that had a curved blade that was sharp on the inside edge such as a scythe. Falx was used to mean a weapon – particularly that of the Thracians and Dacians – and, later, in Latin texts, the weapon was described as an ensis falcatus by Ovid in Metamorphose and as a falx supina by Juvenal in Satiriae. The Dacian falx came in two sizes, one-handed and two-handed, the shorter variant was called sica in the Dacian language with a blade length that varied but was usually around 16 inches long with a handle 1/3 longer than the blade. The two-handed falx was a pole-arm and it consisted of a 3 feet long wooden shaft with a long curved iron blade of nearly-equal length attached to the end. Archaeological evidence indicates that the falx was used two-handed. The blade was sharpened only on the inside and was reputed to be devastatingly effective, however, it left its user vulnerable because, being a two-handed weapon, the warrior could not make use of a shield.
Alternatively, it might be used as a hook, pulling away shields and cutting at vulnerable limbs, Trajans column is a monument to the emperor’s conquest of Dacia. The massive base is covered with reliefs of trophies of Dacian weapons, the column itself has a helical frieze that tells the story of the Dacian wars. On the frieze, almost all the Dacians that are armed have shields, the exact weapon of those few shown without shields cannot be determined with certainty. The frieze of Trajans column shows Dacians using a smaller, this column is largely stylized, with the sculptor believed to have worked from Trajans now lost commentary and unlikely to have witnessed the events himself. A further problem is that most of the weapons on the monument were made of metal and this column shows four distinct types of falx, whereas Trajans shows only one type that does not resemble any on the Adamclisi monument. Because of this, historians disagree on which depiction is correct, both columns show the Dacians fighting with no armour apart from a shield, although some on the Adamclisi are wearing helmets.
Some historians believe that armour was not depicted to differentiate Dacians from Romans, other sources indicate that Dacians by this time had undergone Romanisation, used Roman military tactics, and sometimes wore Roman style scale armour. It is likely that the nobles at least wore armour and, combined with the falx, at the time of the Dacian wars, researchers have estimated that only ten percent of Iberian and Gallic warriors had access to swords, usually the nobility. By contrast Dacia had rich resources of iron and were metal workers. It is clear that a percentage of Dacians owned swords. These experiments show that the falx was most efficient when targeting the head, shoulder and especially the right arm, a legionary who had lost the use of his right arm became a serious liability to his unit in battle. Roman legionaries had reinforcing iron straps applied to their helmets - it is clear that these are late modifications because they are roughly applied across existing embossed decoration
Common to most Madurese throughout the archipelago is the Islamic religion and the use of the Madurese language. The Madurese are an ethnicity, often affiliated with Nahdlatul Ulama. Pesantren has a role in Madurese life. While the Madurese have their roots on Madura off the northeastern coast of Java, the Madurese people have migrated out of Madura over several hundred years, mostly driven by poor agricultural resources in their home island. The majority have settled on Java, where a six million Madurese live. The Madurese people speak Madurese, which is part of the Malayo-Sumbawan Austronesian languages, the majority of Madurese practice Sunni Islam. Pesantren Muslim schools play an important role in their spiritual and social life, there are Madurese who practice other religions, such as Christianity, and Hinduism, their numbers are extremely small. Culturally the Madurese people are close enough to oriental Javanese that they share similar forms of folklore, dance, the traditional attire, however, is very specific to the Madurese people.
Men would wear a completely black long-skirted coat with a wide belt, while women would have donned a dark blue or mottled jacket over a sarong. A truly unique tradition of the islanders is bull racing, known as Karapan sapi, such competitions are typical of Madura, where they serve as its main tourist attraction. Races are held annually in August and October in different localities, after which their winners compete in the final round, races are usually accompanied by gamelan performances and festivities. By the end of the 1980s, the popularity of Madurese bull racing had grown so much that the winner of the competition would be awarded with a prize on behalf of the President of Indonesia. In addition, the scene of the races was depicted on the reverse of coins of 100 Indonesian rupiah, traditionally in terms of socio-economic life of the Madurese people, there had been a visible impact on their national character. In rural areas, the Madurese still practice an ancient tradition of vendetta and it is noteworthy that the killing may provoke resentment, quite small by the standards of ordinary European or Indonesian, but it is often interpreted as a grave insult to the tribal honor.
In such cases, the avenger usually prepares the celurit in advance in an event of dueling by casting spells on the weapon. Sometimes in the battle of honor are involved several people from each side - relatives and friends of the offender and the offended, on the territory of Java, Madurese people had live for several centuries, forming in some of the north-eastern regions of the islands ethnic majority. However, they tend to get well with the Javanese people in relation to language, culture. A widespread of Javanese mixed Madurese marriages are common, some of these migrant groups have been the subject of conflict with Dayak communities
Martial arts manual
Martial arts manuals are instructions, with or without illustrations, specifically designed to be learnt from a book. Many books detailing specific techniques of martial arts are often erroneously called manuals but were written as treatises, prose descriptions of martial arts techniques appear late within the history of literature, due to the inherent difficulties of describing a technique rather than just demonstrating it. The earliest extant manuscript on armed combat is the I.33, not within the scope of this article are books on military strategy such as Sun Tzus The Art of War or Vegetius De Re Militari, or military technology, such as De Rebus Bellicis. Some early testimonies of historical martial arts consist of series of images only, the earliest example is a fresco in tomb 15 at Beni Hasan, showing illustrations of wrestling techniques dating to c.2000 BC. Similar depictions of wrestling techniques are found on Attic vases dating to Classical Greece, the only known instance of a book from Western antiquity is P.
Oxy. III466, detailing Greek wrestling techniques, an extant Chinese text on wrestling is Six Chapters of Hand Fighting included in the 1st-century AD Book of Han. All other extant manuals date to the Middle Ages or later, the combat stele at Shaolin Monastery dates to AD728. The earliest text detailing Indian martial arts is the Agni Purana and it described how to improve a warriors individual prowess and kill enemies using various methods in warfare whether they went to war in chariots, elephants or on foot. Foot methods were subdivided into armed combat and unarmed combat, the former included the bow and arrow, the sword, noose, iron dart, battle axe and trident. The latter included wrestling, knee strikes and kicking methods, an old Indian martial arts manual is a list of wrestling techniques contained in the Malla Purana, 13th century, Gujarat. The oldest extant European martial arts manual is MS I.33, illustrations only manuals do not become extinct with the appearance of prose instructions, but rather exist alongside these, e. g.
in the form of the Late Medieval German Bilderhandschriften. Fechtbuch is Early Modern High German for combat manual, one of the manuscripts or printed books of the late Middle Ages, a list of Fechtbücher include, Royal Armouries MS I. Fechtbuch of Peter von Danzig, Cod,44 A8,1452 Jud Lew Cod. I.6. 4°.3, Augsburg Fechtbuch of Paulus Kal Cgm 558 a Swiss treatise of the 15th century only loosely related to the German school. Codex Wallerstein, 1470s, Augsburg Solothurner Fechtbuch, no text, dependent on Paulus Kal, 1470s,78.2, Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel Peter Falkner P5012, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna Hans Folz Q566, Weimar Hans von Speyer MS862, c. 1500, influenced by Kal and Falkner, drawn upon by Wilhalm, glasgow Fechtbuch Hans Wurm, Goliath Albrecht Dürers fechtbuch HS. This is largely derived from Pauernfeindts 1516 manual,963, Graz the compendia of Paulus Hector Mair. 83.4 Jakob Sutor von Baden The Italian school is attested in a manual of 1410. Indeed, the author Fiore dei Liberi states that he has learned much of his art from one Master Johannes of Swabia, the heyday of the Italian school comes in the 16th century, with the Dardi school
A blade is the portion of a tool, weapon, or machine with an edge that is designed to puncture, slice or scrape surfaces or materials. A blade may be made from a stone, such as flint, ceramic. Blades are one of humanitys oldest tools, and continue to be used for combat, food preparation, during food preparation, knives are mainly used for slicing and piercing. In combat, a blade may be used to slash or puncture, the function is to sever a nerve, muscle or tendon fibers, or blood vessel to disable or kill the adversary. Severing a major blood vessel typically leads to death due to exsanguination, shrapnel causes wounds via the fragments blade-like nature. Blades may be used to scrape, moving the blade sideways across a surface, a simple blade intended for cutting has two faces that meet at an edge. Ideally this edge would have no roundness but in practice all edges can be seen to be rounded to some degree under magnification either optically or with an electron microscope, force is applied to the blade, either from the handle or pressing on the back of the blade.
The handle or back of the blade has a large area compared to the fine edge and this concentration of applied force onto the small edge area increases the pressure exerted by the edge. It is this pressure that allows a blade to cut through a material by breaking the bonds between the molecules/crystals/fibres/etc. in the material. This necessitates the blade being strong enough to resist breaking before the material gives way. The angle at which the meet is important as a larger angle will make for a duller blade while making the edge stronger. A stronger edge is likely to dull from fracture or from having the edge roll out of shape. The shape of the blade is important, a thicker blade will be heavier and stronger and stiffer than a thinner one of similar design while making it experience more drag while slicing or piercing. A splitting maul has a section to avoid getting stuck in wood where chopping axes can be flat or even concave. Similarly, pushing on a rope tends to squash the rope while drawing serrations across it sheers the rope fibres, drawing a smooth blade is less effective as the blade is parallel to the direction draw but the serrations of a serrated blade are at an angle to the fibres.
Saw blade serrations, for wood and metal, are typically asymmetrical so that they cut while moving in only one direction. Fullers are longitudinal channels either forged into the blade or machined/milled out of the blade though the process is less desirable. This loss of material necessarily weakens the blade but serves to make the lighter without sacrificing stiffness
The Iron Age is an archaeological era, referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World when the dominant toolmaking material was iron. It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia with exceptions, meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt ore, remove impurities. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region, the earliest known iron artifacts are nine small beads dated to 3200 BC, which were found in burials at Gerzeh, Lower Egypt. They have been identified as meteoric iron shaped by careful hammering, meteoric iron, a characteristic iron–nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Iron Age. Such iron, being in its metallic state, required no smelting of ores. Smelted iron appears sporadically in the record from the middle Bronze Age. While terrestrial iron is abundant, its high melting point of 1,538 °C placed it out of reach of common use until the end of the second millennium BC.
Tins low melting point of 231, recent archaeological remains of iron working in the Ganges Valley in India have been tentatively dated to 1800 BC. By the Middle Bronze Age, increasing numbers of smelted iron objects appeared in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, African sites are turning up dates as early as 1200 BC. Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of iron production in around 1200 BC. Between 1200 BC and 1000 BC, diffusion in the understanding of iron metallurgy and use of objects was fast. As evidence, many bronze implements were recycled into weapons during this time, more widespread use of iron led to improved steel-making technology at lower cost. Thus, even when tin became available again, iron was cheaper and lighter, and forged iron implements superseded cast bronze tools permanently. Increasingly, the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, and ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe, the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe, the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II.
Iron I illustrates both continuity and discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age, during the Iron Age, the best tools and weapons were made from steel, particularly alloys which were produced with a carbon content between approximately 0. 30% and 1. 2% by weight. Steel weapons and tools were nearly the same weight as those of bronze, steel was difficult to produce with the methods available, and alloys that were easier to make, such as wrought iron, were more common in lower-priced goods
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
The word succulent comes from the Latin word sucus, meaning juice, or sap. Succulent plants may store water in various structures, such as leaves, some definitions include roots, so that geophytes that survive unfavorable periods by dying back to underground storage organs may be regarded as succulents. In horticultural use, the term succulent is often used in a way which excludes plants that botanists would regard as succulents, Succulents are often grown as ornamental plants because of their striking and unusual appearance. Many plant families have multiple succulents found within them, in some families, such as Aizoaceae and Crassulaceae, most species are succulents. The habitats of these water preserving plants are often in areas with high temperatures, Succulents have the ability to thrive on limited water sources, such as mist and dew, which makes them equipped to survive in an ecosystem which contains scarce water sources. A general definition of succulents is that they are drought resistant plants in which the leaves, other sources exclude roots as in the definition a plant with thick and swollen stems and/or leaves, adapted to dry environments.
This difference affects the relationship between succulents and geophytes – plants that survive unfavorable seasons as a bud on an underground organ. These underground organs, such as bulbs and tubers, are fleshy with water-storing tissues. Thus if roots are included in the definition, many geophytes would be classed as succulents, plants adapted to living in dry environments such as succulents are termed xerophytes. Nor are all succulents xerophytes, since plants like Crassula helmsii are both succulent and aquatic and those who grow succulents as a hobby use the term in a different way to botanists. In horticultural use, the term succulent regularly excludes cacti, however, in botanical terminology, cacti are succulents. Horticulturists may exclude other groups of plants, e. g. bromeliads, a practical, but unscientific, horticultural definition is a succulent plant is any desert plant that a succulent plant collector wishes to grow. Such plants less often include geophytes but do include plants with a caudex, which is a swollen above-ground organ at soil level, formed from a stem, a further difficulty is that plants are not either succulent or non-succulent.
Different sources may classify the same species differently, the storage of water often gives succulent plants a more swollen or fleshy appearance than other plants, a characteristic known as succulence. In addition to succulence, succulent plants variously have other water-saving features, high temperatures and low precipitation force plants to collect and store water to survive long dry periods. Some species of cactus can survive for months without rainfall, Succulents occur as inhabitants of sea coasts and dry lakes, which are exposed to high levels of dissolved minerals that are deadly to many other plant species. Plant families and genera in which succulent species occur are listed below, the table below shows the number of succulent species found in some families, Succulents are very difficult to kill, and if properly potted require little maintenance to survive indoors. Succulents are very adaptable houseplants and will thrive in a range of indoor conditions, Succulents can be propagated by different means
Manchester Museum is a museum displaying works of archaeology and natural history and is owned by the University of Manchester. Sited on Oxford Road at the heart of the group of neo-Gothic buildings. It is the UKs largest university museum and serves both as a visitor attraction and as a resource for academic research and teaching. It has around 360,000 visitors each year, the museums first collections were assembled by the Manchester Society of Natural History formed in 1821 with the purchase of the collection of John Leigh Philips. In 1850 the collections of the Manchester Geological Society were added, by the 1860s both societies encountered financial difficulties and, on the advice of the evolutionary biologist Thomas Huxley, Owens College accepted responsibility for the collections in 1867. The museum in Peter Street was sold in 1875 after Owens College moved to new buildings in Oxford Street, the Manchester Museum was opened to the public in 1888. At the time, the departments of the college were immediately adjacent.
Two subsequent extensions mirror the development of its collections, the 1912 pavilion was largely funded by Jesse Haworth, a textile merchant, to house the archaeological and Egyptological collections acquired through excavations he had supported. The 1927 extension was built to house the ethnographic collections, the Gothic Revival street frontage which continues to the Whitworth Hall has been ingeniously integrated by three generations of the Waterhouse family. When the adjacent University Dental Hospital of Manchester moved to a new site, its old building was used for teaching, the museum is one of the University of Manchesters cultural assets, along with the Whitworth Art Gallery, John Rylands Library, Jodrell Bank visitor centre and others. In 1997 the museum was awarded £12, the Fossils Gallery and Living Cultures Galleries were developed at this time. The Manchester Gallery explores the relationship between the museum and the rest of the world. It explores where collections came from and how they relate to colonialism, Living Worlds opened in April 2011 as a new type of natural history gallery to encourage visitors to reflect on their attitudes to nature.
The gallery was designed by Brussels-based design firm villa eugenie, exhibits include a mounted demoiselle crane with a piece of rubble from the Hiroshima atomic bomb blast and hundreds of origami cranes. Themed exhibits explore attitudes to nature and environmental issues, the gallery has a smartphone app, Living Worlds. This gallery has an allotment in the courtyard in front of the museum, Ancient Worlds opened in October 2012 and transformed the main galleries of the 1912 building. Egyptian Worlds, takes visitors on a journey through the landscape, exploring Objects, reveals the archaeology collections through visible storage with a difference. The gallery incorporates a haptic interactive, in June 2013 time-lapse footage showing a 10-inch Egyptian statue in the museums collection, apparently spinning around unaided, attracted worldwide media attention
A scythe is an agricultural hand tool for mowing grass or reaping crops. It has largely replaced by horse-drawn and tractor machinery. The word scythe derives from Old English siðe, in Middle English and after it was usually spelt sithe or sythe. However, in the 15th century some began to use the sc- spelling as they thought the word was related to the Latin scindere. Nevertheless, the sithe spelling lingered and notably appears in Noah Websters dictionaries, a scythe consists of a shaft about 170 centimetres long called a snaith, snathe or sned, traditionally made of wood but now sometimes metal. Simple snaiths are straight with offset handles, others have an S curve or are bent in three dimensions to place the handles in an ergonomic configuration but close to shaft. The snaith has either one or two handles at right angles to it, usually one near the upper end and always another roughly in the middle. The handles are usually adjustable to suit the user, a curved, steel blade between 60 to 90 centimetres ) long is mounted at the lower end at 90°, or less, to the snaith.
The cutting edge of a blade is traditionally maintained by occasional peening followed by frequent honing. Peening requires some skill and is using a peening hammer. American style blades use a harder, more brittle, steel than European blades and are not usually peened, some examples have a laminated construction with a hard, core providing the edge and softer sides providing strength. The use of a scythe is traditionally called mowing, now often scything to distinguish it from machine mowing. The mower holds the top handle in the hand and the central one in the right, with the arms straight, the blade parallel and very close to the ground. The body is twisted to the right, the blade hooks the grass and is swung steadily to the left in a long arc ending in front of the mower. The mower takes a step forward and repeats the motion, proceeding with a steady rhythm. The correct technique has an action on the grass, cutting a narrow strip with each stroke, leaving a uniform stubble on the ground. The mower moves along the mowing-edge with the grass to the right.
Each strip of ground mown by a scythe is called a swathe or swath, mowing may be done by a team of mowers, usually starting at the edges of a meadow proceeding clockwise and finishing in the middle
A hoard or wealth deposit is an archaeological term for a collection of valuable objects or artifacts, sometimes purposely buried in the ground, in which case it is sometimes known as a cache. Forgetfulness and physical displacement from the location of the hoard may contribute to failing to retrieve it, hoards provide a useful method of providing dates for artifacts through association as they can usually be assumed to be contemporary and therefore used in creating chronologies. Hoards can be considered an indicator of the degree of unrest in ancient societies. Prudence Harper of the Metropolitan Museum of Art voiced some reservations about hoards at the time of the Soviet exhibition of Scythian gold in New York City in 1975. Hoards may be of precious metals, tools or less commonly, there are various classifications depending on the nature of the hoard. A founders hoard contains broken or unfit metal objects, casting waste and these were probably buried with the intention to be recovered at a time. A merchants hoard is a collection of various functional items which, it is conjectured, were buried by a merchant for safety. A personal hoard is a collection of personal objects buried for safety in times of unrest, a hoard of loot is a buried collection of spoils from raiding and is more in keeping with the popular idea of buried treasure.
Furthermore, votive hoards need not be manufactured goods, but can include organic amulets, votive hoards are often distinguished from more functional deposits by the nature of the goods themselves, the places buried, and the treatment of the deposit. However, it should be noted that valuables dedicated to the use of a deity were not always permanently abandoned, valuable objects given to a temple or church become the property of that institution, and may be used to its benefit