The Daimler Company Limited, until 1910, the Daimler Motor Company Limited, was an independent British motor vehicle manufacturer founded in London by H. J. Lawson in 1896, which set up its manufacturing base in Coventry; the company bought the right to the use of the Daimler name from Gottlieb Daimler and Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft of Cannstatt, Germany. After early financial difficulty and a reorganisation of the company in 1904, the Daimler Motor Company was purchased by Birmingham Small Arms Company in 1910, which made cars under its own name before World War II. In 1933, BSA made it a subsidiary of Daimler. Daimler was awarded a Royal Warrant to provide cars to the British Monarch in 1902. Daimler used alternative technology: the Knight engine which it further developed in the early twentieth century and used from 1909 to 1935, worm gear final drive fitted from 1909 until after the Second World War, their patented fluid flywheel used in conjunction with a Wilson preselector gearbox from 1930 to the mid-1950s.
In the 1950s, Daimler tried to widen its appeal with a line of smaller cars at one end and opulent show cars at the other, stopped making Lanchesters, had a publicised removal of their chairman from the board, developed and sold a sports car and a high-performance luxury saloon and limousine. In 1960, BSA sold Daimler to Jaguar Cars, which continued Daimler's line and added a Daimler variant of its Mark II sports saloon. Jaguar was merged into the British Motor Corporation in 1966 and British Leyland in 1968. Under these companies, Daimler became an upscale trim level for Jaguar cars except for the 1968-1992 Daimler DS420 limousine, which had no Jaguar equivalent despite being Jaguar-based; when Jaguar Cars was split off from British Leyland in 1984 it retained the Daimler company and brand. In 1990 Ford Motor Company bought Jaguar Cars and under Ford it stopped using the Daimler marque in 2007. Jaguar Cars remained in their ownership, from 2000 accompanied by Land Rover, until they sold both Jaguar and Land Rover to Tata Motors in 2008, who created Jaguar Land Rover as a subsidiary holding company for them.
In 2013, Jaguar Cars was merged with Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover Limited, the rights to the Daimler car brand were transferred to the newly formed British multinational car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover. Engineer Frederick Richard Simms was supervising construction of an aerial cableway of his own design for the Bremen Exhibition in 1889 when he saw tiny railcars powered by Gottlieb Daimler's motors. Simms, born to English parents in Hamburg and raised by them there, became friends with Daimler, an Anglophile who had worked from autumn 1861 to summer 1863 at Beyer-Peacock in Gorton, Manchester. Simms introduced Daimler’s motors to England in 1890 to power launches. In an agreement dated 18 February 1891, he obtained British and Empire rights for the Daimler patents; that month, Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft lent Simms a motorboat with a 2 hp engine and an extra engine. In June 1891 Simms had set up a London office at 49 Leadenhall Street and founded Simms & Co consulting engineers. In May 1892, the motorboat, which Simms had named Cannstatt, began running on the Thames from Putney.
After demonstrating a motor launch to The Honourable Evelyn Ellis, Simms's motor launch business grew but became endangered when solicitor Alfred Hendriks was found to have been illegally taking money from the company. Hendriks severed his connections with Simms & Co. in February 1893. Simms' Daimler-related work was moved into a new company, The Daimler Motor Syndicate Limited, formed on 26 May 1893. Following the success of Daimler-powered Peugeots and Panhards at the 1894 Paris–Rouen competition, Simms decided to open a motor car factory the UK's first motor company. On 7 June 1895, Simms told the board of the Daimler Motor Syndicate that he intended to form The Daimler Motor Company Limited to acquire the British rights to the Daimler patents and to manufacture Daimler engines and cars in England; that month, he arranged for the syndicate to receive a ten percent commission on all British sales of Daimler-powered Panhard & Levassor cars. At the same meeting, Simms produced the first licence to operate a car under the Daimler patents.
It was for a 3½ hp Panhard & Levassor, bought in France by The Honourable Evelyn Ellis, who had three Daimler motor launches moored by his home at Datchet. On 3 July, after Ellis bought the licence, the car was landed at Southampton and driven by Ellis to Micheldever near Winchester where Ellis met Simms and they drove together to Datchet. Ellis drove it on to Malvern; this was the first long journey by motorcar in Britain. Simms referred to the car as a "Daimler Motor Carriage". In 1895, Simms announced plans to form The Daimler Motor Company Limited and to build a brand-new factory, with delivery of raw materials by light rail, for 400 workmen making Daimler engines and motor carriages. Simms asked his friend Daimler to be consulting engineer to the new enterprise. Works premises at Eel Pie Island on the Thames where the Thames Electric and Steam Launch Company, owned by Andrew Pears of Pears Soap fame, had been making electrically powered motor launches, were purchased to be used to service Daimler-powered motor launches.
Investor Harry John Lawson had set out to use The British Motor Syndicate Limited to monopolise motor car production in Britain by taking over every patent he could. As part of this goal, Lawson approached Simms on 15 October 1895, seeking the right to arrange the public flotation of the proposed new company and to acquire a large shareholding for his British Mo
Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8
The Royal Aircraft Factory R. E.8 was a British two-seat biplane reconnaissance and bomber aircraft of the First World War designed and produced at the Royal Aircraft Factory. It was built under contract by Austin Motors, Standard Motors, Siddeley-Deasy and the Coventry Ordnance Works. Intended as a replacement for the vulnerable B. E.2, the R. E.8 was regarded as more difficult to fly and gained a reputation in the Royal Flying Corps for being "unsafe", never dispelled. Although it gave reasonably satisfactory service, it was never an outstanding combat aircraft. Nonetheless, it remained the standard British reconnaissance and artillery observation aircraft from mid-1917 to the end of the war, serving alongside the rather more popular Armstrong Whitworth F. K.8. More than 4,000 R. E.8s were produced. The R. E.8 was withdrawn from service after the end of the conflict, by which time it was regarded as obsolete. Design of the new type had begun in late 1915, so that it was conceptually at least contemporary with the B.
E.12 and the B. E.2e - like these earlier types, it was designed for inherent stability in line with the dominant pre-war belief in the necessity of stability to perform the aerial observation role. The B. E.2 had been subject to considerable criticism and a deliberate effort was made to address each of the earlier type's failings. In particular, the more powerful motor was intended to improve the feeble speed and climb of the B. E.2 and to allow a better payload. Another consequence of the additional engine power was the possibility of fitting a forward-mounted gun for the pilot; as early as March 1916, the design appears to have been settled. During the early design process, a smaller tail fin was substituted for the original, a step which caused some controversy. By early April 1916 a mock-up of the R. E.8 had been completed, construction of a pair of prototypes was underway. On 16 June 1916, the first of these prototypes was submitted for its final pre-flight inspection in advance of the type's maiden flight.
On 17 June 1916, the first R. E.8 test flight was conducted by F. W. Goodden. Goodden would perform all of the early flights with the type. On 16 July 1916, the second prototype, furnished with a different design of propeller, performed its first flight. During late July 1916, the second of two prototypes was dispatched to France for service trials, the results of which were successful, with aircrew being quite favourably impressed. During August 1916, the second prototype returned to Farnborough, where it underwent modification based upon its experiences in France; the R. E.8 possessed a conventional wire-braced fabric-covered wooden structure, along with an unequal-span wing arrangement. The engine installation resembled that of the B. E.12, complete with the same large air scoop and similar vertically mounted exhausts protruding over the upper wing to carry the fumes clear of the crew. Apart from the disposition of the cockpits, the main visually distinguishable difference was that the engine was raked back, to improve take off and landing characteristics.
The early production R. E. 8s were less identical to the prototypes. The R. E.8 adopted a set of single bay, unequal span wings, identical to those of the earlier B. E.2e. On the B. E.2e, these wings functioned to maintain the stability of the B. E. 2c. Several other features, such as the tailplane, were identical to those used upon the B. E.2e. For the purpose of making the R. E.8 less tiring to fly, the pilot's controls included a wheel to adjust the tailplane incidence in flight and a primitive form of rudder trim was provided to alleviate the constant pressure necessary to counteract the torque generated by the propeller. Basic flight controls were installed in the observer's cockpit, which folded out of the way when not in use. Although not so underpowered as the B. E.2, the R. E.8 was still handicapped by a less than adequate powerplant, a model re-engined with the Hispano-Suiza engine was projected as the R. E.8a from quite an early stage. The cowling designed for the liquid-cooled engine resembled that of the B.
E.12b or the S. E.5a. Supplies of Hispano-Suiza engines, more urgently required for other types, never permitted production of the R. E.8a, although a prototype was constructed and underwent trials during December 1916. Plans to mount Rolls-Royce aero engines, such as th
Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century. With headquarters in Elswick, Newcastle upon Tyne, Armstrong Whitworth built armaments, locomotives and aircraft; the company was founded by William Armstrong in 1847, becoming Armstrong Mitchell and Armstrong Whitworth through mergers. In 1927, it merged with Vickers Limited to form Vickers-Armstrongs, with its automobile and aircraft interests purchased by J D Siddeley. In 1847, the engineer William George Armstrong founded the Elswick works at Newcastle, to produce hydraulic machinery and bridges, soon to be followed by artillery, notably the Armstrong breech-loading gun, with which the British Army was re-equipped after the Crimean War. In 1882, it merged with the shipbuilding firm of Charles Mitchell to form Armstrong Mitchell & Company and at the time its works extended for over a mile along the bank of the River Tyne. Armstrong Mitchell merged again with the engineering firm of Joseph Whitworth in 1897.
The company expanded into the manufacture of cars and trucks in 1902, created an "aerial department" in 1913, which became the Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft subsidiary in 1920. In 1927, it merged with Vickers Limited to form Vickers-Armstrongs; the Armstrong Whitworth was manufactured from 1904, when the company decided to diversify to compensate for a fall in demand for artillery after the end of the Boer War. It took over construction of the Wilson-Pilcher, designed by Walter Gordon Wilson, produced cars under the Armstrong Whitworth name until 1919, when the company merged with Siddeley-Deasy and to form Armstrong Siddeley; the Wilson-Pilcher was an advanced car with a 2.4-litre engine, made in London from 1901 until 1904 when production moved to Newcastle. When Armstrong Whitworth took over production two models were made, a 2.7-litre flat four and a 4.1-litre flat six, the cylinders on both being identical with bore and stroke of 3.75in. The engines had the flywheel at the front of the engine, the crankshaft had intermediate bearings between each pair of cylinders.
Drive was to the rear wheels via helical bevel axle. The cars were listed at £ 900 for the six, they were still theoretically available until 1907. According to Automotor in 1904, "Even the first Wilson-Pilcher car that made its appearance created quite a sensation in automobile circles at the time on account of its remarkably silent and smooth running, of the total absence of vibration"; the first Armstrong Whitworth car was the 28/36 of 1906 with a water-cooled, four-cylinder side-valve engine of 4.5 litres which unusually had "oversquare" dimensions of 120 mm bore and 100 mm stroke. Drive was via a four-speed shaft to the rear wheels. A larger car was listed for 1908 with a choice of either 5-litre 30 or 7.6-litre 40 models sharing a 127 mm bore but with strokes of 100 mm and 152 mm respectively. The 40 was listed at £798 in bare chassis form for supplying to coachbuilders; these large cars were joined in 1909 by the 4.3-litre 18/22 and in 1910 by the 3.7-litre 25, which seems to have shared the same chassis as the 30 and 40.
In 1911, a new small car appeared in the shape of the 2.4-litre 12/14, called the 15.9 in 1911, featuring a monobloc engine with pressure lubrication to the crankshaft bearings. This model had an 88-inch wheelbase compared with the 120 inches of the 40 range; this was joined by four larger cars ranging from the 2.7-litre 15/20 to the 3.7-litre 25.5. The first six-cylinder model, the 30/50 with 5.1-litre 90 mm bore by 135 mm stroke engine came in 1912 with the option of electric lighting. This grew to 5.7 litres in 1913. At the outbreak of war, as well as the 30/50, the range consisted of the 3-litre 17/25 and the 3.8-litre 30/40. The cars were if not always bodied by external coachbuilders and had a reputation for reliability and solid workmanship; the company maintained a London sales outlet at New Bond Street. When Armstrong Whitworth and Vickers merged, Armstrong Whitworth's automotive interests were purchased by J D Siddeley as Armstrong Siddeley, based in Coventry. An Armstrong Whitworth car is displayed in the Discovery Newcastle upon Tyne.
Armstrong Whitworth established an Aerial Department in 1912. This became the Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Company; when Vickers and Armstrong Whitworth merged in 1927 to form Vickers-Armstrongs, Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft was bought out by J. D. Siddeley and became a separate entity; the Elswick Ordnance Company was created in 1859 to separate William Armstrong's armaments business from his other business interests, to avoid a conflict of interest as Armstrong was Engineer of Rifled Ordnance for the War Office and the company's main customer was the British Government. Armstrong held no financial interest in the company until 1864 when he left Government service, Elswick Ordnance was reunited with the main Armstrong businesses to form Sir W. G. Armstrong & Company. EOC was the armaments branch of W. G. Armstrong & Company and of Armstrong Whitworth. Elswick Ordnance was a major arms developer before and during World War I; the ordnance and ammunition it manufactured for the British Government were stamped EOC, while guns made for export were marked "W.
G. Armstrong". After the Great War, Armstrong Whitworth converted its Scotswood Works to build railway locomotives. From 1919 it penetrated the locomotive market due to its modern plant, its two largest contracts were 200 2-8-0s for the Belgian State Railways in 1920 and 327 Black 5 4-6-0s
Armstrong Whitworth A.W.23
The Armstrong Whitworth A. W.23 was a prototype bomber/transport aircraft produced to specification C.26/31 for the British Air Ministry by Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft. While it was not selected to meet this specification, it did form the basis of the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley aircraft. Specification C.26/31 required a dual-purpose bomber/transport aircraft for service with the Royal Air Force, with the specification stressing the transport part of its role. The A. W.23 was designed by John Lloyd, chief designer of Armstrong Whitworth to meet this specification, competing with the Handley Page H. P.51 and the Bristol Bombay. The A. W.23 was a low-wing twin-engine monoplane, powered by two Armstrong Siddeley Tiger engines. It had a fabric covered braced steel fuselage accommodating a large cabin to fulfil its primary transport role but with room for internal bomb racks under the cabin floor; the wings used a novel structure, patented by Armstrong Whitworth, of a massive light alloy box-spar braced internally with steel tubes.
This structure was strong but required a thick wing section, increasing drag. This wing structure was re-used in the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley bomber; the A. W. 23 was the first Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft. A prototype, K3585, was built first flying on 4 June 1935. Owing to its unreliable Tiger engines, its delivery to the RAF for testing was delayed, with the Bombay being declared the winner of the specification; the prototype was given the civil registration G-AFRX in May 1939 being used for inflight refuelling development by Flight Refuelling Ltd who used it with the Short Empire flying boat. It was used in February 1940 for the world's first night refuelling experiments, it was destroyed in a German bombing raid on Ford airfield in June 1940. United Kingdom Flight Refuelling Ltd Royal Air Force Data from The British Bomber since 1914General characteristics Crew: 4 Capacity: 23 troops Length: 80 ft 9 in Wingspan: 88 ft 0 in Height: 19 ft 6 in Wing area: 1,308 sq ft Gross weight: 24,100 lb Powerplant: 2 × Armstrong Siddeley Tiger VI 14-cylinder radial engines, 810 hp eachPerformance Maximum speed: 162 mph TAS at 6,500 ft Range: 790 mi Service ceiling: 18,100 ft Time to altitude: 10 min 50 s to 10,000 ft Armament Guns: Provision for single machine guns in nose and tail turrets Bombs: Provision for 2,000 lb bombs internally Related development Armstrong Whitworth WhitleyAircraft of comparable role and era Bristol Bombay Handley Page Harrow Related lists List of aircraft of the Royal Air Force Jackson, A.
J.. British Civil Aircraft since 1919. I. London: Putnam. ISBN 0-370-10006-9. Mason, Francis K; the British Bomber since 1914. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN 0-85177-861-5. Tapper, Oliver. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913. London: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-826-7
The Rover Company Limited was a British car manufacturing company that operated from its base in Solihull in Warwickshire. Its lasting reputation for quality and performance was such that its first postwar model reviewed by Road & Track in 1952 was pronounced finer than any but a Rolls-Royce. Rover manufactured the Land-Rover from 1948 onwards, which went on to become its most successful and profitable product — with Land Rover becoming a separate brand in its own right. Rover was sold to Leyland Motors in 1967, who had acquired Standard-Triumph seven years earlier. Rover maintained a level of autonomy within the Leyland conglomerate, but by 1978, Leyland - by British Leyland - had run into severe financial difficulties and had been nationalized by the British Government. Most of the assets of the former Rover Company were moved into a new subsidiary named Land Rover Ltd whilst the Rover marque itself continued to be used on other BL products which relied on Honda engineering. Rover became the most prolific brand within BL and gave its name to the entire conglomerate in the form of the Rover Group in 1986, of which Land Rover remained a part until the Rover Group was broken up by BMW in 2000.
Today, the Rover marque is dormant, is owned by the Rover Company's de facto successor - Jaguar Land Rover, which still operates out of Rover's Solihull plant. After developing a template for the modern bicycle with its Rover Safety Bicycle of 1885, the company moved into the automotive industry, it started building motorcycles cars using their Viking Longship badge from 1904. All production moved to the Solihull plant after World War II. Land Rover vehicles were added to the Rover range; the first Rover was a tricycle manufactured by Starley & Sutton Co. of Coventry, England, in 1883. The company was founded by John Kemp Starley and William Sutton in 1878. Starley had worked with his uncle, James Starley, who began by manufacturing sewing machines and switched to bicycles in 1869. In the early 1880s, the cycles available were the dangerous penny-farthings and high-wheel tricycles. J. K. Starley made history in 1885 by producing the Rover Safety bicycle—a rear-wheel-drive, chain-driven cycle with two similar-sized wheels, making it more stable than the previous high-wheel designs.
Cycling Magazine said the Rover had "set the pattern to the world". Starley's Rover is described by historians as the first recognisably modern bicycle; the words for "bicycle" in Polish and Belarusian are derived from the name of the company. The word ровер is used in many parts of Western Ukraine. In 1889, the company became J. K. Starley & Co. Ltd. and in the late 1890s, the Rover Cycle Company Ltd. In 1899 John Starley imported some of the early Peugeot motorcycles from France in for experimental development, his first project was to fit an engine to one of his Rover bicycles. Starley died early in October 1901 aged 46 and the business was taken over by entrepreneur H. J. Lawson; the company developed and produced the Rover Imperial motorcycle in November 1902. This was a 3.5 hp diamond-framed motorcycle with the engine in the centre and'springer' front forks, ahead of its time. This first Rover motorcycle had innovative features such as a spray carburettor, bottom-bracket engine and mechanically operated valves.
With a strong frame with double front down tubes and a good quality finish, over a thousand Rover motorcycles were sold in 1904. The following year, Rover stopped motorcycle production to concentrate on their'safety bicycle' but in 1910 designer John Greenwood was commissioned to develop a new 3.5 hp 500 cc engine with spring-loaded tappets, a Bosch magneto and an innovative inverted tooth drive chain. It had a Barlow carburettor and Druid spring forks; this new model was launched at the 1910 Olympia show and over 500 were sold. In 1913 a ` TT' model was launched with sports handlebars; the ` works team' of Dudley Noble and Chris Newsome won the works team award. Rover supplied 499 cc single-cylinder motorcycles to the Russian Army during the First World War; the company began to focus on car production at the end of the war, but Rover still produced motorcycles with 248 cc and 348 cc Rover overhead valve engines and with JAP engines, including a 676 cc V-twin. In 1924 Rover introduced a new lightweight 250cc motorcycle with unit construction of engine and gearbox.
This had lights rear as well as a new design of internal expanding brakes. Poor sales of their motorcycles caused Rover to end motorcycle production and concentrate on the production of motor cars. Between 1903 and 1924 Rover had produced more than 10,000 motorcycles. In 1888, Starley made an electric car. Three years after Starley's death in 1901, H. J. Lawson's subsequent takeover, the Rover company began producing automobiles with the two-seater Rover Eight to the designs of Edmund Lewis, who came from Lawson's Daimler. Lewis left the company to join Deasy in late 1905, he was replaced by Owen Clegg, who joined from Wolseley in 1910 and set about reforming the product range. Short-lived experiments with sleeve valve engines were abandoned, the 12hp model was introduced in 1912; this car was so successful that all other cars were dropped, for a while, Rover pursued a "one model" policy. Clegg left in 1912 to join the French subsidiary of Company London. During the First World War, they made motorcycles, lorries to Maudslay designs, not having a suitable one of their own, ambulances to a Sunbeam design.
The business was not
Armstrong Whitworth Ensign
The Armstrong Whitworth Ensign was a British four-engine airliner built during the 1930s for Imperial Airways. It could seat 40 passengers and was designed for European and Asian routes, connecting Britain with further seaplane flights to Australia and South Africa. In the Second World War, they were used for transport duties to and from the area of Middle East command. After the war they were withdrawn from service – and with no buyers forthcoming – scrapped. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft started on the A. W.27 Ensign in 1934 after receipt of a specification from Imperial Airways for a monoplane airliner with four Armstrong Siddeley Tiger engines. Government policy was to send all first-class mail by air and Imperial Airways were increasing their fleet; the first aircraft was ordered in September for a cost of £27,000 and £43,300 of that year, with delivery expected in 1936. Eleven more were ordered in May 1935. An order for a further two aircraft in December 1936 brought the total to 14; the Ensign was a high-wing cantilever monoplane of light alloy construction and an oval, semi-monocoque fuselage with a conventional tailplane.
The wings aft of the single box spar were fabric covered as was the fin. It had a castoring tail wheel; the main landing gear retracted into the inner engine nacelles. The cockpit had side-by-side seating for two pilots with dual controls; the fuselage was divided into separate cabins, either four cabins with accommodation for 40 passengers or three cabins with room for 27 by day or 20 at night with sleeping accommodation. Production of their Whitley heavy bomber for the Royal Air Force was a priority, work on the Ensign proceeded slowly. Construction took place not at the main Coventry factory, but at the production line of Air Service Training Ltd in Hamble. Constant changes were requested by Imperial; as a result, the Ensign's maiden flight did not take place until 24 January 1938. The first flight showed a problem with applying full rudder, cured by modifying the servo. On the second, the undercarriage was retracted for the first time; the prototype went on for more exhaustive tests before passing to the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment for Air Ministry testing.
On her fourth flight, the engines cut out due to incorrect settings of the fuel cocks and it had to be glided down to RAF Bicester where it made a perfect "dead-stick" landing. Imperial Airways named the prototype "Ensign" and as such the "Ensign class" was applied to the whole fleet; the aircraft were fitted out for either European routes. The former carried 27 passengers in 20 sleeping; the only difference in crewing was a "flight clerk" replacing one of the two stewards on Empire routes. Despite being underpowered, the aircraft was certified, full airline service began between Croydon Airport and Paris, France in October of that year. Three more Ensigns – G-ADSS Egeria, G-ADST Elsinore and G-ADSU Euterpe – were completed by Christmas 1938, were dispatched to Australia with the holiday mail. All three did not reach their destination. Reliability was improved, more powerful Armstrong Siddeley Tiger IXC engines aided performance somewhat; the aircraft were delivered back to the airline starting in June 1939 along with the sixth to be built.
The plan to use four Ensigns with Indian Trans-Continental Airways, operating from Calcutta, did not come to pass due to the modifications and the onset of war although registrations and new names had been made and, in one case, painted on the aircraft.11 aircraft were in service at the outbreak of the Second World War, with a twelfth following soon after. All were withdrawn in October 1939; the aircraft remained in service after formation of BOAC that November but instead of being taken up for military service remained civilian under direction of National Air Communications. Their first duties after the German invasion of the Low Countries was ferrying supplies to France; this was followed by evacuation. Despite operating away from their maintenance base for weeks at a time, Ensigns managed 100% availability and impressed with their short take-off run when loaded. Three Ensigns were destroyed by enemy action in 1940: G-ADSX Ettrick and G-ADSZ Elysian in France, G-ADTC Endymion at Bristol Whitchurch in November 1940.
Ettrick, abandoned at Le Bourget after being damaged by bombs on 1 June 1940, was rumoured to have been used by Germany, given Daimler-Benz engines. This is considered by most experts on the Luftwaffe to be a myth which may have its roots in a Flight article by P. W. Moss in 1957. However, the Database section in the March 2015 edition of Aeroplane Monthly states that the Germans may have fitted Daimler-Benz engines to G-AFZV Enterprise; as the aircraft were found to be lacking in performance, it was decided to give the remaining eight aircraft Wright Cyclone G.102A engines. The final two aircraft, ordered by Imperial in 1936 were equipped with more powerful Wright Cyclone geared radial engines and completed as A. W.27A Ensign Mk IIs. The new engines improved performance and allowed the Ensign to be used in hot climates and at high altitude. A