A sidekick is a slang expression for a close companion or colleague who is, or is regarded as, subordinate to the one he or she accompanies. Some well-known fictional sidekicks are Don Quixote's Sancho Panza, Sherlock Holmes' Doctor Watson, The Lone Ranger's Tonto, The Green Hornet's Kato, Shrek's Donkey, Mickey Mouse's Donald Duck, Mario's Luigi, Sonic's Tails, Donkey Kong's Diddy Kong, Daffy Duck's Porky Pig and Batman's Robin; the term is believed to have originated in pickpocket slang of the late early 20th century. The "kick" was the front pocket of a pair of trousers, believed to be the pocket safest from theft. Thus, by analogy, a "side-kick" was a person's closest companion. One of the earliest recorded sidekicks may be Enkidu, who adopted a sidekick role to Gilgamesh after they became allies in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Other early examples are Achilles and Patroclus in the Iliad and Moses and Aaron in the Old Testament. Sidekicks can fulfill one or multiple functions, such as a counterpoint to the hero, an alternate point of view, or knowledge, skills, or anything else the hero does not have.
They function as comic relief, and/or the straight man to the hero's comedic actions. A sidekick can be a character to whom the audience can more relate than the hero, or whom the audience can imagine themselves as being, and by asking questions of the hero, or giving the hero someone to talk to, the sidekick provides an opportunity for the author to provide exposition, thereby filling the same role as a Greek chorus. Sidekicks serve as an emotional connection when the hero is depicted as detached and distant, traits which might make it difficult to like the hero; the sidekick is the confidant who knows the main character better than anyone else, gives a convincing reason to like the hero. Although Sherlock Holmes was portrayed as a difficult man to know, his friendship with Dr. Watson convinces the reader that Holmes is a good person; the Left Hand of Vampire Hunter D, being mentally linked to the reticent protagonist reveals thoughts and the physical condition of his host, as well as background elements of the story.
The apparent stupidity of some comedy sidekicks is used to make a non-intellectual hero look intelligent. A flamboyant or effeminate sidekick may make an otherwise unimposing hero look more masculine, and a strong and modest hero may have his fighting qualities revealed to the other characters and the audience by a talkative sidekick. While many sidekicks are used for comic relief, there are other sidekicks who are less outrageous than the heroes they pledge themselves to, comedy derived from the hero can be amplified by the presence or reaction of the sidekick. Examples include Porky Pig, more sensible and calmer than Daffy Duck in short films, it is typical for the character and sidekick to be of the same gender — otherwise the term "sidekick" is replaced with "partner" or "companion". Whenever there is a team of more than two characters, the term sidekick is reserved for another team member of the same sex, it is rare for the relationship between a character and an opposite-sex sidekick to lack romantic or sexual overtones of any kind — though there are examples, like Modesty Blaise and Willie Garvin, The original Doctor Who series intentionally avoided any explicit onscreen indications of romantic or sexual attraction between The Doctor and his female companions.
While unusual, it is not unheard of for a sidekick to be more attractive, charismatic, or physically capable than the supposed hero. This is most encountered when the hero's appeal is more intellectual rather than sexual; such heroes are middle-aged or older and tend towards eccentricity. Such protagonists may, due to either age or physical unsuitability, be limited to cerebral conflicts, while leaving the physical action to a younger or more physically capable sidekick; this type of sidekick is encountered in fiction, because the hero runs the risk of being upstaged by them. However, examples of successful such pairings include Detective Monk and his sidekick Sharona, Inspector Morse and his sidekick Detective Sergeant Robbie Lewis, Nero Wolfe and his sidekick Archie Goodwin, Hiro Nakamura and his sidekick Ando Masahashi, Miles Vorkosigan and his sidekick cousin Ivan Vorpatril. In other media, The Green Hornet's sidekick, has been depicted as a capable man of action, for instance in martial arts.
The earliest Doctor Who serials during the First Doctor era, had young male companions who were capable of the physical action that the elderly William Hartnell was not. This became more important; this was not an issue with the following Doctors as they were cast with younger actors. It is not unusual in more recent TV programs such as Bones and NCIS, for there to be a team of sidekicks. In Bones, for example, FBI Special Agent Seeley Booth fulfills one of the traditional roles of a sidekick by providing translations for the brilliant but incapable Dr. Temperance Brennan. Both Brennan and Booth, are heroes in their own right; the sidekicks in this case are the team of "squints" back in the Jeffersonian Institution's Medico-Legal Lab, each with their own scientific specialty, all of whom are needed to break the case. In certain cases, a sidekick can grow out of their role
El Bierzo is a comarca in the province of León, Spain. Its capital is the town of Ponferrada. Other major towns are Villafranca del Bierzo, the historical capital; the territory of El Bierzo includes most of the upper basin of the Sil river. It is surrounded by mountains on all sides, which makes this area remarkably isolated from all neighbouring lands. In pre-Roman times the region was populated by a Hispano-Celtic Gallaecian people, they were conquered by Emperor Augustus in the Astur-Cantabrian Wars and the area became the largest mining center of the Empire during the Roman period, where gold and other metals and minerals were extracted. Numerous Roman mining sites are still visible in the area, one of the most spectacular being Las Médulas, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997. Romans imported grapevines, wine production thrived in the region until the propagation of Phylloxera at the end of the 19th century, which destroyed the majority of the vineyards. Part of the Kingdom of León, a province of its own within the larger Leonese region from 1821 to 1823, with the new administrative division of Spain in 1833 the majority of the region was integrated in the province of León, with the Valdeorras municipalities becoming part of Galicia.
El Bierzo developed its own peculiarities as Galician and Leonese traditions mixed under Castilian influence, thus was granted the administrative status of comarca. Spanish is the official language, but local dialects of Galician and Leonese are spoken in the westernmost areas and are present in some village toponyms. In the 12th century there was a colony of immigrants from Poitou in the Bierzo; the status of El Bierzo as a shire is recognized by law, it is the only one recognized in the autonomous community of Castile and León. The predominant language nowadays is Spanish but the local vernaculars can be classified as either Galician or Leonese; the use of Galician and Leonese in everyday speech has mixed usages. Although both have enjoyed a recent revival through the work of different associations that promote their use and study, Galician has been more favored, extending its area of influence. Leonese continues to have a limited use; the Galician language, in addition to Galicia, is spoken in western El Bierzo and a small area called As Portelas in the westernmost part of the province of Zamora, both areas in the community of Castile and Leon.
In 2005-2006 there were 844 students studying in 9 municipalities of El Bierzo, with 47 teachers, in 2008-2009 more than 1000 students enrolled in Galician courses in El Bierzo and As Portelas, although many of them are children of immigrants from Galicia. In addition to that, the Statute of Autonomy of Castile and Leon, in its article No. 5, states: " Shall respect and protect the Galician language and language patterns in places where the language is habitually used.". The number of Galician speakers in El Bierzo is estimated to be about 35,000 people concentrated in the westernmost municipalities of the region. In the last year the Bercianos have made lots of campaigns to improve Galician's use in their Comarca with the collaboration of members from the Royal Galician Academy and students from Villafranca del Bierzo. Politically the Galeguist parties defend the use of Galician language in the western Bierzo, parties as Galician Nationalist Bloc or PSdeG, but even right-wing parties like People's Party defend the Galician language in the area.
Pachuezu or patsuezu is the western Asturleonese variant most entrenched in the north of El Bierzo, where there are estimated to be about 4,000 speakers of Leonese. The railroad arrived in the region in 1881, during World War I local tungsten deposits were exploited to supply the arms industry. In 1918 the Ponferrada Mining and Steel Company was founded to exploit coal deposits in the region, it grew to become Spain's largest coal mining corporation; the Spanish National Energy Corporation was founded in 1944 and in 1949 it opened Spain's first coal-fueled power plant in Ponferrada, Compostilla I. In 1960 the Bárcena Dam opened and by the second half of the 20th century the economy of the region was based on mining and electricity generation, both hydroelectric and coal-fueled. Starting in the late 1980s most mines were closed, after the collapse of the mining industry the region was for a while in a crisis. However, in the late 1990s the region underwent a major transformation with the establishment of several industrial and services firms, the reintroduction of commercial wine production, the opening of a local branch of the University of León in Ponferrada offering several undergraduate degrees, in general a radical improvement of the region's infrastructure.
The economy is now based on tourism, wind power generation and slate mining. Important factors contributing to the recent boom of the tourism industry in the region are the increasing popularity of the Way of St. James, the designation in 1997 of Las Médulas as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the development of rural tourism lodging and wineries in the area; the Energy City Foundation Spanish: Fundación Ciudad de la Energía was established in Ponferrada in 2006 and is ove
The Toyota VZ engine family is a series of V6 gasoline piston engines ranging from 2.0 to 3.4 L in displacement and both SOHC and DOHC configurations. The family introduced many changes for Toyota, including various EFI, ECU, engine improvements from generation to generation; the VZ was Toyota's response to the Nissan VG engine. The low angle DOHC cylinder heads excel in low-mid torque and power, making the VZ well-suited for various uses in cars, SUVs; the blocks are all made using cast iron with large interconnected main bearing cradles and two bolt main bearing caps. Forged steel crankshafts, cast iron main bearing support girdles became standard with the 3VZ-FE. Piston and ring construction are typical parts, with rods varying between large and large for stock V6 production engines; the 1VZ-FE is a 2.0 L version. Bore and stroke is 78 mm × 69.5 mm. Output is 173 N ⋅ m at 4600 rpm. Applications: Japan 1988–1991 Toyota Camry Prominent 1988–1991 Toyota Vista The 2VZ-FE is a 2.5 L version. Bore and stroke is 87.5 mm × 69.5 mm and the compression ratio is 9.0:1.
Output is 159 bhp at 5800 rpm and 159 lb⋅ft at 4600 rpm with redline limit of 6800 rpm. Applications: 1988–1991 Toyota Camry 1989–1991 Lexus ES 250 The 3VZ-E is a 3.0 L SOHC V6 Toyota Bore remains at 87.5 mm but stroke is pushed to 82 mm. At introduction output was specified as 145 hp later bumped to 150 hp at 4800 rpm with 244 N⋅m of torque at 3400 rpm. Despite sharing an engine family designation the 3VZ-E and 3VZ-FE have few parts in common. Applications: 1988–1995 Toyota 4Runner 1988–1995 Toyota Pickup 1992–1994 Toyota T100 The basic design is a revised 3VZ-E iron-block engine, mated with aluminum DOHC 24 valve heads, it cast connecting rods. The upper intake plenum is of the split-chamber design with Toyota's ACIS variable-intake system feeding three sets of runners for both heads; because the VZ was for pickup truck and SUV use, the 3VZ-FE happens to be a physically tall motor. To make the engine fit in FWD engine bays, Toyota tilted the motor towards the firewall; this "tilt" is so severe that reaching the rear bank of cylinders is nearly impossible without first removing the intake plenum.
Parts-wise, the 3VZ-FE shares little with the rest of the VZ engine family. The main bearings are shared with the 3VZ-E, but little else. Cams can be interchanged between the 5VZ-FE and 3VZ-FE heads; the 3VZ-FE was used on the Camry platform from 1992 to May 1997 depending on the market: North America saw the engine only in 1992 and 1993, while Australia and New Zealand had it from 1992 to 1996. The engine was available in some parts of Asia in the Toyota Windom until May 1997. Following 1994, the 1MZ-FE engines replaced the 3VZ-FE in most applications; however the 3VZ-FE continued to be used in Australia until 1996 in the Camry. The power spread of the 3VZ-FE is wide, having close to maximum torque between 2500–4600 rpm, with power trailing off by 6000 rpm; the stock redline is 6600 rpm, the ECU's fuel/ignition cut-off is 7200 rpm. The 1992–1993 engine is rated at 185 hp at 5800 rpm and 189 lb⋅ft at 4600 rpm. Compression ratio is 9.6:1. The 3VZ-FE is common in most parts of the world, having a long lifespan in popular models.
Applications: 1993–1996 Toyota Scepter, Japan 1992–1993 Toyota Camry, USA 1992–1996 Toyota Camry, Europe 1992–1996 Toyota Windom 1992–1993 Lexus ES300, USA The 4VZ-FE is a 2.5 L version. Bore is 87.5 mm and stroke is so lower from the 2VZ-FE at 69.2 mm. Output is 173 hp at 6000 rpm. Compression ratio of this engine was raised from 9.0:1 to 9.6:1. In production from 1992 until 1996, it was built to replace the 2VZ-FE as Toyota's 2.5 L V6. Engine was only sold with Japanese market vehicles. Applications: Japan 1992–1996 Toyota Camry Prominent 1993–1996 Toyota Windom VCV11 The 5VZ-FE is a 3.4 L engine which replaced the 3VZ-E. Bore is up to 93.5 mm and stroke is 82 mm while the compression ratio stays the same as the 3VZ-FE at 9.6:1. Output is 190 hp for Tacoma and 183 hp for 4Runner at 4800 rpm with 220 lb⋅ft of torque for Tacoma and 217 lb⋅ft for 4Runner at 3600 rpm, it has a cast iron engine block, aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. The 5VZ-FE uses sequential multi-port fuel injection, has four valves per cylinder with shim-over-bucket tappets and features large cast connecting rods, one-piece cast camshafts, a cast crank and a cast aluminum intake manifold.
This engine features an oil cooler and a wasted spark ignition system with three coils. Camshafts are belt-driven; the 5VZ-FE is a non-interference engine. Applications: 1995–2004 Toyota Tacoma 2000–2004 Toyota Tundra 1995–1998 Toyota T-100 1996–2002 Toyota 4Runner 1993–2004 Toyota Land Cruiser Prado Toyota Granvia 2000-2002, 2004 GAZ-3111 List of Toyota engines
During the 1971-72 season the Los Angeles Lakers won their first National Basketball Association title since moving to Los Angeles. The Lakers defeated the New York Knicks in five games to win the title, after going 69–13 during the regular-season, a record that stood for 24 seasons until the 1995–96 Chicago Bulls went 72–10. During the regular season, they would go on a current-standing NBA record 33-game winning streak; the team went on to win 81 regular season and playoff games overall, a record that would last for 14 years until Boston Celtics did it in 1986. In 1996, the 1971-72 Lakers were named as one of the Top 10 Teams in NBA History. Traded a 1971 2nd round draft pick to the Cincinnati Royals for guard Flynn Robinson. Hired Bill Sharman as the new head coach to replace Joe Mullaney. Traded a 1972 2nd round draft pick to the Portland Trail Blazers for center Leroy Ellis. Claimed forward John Trapp off waivers from the Houston Rockets. Since moving to Los Angeles, the Lakers were foiled by the Boston Celtics in their attempts to capture an NBA title.
The Lakers lost the championship to them six times in eight years. In 1970, with the aging Celtics out of title contention, the Lakers lost in the NBA finals to the New York Knicks. In 1971, after losing Jerry West to a season-ending injury in February, they lost in the Western Conference finals to the powerful Milwaukee Bucks. Going into the 1971–72 season, many experts thought the chance at a championship had passed for this aging team. Star players Wilt Chamberlain, Elgin Baylor, Jerry West were all in their 30s, had all missed significant time due to injuries in the prior two seasons; the defending champion Milwaukee Bucks, led by superstar Kareem Abdul-Jabbar appeared to be starting a new NBA dynasty. But new coach Bill Sharman still believed, he implemented a running fast break based offense. He re-tooled Wilt Chamberlain's game to focus on defense and jump starting the fast break with quick outlet passes to guards Jerry West and Gail Goodrich; the only casualty of this system was the aging Baylor, who could not physically handle the up tempo practices and offense and retired 9 games into the season.
He was replaced at small forward by Jim McMillian. Shortly thereafter, the Lakers strung together a record 33-game win streak; the streak ended on January 1972, against the Milwaukee Bucks. The Lakers and Bucks staged a season long race for the league's best record, with the Lakers setting a NBA record with 69 wins. Z – clinched division title y – clinched division title x – clinched playoff spot The Los Angeles Lakers played against the New York Knicks in the NBA finals during the postseason. Although without Willis Reed because of his knee injury. Jerry Lucas scored 26 points but was only one of several Knicks, red hot. Bill Bradley hit 11 of 12 shots from the field; the team took advantage of a nearly perfect first half to jump to a good lead and won 114–92. Early in the second half, the Forum crowd began filing out dejectedly, it looked. Knicks forward Dave DeBusschere didn't play after the first half. Hairston scored 12 points in the second half, Los Angeles evened the series with a 106–92 win.
DeBusschere missed all six of his field-goal attempts. He was elected not to play in the second half. DeBusschere explained, "I didn't feel I was helping the team." The Lakers danced out to a 22-point lead and regained the home-court advantage with a 107–96 win. The game went into overtime, but at the end of regulation, Wilt Chamberlain picked up his fifth foul. In 13 NBA seasons, he had never fouled out of a game, a history he was immensely proud of but one that led to him playing less aggressively when he was on the verge of getting a 6th foul; as the press waited for Wilt to take the floor and hurt the Lakers by reverting to a passive style, he instead came out in a shotblocking fury that propelled the Lakers to a 116–111 win. At three games to one, their lead now seemed insurmountable; the Lakers won their sixth NBA championship by the score of 114–100. This was their first championship since moving to Los Angeles in 1960. Jerry West won his first NBA championship after 12 years of waiting. Wilt Chamberlain scored 29 rebounds and earned the NBA Finals MVP Award.
Bill Sharman, NBA Coach of the Year Jerry West, All-NBA First Team Jerry West, All-NBA Defensive First Team Wilt Chamberlain, All-NBA Defensive First Team Wilt Chamberlain, NBA Leader, Shooting Percentage Lakers on Database Basketball Lakers on Basketball Reference
The Salem Register was a newspaper published in Salem, Massachusetts, in the 19th century. William Carlton established it in 1800. Haven Poole, Eben N. Walton. Among the contributing writers: William Bentley, Andrew Dunlap, Joseph E. Sprague, Joseph Story, its office was at no.185 Essex Street. In the 1800s the Register "began its career as an advocate for the election of Mr. Jefferson to the Presidency. With all the ability of its editor and his friends -- among whom were the Rev. William Bentley and some of the wealthiest families in Salem -- it opposed the doctrines and the measures of the federal party; the political warfare between the Register and the Salem Gazette was carried on with great vigor and bitterness."From 1807 to 1840 the paper was called the Essex Register again called the Salem Register. "The reason for altering the title from Essex to Salem was that letters and packages directed to their office were carried to the town of Essex and thus caused considerable inconvenience." In the 1820s-1830s, "prior to the amalgamation of distinct parties in politics under the names of Whig and Democrat the Register sustained those who called themselves Republicans."
The Impartial Register, 1800-1800 Salem Impartial Register, 1800-1801 Salem Register, 1802-1807, 1841-1903, 1906-ca.1911 Essex Register, 1807-1840 Salem Register and Essex County Mercury, 1903-1906 D. Hamilton Hurd, "The Salem Register", History of Essex County, Philadelphia: J. W. Lewis & Co. OCLC 3106590
For others named, see the Robert Aitken navigation pageRobert Morris Aitken is a Canadian composer and flautist. He began his career as a teenager playing in a number of orchestras, notably becoming the youngest principal flautist in the history of the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra in 1958 at the age of 19. In 1971, he abandoned ensemble performance to pursue a successful solo career, he has appeared as a soloist with major symphony orchestras throughout North America and Asia and has made more than 40 commercial recordings. Born in Kentville, Nova Scotia, Aitken has played with the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra, CBC Symphony Orchestra, Toronto Symphony Orchestra, he is Artistic Director of New Music Concerts in Toronto. He has done classical and contemporary music on BIS Records, he studied flute with Nicolas Fiore, Marcel Moyse, Jean-Pierre Rampal, Andre Jaunet, Severino Gazzelloni, Hubert Barwahser. From 1988 to 2004, Aitken was a member of the music faculty at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Freiburg, Germany.
He is a former faculty member of the University of Toronto and the Shawnigan Summer School of Arts and was director of advanced studies in music at the Banff Centre from 1985 to 1989. Scores are available through the Canadian Music Centre. OrchestralSpectra for four chamber groups Shadows I: Nekuia Spiral ConcertanteConcerto for 12 solo instruments and orchestra Berceuse "for Those Who Sleep before Us" for flute and orchestra Concerto for flute and string orchestra Chamber musicKebyar for flute, trombone, 2 double basses and prepared tape Shadows II: Lalitá for flute, 3 cellos, 2 harps and 2 percussion Icicle for flute solo. 2003 – National Flute Association Lifetime Achievement Award Flute Flute concerto Flute repertory Robert Aitken Robert Aitken at the Canadian Music Centre Robert Aitken biography and works on the UE website New Music Concerts