click links in text for more info


A siddur is a Jewish prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers. The word siddur comes from the Hebrew root ס־ד־ר meaning "order"; the earliest parts of Jewish prayer book are the Shema Yisrael, the Priestly Blessing, which are in the Torah. A set of eighteen blessings called the Shemoneh Esreh or the Amidah, is traditionally ascribed to the Great Assembly in the time of Ezra, at the end of the Biblical period; the name Shemoneh Esreh "eighteen", is a historical anachronism, since it now contains nineteen blessings. It was only near the end of the Second Temple period that the eighteen prayers of the weekday Amidah became standardized. At that time their precise wording and order was not yet fixed, varied from locale to locale. Many modern scholars believe. According to the Talmud, soon after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem a formal version of the Amidah was adopted at a rabbinical council in Yavne, under the leadership of Rabban Gamaliel II and his colleagues. However, the precise wording was still left open.

The order, general ideas and closing lines were fixed. Most of the wording was left to the individual reader, it was not until several centuries that the prayers began to be formally fixed. By the Middle Ages the texts of the prayers were nearly fixed, in the form in which they are still used today; the siddur was printed by Soncino in Italy as early as 1486, though a siddur was first mass-distributed only in 1865. The siddur began appearing in the vernacular as early as 1538; the first English translation was published in London in 1738 by an author writing under the pseudonym Gamaliel ben Pedahzur. Readings from the Torah and the Nevi'im form part of the prayer services. To this framework various Jewish sages added, from time to time, various prayers, for festivals numerous hymns; the earliest existing codification of the prayerbook was drawn up by Rav Amram Gaon of Sura, about 850 CE. Half a century Rav Saadia Gaon of Sura, composed a siddur, in which the rubrical matter is in Arabic; these were the basis of Simcha ben Samuel's Machzor Vitry, based on the ideas of his teacher, Rashi.

Another formulation of the prayers was that appended by Maimonides to the laws of prayer in his Mishneh Torah: this forms the basis of the Yemenite liturgy, has had some influence on other rites. From this point forward all Jewish prayerbooks had contents. Two authoritative versions of the Ashkenazi siddur were those of Shabbetai Sofer in the 16th century and Seligman Baer in the 19th century. There are differences among, amongst others, the Sephardic, Chasidic, Bené Roma or Italkim and Persian-, Kurdish-, Bukharian-, Georgian-, Mountain Jewish-, Ethiopian- and Cochin-Jewish liturgies. Most of these are slight differences in the wording of the prayers. In some cases, the order of the preparation for the Amidah is drastically different, reflecting the different halakhic and kabbalistic formulae that the various scholars relied on in assembling their siddurim, as well as the minhagim, or customs, or their locales; some forms of the Sephardi rite are considered to be overtly kabbalistic, depending on how far they reflect the ritual of Isaac Luria.

This is because the Tetragrammaton appears with varying vowel points beneath the letters and different Names of God appear in small print within the final hei of the Tetragrammaton. In some editions, there is a Psalm in the preparations for the Amidah, printed in the outline of a menorah, the worshipper meditates on this shape as he recites the psalm; the Ashkenazi rite is more common than the Sephardi rite in America. While Nusach Ashkenaz does contain some kabbalistic elements, such as acrostics and allusions to the sefirot, these are not seen unless the reader is initiated, it is notable that although many other traditions avoid using the poem Anim Zemiroth on the Sabbath, for fear that its holiness would be less appreciated due to the frequency of the Sabbath, the poem is sung by Ashkenazi congregations before concluding the Sabbath Musaf service with the daily psalm. The ark is opened for the duration of the song. Hasidim, though ethnically Ashkenazi use liturgies with varying degrees of Sephardic influence, such as Nusach Sefard and Nusach Ari, in order to follow the order of the prayers set by Rabbi Isaac Luria called "Ari HaKadosh", or "The Holy Lion".

Although the Ari himself was born Ashkenazi, he borr


Livedoor Co. Ltd. was a Japanese company that functioned as an Internet service provider and operator of a web portal and blog platform before being brought down by scandal in 2006. The company was founded and led in its first 10 years by Takafumi Horie, known as "Horiemon" in Japan. Livedoor grew into one of Japan's premier Internet businesses, putting over 1,000 employees on its payroll at its peak, its reliance on acquisitions and stock swap mergers to achieve growth made it one of the country's most controversial enterprises. Its growth came to a resounding halt when scandal erupted in early 2006. An investigation of securities law violations led to a nosedive in the company's stock price; the Tokyo Stock Exchange delisted Livedoor on April 14, 2006. The floundering company's properties were purchased by South Korea-based NHN Corp in 2010. Today the ISP and blog services that bear the Livedoor name are operated by Line Corporation, developers of Line messaging services and the Naver Japan search portal.

Line Corporation, based in Japan, was spun off from NHN Japan, an arm of its Korean parent, in February 2013. Livedoor began in 1995 as Livin' on the Edge, a startup company run by Horie and a group of college friends and was founded as Livin' On the EDGE Inc. in April 1996, in Minato, Tokyo. In 1997, it was renamed Livin' On the EDGE Co. Ltd. Though a limited company, Livin' On the Edge was reorganized into a joint-stock company in July 1997 and within only 3 years, went public on the Tokyo Stock Exchange's Mothers market in April 2000. In November 2002, Livin' on the Edge acquired the free Internet services business of Livedoor Corp. which had gone bankrupt. Livin' On the Edge changed its name to Edge Co. Ltd. in April 2003 adopted the name of the ISP business it had acquired from Livedoor Corp. by renaming itself livedoor Co. Ltd. in February 2004. This was followed by a 1:100 stock split. In March 2004, during the 2004 Nippon Professional Baseball realignment, Livedoor moved to acquire the Kintetsu Buffaloes, a Japanese baseball team, but withdrew its offer and, in September 2004, founded its own team and applied for admittance to Japan's professional baseball organization.

The team's home ground was to be in Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, but livedoor lost the competition to be the city's home team to Rakuten, a Japanese e-commerce company. Livedoor acquisitions in the U. S. included MailCreations in Miami, Florida, in June 2004, which functioned as the company's U. S. headquarters. Livedoor entered search and contextual advertising spaces in America in November 2005. A scandal involving securities law violations led the Tokyo Stock Exchange to delist Livedoor on April 14, 2006; the case broke on January 16, 2006, when Tokyo prosecutors raided several Livedoor locations, Horie's home, the homes of other Livedoor and subsidiary executives on suspicions of securities fraud. The raids spooked investors and sent shares plunging on January 17 and 18 as a widening criminal investigation sparked panic selling on the Tokyo Stock Exchange; some brokers announced. Volume was so heavy that it threatened to overload the TSE's computer system, prompting a halt in trading for the entire market—a breaking record and the first time this has occurred.

The TSE ordered Livedoor to provide a formal response to the allegations. When the company filed a hasty report after a quick internal investigation, the TSE told executives to provide a more detailed report and threatened to delist Livedoor if allegations of improper activities proved valid. On January 18, 2006, Hideaki Noguchi, an executive of H. S. Securities, a firm raided by prosecutors earlier in the week in connection with Livedoor, was found dead in an Okinawa hotel room in what the authorities labeled a suicide; the authorities called in several Livedoor and subsidiary executives for questioning over several days, Horie himself on January 23. After several hours of questioning Horie, investigators felt they had learned enough to press charges and petitioned for four arrest warrants, which were granted. Horie, Livedoor's chief financial officer, the presidents of two subsidiaries were arrested mid-evening for securities and accounting fraud, they were held for two months without bail, during this time, Livedoor's temporary Representative Director Fumito Kumagai was arrested.

Japan's Securities Commission filed a criminal complaint against the five arrested ex-executives of the company on March 13, 2006. Founder Horie was sentenced to 2.5 years in jail on March 16, 2007. Others were given various jail sentences four days but appealed. After losing 90% of its stock price in four months and strong evidence of securities fraud, Livedoor was delisted from the Tokyo Stock Exchange on April 14, 2006. Fuji Television sued the company for ¥35 billion in damages in March 2007. Livedoor in turn sued its own executives, with founder Horie settling for ¥21 billion and six others settling for a total of ¥760 million. Information obtained during the investigation led to the arrest and conviction of fund manager Yoshiaki Murakami for using inside information to profit off of a stake Livedoor purchased in Nippon Broadcasting System in 2005. Horie published an autobiography during his appeals, Complete Resistance, in which he proclaims his innocence and states that he was being targeted only due to his infamy, not the actual nature or severity of any crimes.

The veracity of th

Terrace Heights, Washington

Terrace Heights is a census-designated place in Yakima County, United States. The population was 6,937 at the 2010 census, it is a suburb of the city of Yakima. Terrace Heights is located at 46°36′24″N 120°27′14″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 8.2 square miles, of which, 7.9 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2007, there were 8,031 people, 3,754 households, 2,005 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 816.3 people per square mile. There were 2,609 housing units at an average density of 330.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 88.58% White, 0.84% African American, 1.13% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 6.03% from other races, 2.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.06% of the population. There were 3,754 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.0% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.0% were non-families.

20.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.93. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 24.4% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 26.7% from 45 to 64, 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $47,601, the median income for a family was $53,938. Males had a median income of $39,813 versus $26,925 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $21,542. About 5.3% of families and 7.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.1% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. Yakima Family Times local newspaper of family living

User assistance

User assistance is a general term for guided assistance to a user of a software product. The phrase incorporates all forms of help available to a user. Assistance can automatically perform procedures or step users through the procedure, depending on the question that the user asked; the term is broader than online help, includes procedural and tutorial information. User assistance provides information to help a person to interact with software; this can include describing the user interface, but focuses on how to help the user to best apply the software capabilities to their needs. User assistance can be considered a component of the broader category of user experience. User assistance employs a number of devices including help, tutorials, printed manuals, user interface text. User assistance professionals contribute to enterprise knowledge bases and content management systems. Effective user assistance development requires a variety of communication skills; these include writing, task analysis, subject matter expert interviewing.

Since the user assistance profession is directly involved with software development, the discipline requires an understanding of UI design, usability testing, testing, quality assurance, instructional design, scripting or programming, accessibility. For information related to this topic, see Instruction manual A traditional form of user assistance is a user manual, distributed either with the product in paper form or electronically. Typical features of a user manual include installation procedures, a guide to how to use the software, as well as a disclaimer stating the licensing status of the software. Details of a helpline may be available. For more information on this topic, see Online help For information related to this topic, see Helpline User interface Internationalization and localization Linkedin Software User Assistance group WritersUA indoition software user assistance resources Microsoft's User Assistance

Henry A. Stearns

Henry Augustus Stearns brought steam laundry to California, was a cotton wadding mill owner in Rhode Island, a Lieutenant Governor of Rhode Island. Stearns was born October 23, 1825, in Billerica, the seventh generation of an old New England family which traced its ancestry back to Isaac Stearns, who settled in Watertown, Massachusetts from England in 1630, he attended Phillips Academy for two years worked as a shoemaker and as a clerk in a general store until he was 20 years old. Before long, Stearns moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, to join his brother George S. manufacturing cotton wadding, in the first such factory west of the Allegheny Mountains. In 1850, feeling wanderlust, sold out his interest in the cotton wadding factory to his brother, headed to California to join in the gold rush, he decided he would transport a steam boiler and machinery, with the intent to start a steam laundry in San Francisco. This required a land transport across the isthmus of Panama on the backs of men a sea voyage on an old whaling ship which sprang a leak, became disabled and set adrift.

By the time the crew arrived in San Francisco four months the Stearns and the crew were near-starving. A doctor told Stearns. However, Stearns did recover, he set up the first steam laundry in California, became successful, sold his share. He moved on to operate a steam ferry boat named "Hector" between San Francisco and Oakland, he moved on to the redwoods district and opened a steam sawmill. In 1853, Stearns returned to Cincinnati moved a few more times, including Buffalo, New York and Sangamon County, Illinois. In 1861, Stearns moved to the state. There, he teamed with Pawtucket industrialist Darius Goff, manufacturing cotton wadding at the Union Wadding Company. Stearns became superintendent of the company in 1870, president in 1891. Stearns was a lifelong Republican, he represented Lincoln in both houses of the State Legislature. He was Lieutenant Governor of Rhode Island from 1891 to 1892. Stearns married Kate Falconer of Hamilton, Ohio in 1856, their children were: Deshler Falconer, George Russell, Walter Henry, Kate Russell, Justice Charles Falconer Stearns, Henry Foster, Anna Russell, who died in infancy, Caroline.

After 1862, the Stearns family lived in Rhode Island. His personal library was said to be among the finest in the state. Stearns was a Mason, he was a member of the Central Falls Congregational Church. Henry A. Stearns at Find a Grave

Protease-activated receptor

Protease-activated receptors are a subfamily of related G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by cleavage of part of their extracellular domain. They are expressed in platelets, on endothelial cells and neurons. There are four mammalian members of the protease-activated receptor family: PAR1 - encoded by the gene F2R, PAR2 - F2RL1, PAR3 - F2RL2 and PAR4 - F2RL3, all these genes have their locus on chromosome 5 except of PAR4, on chromosome 19, they are members of the seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, are expressed throughout the body. PAR1 was firstly described in 1991 on human platelets as a thrombin receptor. In 1994 another member of this family was discovered, S. Nystedt named it proteinase activated receptor 2. Experiments on F2R knockout mice led to the discovery of PAR3 and PAR4. Protease activated receptors are integral membrane proteins that are coupled to G-proteins and are activated by specific cleavage of the amino terminal sequence that exposes a new N-terminal sequence functions as a tethered ligand, which bind a conserved region on extracellular loop 2.

Such bound causes the specific change in conformation of the PAR and alters the affinity for intracellular G-protein. Four types of PAR receptors have been identified by molecular cloning, classified according to the main enzyme, able to activate it, it has been determined that a large group of proteases cleave and activate PARs receptors, including various endogenous proteases from: a) the coagulation cascade, b) inflammatory cells, c) the digestive tract. On the other hand PARs can be cleaved and irreversibly activated by exogenous proteases originetd from insects, bacteria or plants and fungi; the wide distribution of PARs in a variety of cells supports the idea that they are involved in many process related with the gastrointestinal physiology. Although the proteolysis is the main mechanism for PAR activation, it is well known that a synthetic peptide that mimics the new N-terminal sequence produced after the cleavage, activates PAR-2 receptors without its proteolytic processing. In this sense, here we report that TFF3 isolated from human breast milk activates PAR-2 receptors of intestinal epithelial cells HT-29.

These findings suggest that TFF3 activates intestinal epithelial cells through G-protein-coupled PAR-2, could participate in the immune system of breastfed babies inducing the production of peptides related to innate defense, such as defensins and cytokines. PARs are activated by the action of serine proteases such as trypsin; these enzymes cleave the N-terminus of the receptor. In the cleaved state, part of the receptor itself acts as the agonist, causing a physiological response. Most of the PAR family act through the actions of G-proteins i, 12/13 and q to cause cellular actions; the cellular effects of thrombin are mediated by protease-activated receptors. Thrombin signalling in platelets contributes to thrombosis. Endothelial PARs participate in the regulation of vascular tone and permeability while in vascular smooth muscle they mediate contraction and hypertrophy. In endothelial cells PARs play a key role in promotion vascular barrier function as they provide a positive signals for endothelial adhesion molecules.

PARs contribute to the pro-inflammatory response. For example PAR4 induces leukocyte migration and PAR2 helps macrophages to produce cytokines such as interleukin-8. Recent research has implicated these novel receptors in muscle growth and bone cell differentiation and proliferation. Protease-activated receptor 1 Protease-activated receptor 2 Protease-activated receptor 3 "Protease-Activated Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Proteinase-Activated+Receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings