Resurrection Day is a novel written by Brendan DuBois in 1999. It is an alternate history where the Cuban Missile Crisis escalated to a full-scale war, the Soviet Union is devastated, the United States has been reduced to a third-rate power, relying on the United Kingdom for aid, it won the Sidewise Award for Alternate History that year. Set in the aftermath of a nuclear war between the Soviet Union and the United States, the book chronicles the investigations of Carl Landry, a reporter for the Boston Globe; as the story unfolds, Carl attempts to uncover the events leading up to the war, while at the same time running from those who would have the truth buried. The story begins in 1972, ten years after a nuclear war between the U. S. and the Soviets, precipitated by the Cuban Missile Crisis. Washington, D. C. New York, San Diego and other U. S. cities, principally those surrounding military bases, have either been destroyed, damaged, or rendered uninhabitable by Soviet nuclear attacks. Philadelphia is now the capital of the United States, although the Mexican-born President George W. Romney is nominally in office, the U.
S. is under martial law. The Soviets have been utterly devastated by U. S. nuclear strikes. Cuba is an atomic ruin, with Spain responsible for relief efforts aiding what is left of the island's population. One consequence of the war is. U. S. military personnel in South Vietnam are withdrawn in order to stabilise the US in the aftermath of the Soviet missile and air strikes. The People's Republic of China has collapsed, with numerous regional warlords waging a civil war against each other. U. S. nuclear strikes on the Soviets led to the collapse of the Warsaw Pact, to the release of a massive fallout cloud over much of Asia, killing further millions after the destruction of the Soviets. As a consequence, the U. S. has become a pariah in the eyes of much of the world. Many governments regard members of the U. S. Air Force as war criminals, its servicemen are advised not to travel abroad. After the 1962 war, nearly all the remaining countries of the globe have renounced possession of nuclear weapons; the United States alone retains an atomic arsenal.
Western Europe survived the war unscathed. NATO collapsed as soon as hostilities commenced, France and a reunited Germany now preside over the continent; the United Kingdom remains an ally of the U. S. and assists in post-war reconstruction efforts in U. S. states hit hardest by the war. The British, in the period after 1962, has managed to regain much of its pre-1939 colonial confidence in the vacuum left by the destruction of the Soviets and the emasculation of the U. S. in world affairs. The policy of decolonialisation has been halted and reversed. While British aid is welcome, there is a sense of resentment in the U. S. over excessive dependence on the British. The presence of British and Canadian military personnel in the U. S. is a source of contention, with some Americans wondering whether their allies possess ulterior motives. The story covers two parallel plotlines; the first involves Landry's attempts to discover what happened in Washington, D. C. in October 1962. U. S. military propaganda accounts maintain that the Cuban war broke out because of John F. Kennedy's recklessness and incompetence.
Kennedy and his officials are regarded as butchers and war criminals and the only senior surviving member of JFK's inner circle, McGeorge Bundy, is imprisoned in Fort Leavenworth. In contrast, U. S. military commanders are portrayed as the saviors of the nation. During the course of the novel Landry discovers that it was Kennedy who sought to prevent the crisis over Cuba from escalating into war, that last-minute attempts to achieve a deal with Nikita Khrushchev to end the crisis were deliberately sabotaged by LeMay and other generals; the second plotline concerns British-U. S. Relations. Landry and a British journalist, Sandy Price, discover that elements within the British government and security services are plotting a military takeover of the U. S; this plan is underway near the end of the novel, is called off at the last minute. Carl Landry – protagonist. S. Army airborne invasion of Cuba and victim of Soviet tactical nuclear strike on the invading U. S. forces Tyler Air Force Station, New York – fictional United States Air Force base located on the outskirts of New York City Boston, Massachusetts Warday, another scenario about a limited nuclear exchange between the U.
S. and the Soviets and its subsequent aftermath. DuBois, Resurrection Day, Jove, 1999
2011 in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2011. July – J. K. Rowling terminates her relationship with her long-standing agent Christopher Little to join rival Neil Blair. September 24 – The first 100 Thousand Poets for Change Day takes place, the organisation having been founded by Michael Rothenberg and Terri Carrion in March. November 12 – Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar Literature Museum Library opens in Istanbul, Turkey. Chris Adrian – The Great Night David Almond – The True Tale of the Monster Billy Dean Kevin Barry – City of Bohane Giannina Braschi – United States of Banana T. C. Boyle – When the Killing's Done Geraldine Brooks – Caleb's Crossing Bonnie Jo Campbell – Once Upon a River Kate Christensen – The Astral: A Novel Patrick deWitt – The Sisters Brothers E. L. Doctorow – All the Time in the World Steve Earle – I'll Never Get Out of This World Alive Esi Edugyan – Half-Blood Blues Jeffrey Eugenides – The Marriage Plot Jonathan Evison – West of Here Robb Forman Dew – Being Polite to Hitler Charles Frazier – Nightwoods James Frey – The Final Testament of the Holy Bible Roxane Gay – Ayiti Abdulrazak Gurnah – The Last Gift Benjamin Hale – The Evolution of Bruno Littlemore Hallgrímur Helgason – Konan við 1000° Ron Hansen – A Wild Surge of Guilty Passion Chad Harbach – The Art of Fielding Philip Hensher – King of the Badgers Alan Hollinghurst – The Stranger's Child E. L. James – Fifty Shades of Grey Mat Johnson – Pym Stephen Kelman – Pigeon English Ben Lerner – Leaving the Atocha Station Merethe Lindstrøm – Days in the History of Silence Andrew Miller – Pure Haruki Murakami – 1Q84 Téa Obreht – The Tiger's Wife Daniel Olivas – The Book of Want Michael Ondaatje – The Cat's Table Ann Patchett – State of Wonder Chuck Palahniuk – Damned Tom Perrotta – The Leftovers Arthur Phillips – The Tragedy of Arthur Nina Revoyr – Wingshooters Rodrigo Rey Rosa – Severina Karen Russell – Swamplandia!
Stig Sæterbakken – Through the Night John Sayles – A Moment in the Sun Dana Spiotta – Stone Arabia Colm Tóibín – The Empty Family Zlatko Topčić – The Final Word Donald Trump – Trump Tower Juan Gabriel Vásquez – The Sound of Things Falling David Foster Wallace – The Pale King Daniel Woodrell – The Outlaw Album Chris Van Allsburg Queen of the Falls The Chronicles of Harris Burdick: Fourteen Amazing Authors Tell the Tales David Almond – The True Tale of the Monster Billy Dean Kelley Armstrong – The Gathering K. A. Applegate – Re-release of Animorphs books The Invasion The Visitor Paula Bossio – El Lapiz Carmen Agra Deedy – The Cheshire Cheese Cat: A Dickens of a Tale Edward Gibbs – I Spy With My Little Eye Andy Griffiths – The 13-Storey Treehouse Cynthia Hand – Unearthly Anthony Horowitz – Scorpia Rising Jon Klassen – I Want My Hat Back Gordon Korman, Peter Lerangis, Rick Riordan, Jude Watson – Vespers Rising Maxine Kumin – Oh, Harry! Derek Landy – Skulduggery Pleasant: Kingdom of the Wicked Patricia McKissack – Never Forgotten Courtney Allison Moulton – Angelfire Brandon Mull – Beyonders: A World Without Heroes Christopher Paolini – Inheritance Jerry Pinkney – Twinkle, Little Star Catherine Rayner – Solomon Crocodile Rick Riordan The Throne of Fire The Son of Neptune Douglas Wood – Franklin and Winston: A Christmas That Changed the World See 2011 in poetry.
Rae Armantrout – Money Shot Mehr Lal Soni Zia Fatehabadi – Meri Tasveer Susan Howe – That This Alice Notley – Culture of One Billy Collins – Horoscopes for the Dead Michael Palmer – Thread Sarah Palin – I Hope Like Heck Richard Bean – One Man, Two Guvnors Alecky Blythe – London Road Nick Dear – Frankenstein Vivienne Franzmann – Mogadishu Rodrigo García – Golgota Picnic Stephen Adly Guirgis – The Motherfucker with the Hat Sam Holcroft – Edgar and Annabel Stephen Karam – Sons of the Prophet Andrew Motion – Incoming Sixty-Six Books Joe Abercrombie – The Heroes Daniel Abraham The Dragon's Path Leviathan Wakes Ann Aguirre – Aftermath Greg Bear – Halo: Cryptum Lauren Beukes – Zoo City Alex Bledsoe Dark Jenny The Hum and the Shiver M. M. Buckner – The Gravity Pilot Robert Buettner – Undercurrents Jack Campbell – The Lost Frontier: Beyond the Frontier: Dreadnought Orson Scott Card – The Lost Gate Ernest Cline – Ready Player One Michael Crichton & Richard Preston – Micro Ian Douglas – Center of Gravity David Anthony Durham – The Sacred Band Greg Egan – The Clockwork Rocket Kate Elliott – Cold Fire C. S. Friedman – Legacy of Kings Steven Gould – The 7th Sigma Michael Grant — Plague Mira Grant – Deadline Lev Grossman – The Magician King Stephen Hunt – The Rise of the Iron Moon N. K. Jemisin – The Kingdom of Gods Richard Kadrey – Aloha from Hell Stephen King — 11/22/63 Sharon Lee & Steve Miller – Ghost Ship Pittacus Lore — The Power of Six Richard Matheson – Other Kingdoms George R. R. Martin – A Dance with Dragons Jack McDevitt – Firebird China Miéville – Embassytown Andrew Miller – Pure Karen Miller – A Blight of Mages Richard K. Morgan – The Cold Commands Joseph Nassise – Eyes to See Terry Pratchett – Snuff Cherie Priest – Ganymede Hannu Rajaniemi – The Quantum Thief Brian Ruckley – The Edinburgh Dead Brandon Sanderson – The Alloy of Law John Scalzi – Fuzzy Nation Dan Simmons – Flashback Neal Stephenson – Reamde Charles Stross – Rule 34 Michael Swanwick – Dancing with Bears Catherynne M. Valente – Deathless Vernor Vinge – The Children of the Sky Jo Walton – Among Others David Weber – How Firm a Foundation Robert Charles Wilson – Vortex Daniel Wilson – Robopocalypse
Voyage is a 1996 hard science fiction novel by British author Stephen Baxter. The book depicts a manned mission to Mars as it might have been in another timeline, one where John F. Kennedy survived the assassination attempt on him on November 22, 1963. Voyage won a Sidewise Award for Alternate History, was nominated for the Arthur C. Clarke Award in 1997. In 1999, it was adapted as a radio serial for BBC Radio 4 by Dirk Maggs; the book tells the story in flashbacks during the actual Mars mission of the chronicalised history until the mission's beginning. The point of divergence for this alternate timeline happens on November 22, 1963, where John F. Kennedy survived the assassination, but was crippled and thus incapacitated, as Lyndon B. Johnson is still sworn in. On July 20, 1969, Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Joe Muldoon walk on the Moon, Nixon's "most historic phone call" is joined by a call from former President Kennedy, committing the United States to send a manned mission to Mars, which Nixon backs as part of his fateful decision to decide the future of manned spaceflight, instead of deciding on the Space Shuttle program as he did in our timeline.
Preparations for this new goal include slashing the number of Moon landings so funding and leftover Apollo spacecraft hardware can go towards the efforts of the manned Mars mission. Apollo 12 still lands, Apollo 13 still suffers its disaster, but Apollo 14 is crewed by the astronauts of the cancelled Apollo 15 mission to carry out the scientific experiments on the lunar surface, is the last manned Moon landing. At the same time, the NERVA program is revived to become the chosen Mars spacecraft development, with larger tests in Nevada, but without containment and plagued with engineering problems; the book centres around chronicling the lives of the future Mars mission astronauts, NASA and contractor personnel all involved in making the mission become a reality, the shifts within NASA's astronaut and management hierarchy throughout the mission's preparations, including female geologist Natalie York's quest to become an astronaut, her stormy relationships with fellow astronaut Ben Priest and NERVA engineer Mike Conlig.
Other astronauts include Ralph Gershon, a former fighter-bomber pilot involved in illegal bombing missions in Cambodia during the Vietnam War whose dream is to be the first black man in space, Phil Stone, a veteran Air Force test pilot-turned-astronaut who has flown in a long-term stay on a lunar orbital station before the Mars mission. In the 1970s, the Skylab Space Station is launched, but as a wet workshop design, based on the Saturn IB S-IVB upper stage called Skylab A; the Saturn V that might have launched Skylab in our timeline instead launches Skylab B, a lunar orbit space station unofficially named "Moonlab" a wet workshop based on the S-IVB. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project is instead a series of visits by the Apollo Command/Service Module to Salyut space stations, Soyuz missions to both Skylab and Moonlab. To facilitate the latter, the Soviets finish work on their N-1; the Skylab/Moonlab programs lead to improvements in the design of the Apollo Command/Service Module. A Block III CSM is produced using battery power in place of fuel cells, followed by the Block IV and V, which have a degree of reusability.
Chronicled is the development of the experimental'Mars Excursion Module' by small aerospace firm Columbia Aviation as it struggles against larger rival contractors of NASA and its engineers working painstakingly against the technical challenges of a working and reliable Mars lander. A test of the NERVA, called Apollo-N, is launched atop the modified Saturn VN, but suffers from pogo oscillations in the S-IC first stage; this damages the NERVA upper stage, which catastrophically fails once fired in orbit. In the aftermath, a new Mars mission plan dubbed Ares is drawn up, utilising the upgraded Saturn V-B, which has numerous improvements, including the use of solid rocket boosters to double its payload. Ares uses on-orbit assembly of a different long duration Mars-ship using wet-workshop Saturn rocket components as the propulsion systems as well as a Skylab habitat module and external tanks to hold extra fuel. Ares performs a Venus flyby reminiscent of the Manned Venus Flyby NASA planned in the aftermath of the original Apollo program, but done in this timeline for gravitational assistance, lands at Mangala Valles on March 27, 1986.
However, as a side effect, a number of unmanned probes – including the Viking program, Pioneer Venus project, Mariner 10, Pioneers 10 and 11, the Voyager program – are cancelled so that their funding can be redirected to the manned Mars mission, although another Mariner orbiter is sent to Mars to help prepare for the manned landing. As a result, although humans walk on Mars, their knowledge of the Solar System, including Mars itself, is far less than in reality. Natalie York. An intelligent but cynical female geologist training to become the first American female astronaut.'Ares' Mission Specialist. She acts as the book's protagonist and a characterized incarnation of Baxter's views of NASA and humanity's destiny in space, an all-knowing archetype character used predominantly in Baxter's other novels. Phil Stone. A Former US Air Force m
The Plot Against America
The Plot Against America is a novel by Philip Roth published in 2004. It is an alternative history in which Franklin D. Roosevelt is defeated in the presidential election of 1940 by Charles Lindbergh; the novel follows the fortunes of the Roth family during the Lindbergh presidency, as antisemitism becomes more accepted in American life and Jewish-American families like the Roths are persecuted on various levels. The narrator and central character in the novel is the young Philip, the care with which his confusion and terror are rendered makes the novel as much about the mysteries of growing up as about American politics. Roth based his novel on the isolationist ideas espoused by Lindbergh in real life as a spokesman for the America First Committee, on his own experiences growing up in Newark, New Jersey; the novel depicts the Weequahic section of Newark which includes Weequahic High School from which Roth graduated. The novel is told from the point of view of Philip Roth as a child, it begins with aviation hero Charles Lindbergh criticized for his praise of Hitler's government, joining the America First Party.
As the party's spokesman, he speaks against U. S. intervention in World War II, criticizes the "Jewish race" for trying to force U. S. involvement. After making a surprise appearance on the last night of the 1940 Republican National Convention, he is nominated as the Republican Party's candidate for President. Although criticized from the left, hated by most Jewish-Americans, Lindbergh musters a strong tide of popular support from the South and Midwest, is endorsed by conservative rabbi Lionel Bengelsdorf. Lindbergh wins the election over incumbent president Franklin D. Roosevelt in a landslide under the slogan'Vote for Lindbergh, or vote for war.' He nominates Burton K. Wheeler as his vice president, Henry Ford as Secretary of the Interior. With Lindbergh as president, the Roth family begins to feel like outsiders in U. S. society. Lindbergh's first act is to sign a treaty with Nazi Germany and Adolf Hitler, promising that the United States will not interfere with German expansion in Europe, with Imperial Japan, promising non-interference with Japanese expansion in Asia.
The new presidency begins to take a toll on Philip's family. Philip's cousin Alvin joins the Canadian Army to fight in Europe, he loses his leg in combat, comes home with his ideals destroyed. He becomes a racketeer. A new government program begins to take Jewish boys to spend a period of time living with exchange families in the South and Midwest in order to "Americanize" them. Philip's brother Sandy is one of the boys selected, after spending time on a farm in Kentucky he comes home showing contempt for his family, calling them "ghetto Jews". Philip's aunt Evelyn marries Lionel Bengelsdorf and becomes a frequent guest of the Lindbergh White House being invited to a dinner party for German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop; this causes further strain in the family. A new government act is instituted relocating whole Jewish families to the western United States. Many of Philip's neighbors move to Canada. Philip's shy and innocent school friend Seldon Wishnow, an only child, is moved to Kentucky with his mother.
In protest against the new act, radio broadcaster Walter Winchell criticizes the Lindbergh administration and is fired from his station. He decides to run for President and begins a speaking tour, his candidacy causes anger and antisemitic rioting in southern and Midwestern states, mobs begin targeting him. Making a speech in Louisville, Kentucky he is shot to death. Winchell's funeral in New York City is presided over by Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, who praises Winchell for his opposition to fascism, criticizes President Lindbergh for his silence over the riots and Winchell's death. After making a short speech, Lindbergh's personal plane goes missing. Body hunts turn up no results and Vice President Wheeler assumes command; the German State Radio discloses "evidence" that Lindbergh's disappearance, as well as the kidnapping of his son, were part of a major Jewish conspiracy to take control of the U. S. government. This announcement causes further antisemitic rioting. Wheeler and Ford, acting on this evidence, begin arresting prominent Jewish citizens, including Henry Morgenthau, Jr. Herbert Lehman and Bernard Baruch, as well as Mayor LaGuardia.
Seldon calls the Roths. They discover that Seldon's mother was killed by Ku Klux Klan members who beat and robbed her before setting fire to her car with her in it; the Roths call Sandy's exchange family in Kentucky and have them keep Seldon safe until Philip's father and brother drive there and bring him back to Newark. Months he is taken in by his mother's sister; the rioting stops when first lady Anne Morrow Lindbergh makes a statement asking for the country to stop the violence and move forward. With the body searches called off, former president Franklin D. Roosevelt runs as an emergency presidential candidate, is reelected. Months the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor, the U. S. enters the war. As an epilogue, Philip's aunt Evelyn confides a theory of Lindbergh's disappearance. According to her, after Lindbergh's son Charles was kidnapped, his murder was faked, he was raised in Germany by the Nazis as a Hitler Youth member; the Nazis' price for the boy's life was Charles Lindbergh's full cooperation with a Nazi-organized Presidential campaign, by which they hoped to bring the Final Solution to the U.
S. When Lindbergh informed them that the United States would never permit such a thing, he was kidnapped, the Jewish conspiracy theory was put forward hoping to
The Merchant Princes
The Merchant Princes is a science fantasy and alternate history series by British writer Charles Stross. There are eight novels in the series, with another forthcoming. In the series, there exists a number of parallel worlds all of which are on the same geographical Earth, but with different societies at different points of development. Members of a certain bloodline can travel between these worlds along with their immediate possessions; the series follows Miriam Beckstein, a technology journalist raised in a familiar "normal" Earth, who discovers she was born in a parallel world and is a member of this bloodline. She becomes entangled in political maneuvering and assassination plots with her estranged family. Miriam uses investigative journalism to attempt to stay a step ahead; the implications of this world-traveling ability are explored by the series. The ability to take clothing and held items across allows a phenomenally lucrative import/export trade between worlds. Invaluable modern technology and medicine can be shipped to the feudal world.
This power has implications for security and crime as well, since it is now possible to commit a crime disappear into thin air, difficult to lock someone up in any effective manner. It means there is immense social pressure on members of the genetic bloodline to breed with other compatible members to increase the likelihood of the ability manifesting; the first six novels in the series were released from 2004 to 2010, take place in 2002–2004 of an alternate present. The books were re-released in 2014 as A Merchant Princes Omnibus, a trilogy of three books with each book a combination of two of the original novels: The Bloodline Feud, The Traders' War, The Revolution Trade; the re-release included a considerable amount of editing and rewriting by Stross, although no major plot changes. A new trilogy began in 2017 with the release of Empire Games featuring new characters and updating the year in-setting to 2020; the first three novels of the series collectively won the Sidewise Award for Alternate History in 2006.
According to Stross, in 2001, he had sold two books to the publisher Ace Books, Singularity Sky and Iron Sunrise. Ace had the right of first refusal to any future science fiction books Stross would publish, would only publish one book of his a year so as not to have his books compete against themselves, his agent advised him that if he wished to sell more books without breach of contract and to avoid self-cannibalization, he should branch out genres, encouraged Stross to try his hand at a fantasy series. Stross gave it a shot, he wanted to be original but not "create something hard to market. He decided his series would be his own spin on both the works of Roger Zelazny's The Chronicles of Amber, which featured a hero with special world-travelling powers, as well as the "Paratime" works of H. Beam Piper, which features an organization with the power to raid and exploit multiple alternate histories; the main world to be visited would be a feudal one more out of the Renaissance, as per many other fantasy stories.
Stross chose to intentionally limit the scope of "magical" powers to the world-travelling. Stross was able to sell his new fantasy series to Tor Books, would adjust his contract with Ace to exclude The Merchant Princes; this allowed Stross to explain the magic in the series with background sci-fi without worrying about breach of contract, but satisfying his desire for a consistent explanation of what was "really" going on behind the scenes. One of the themes that Stross wanted to explicitly explore in the series was that of the development trap, or more developmental economics, the issues involved in helping poor and stratified societies to "catch up." Economist Paul Krugman wrote on the series that Stross noticed that "the fantasy thought experiment, in which someone brings modern science and technology to a backward society, isn't a fantasy. It is, something that's been tried all across the real Third World," to mixed success at best. While some countries such as South Korea became rich powerhouses, others such as Thailand have only modernized somewhat, some states like Somalia remain poor, just with access to cell phones and guns.
The case of the Gulf oil states such as Saudi Arabia remain a special case, with a fabulously privileged upper class able to be educated abroad and get cutting-edge medical care and the like, but not expanding the economy of their societies beyond the treasure trove, their wealth from natural resources -, compared with the Clan's treasure trove from interdimensional trade. Krugman qualified his praise of the economics with a proviso that the books "are and foremost, great fun" with a "rollicking plot," and not a bland essay about the implications of such trade; the Family Trade is the first book of The Merchant Princes, published in 2004. It introduces the reader to technology journalist Miriam Beckstein, who finds herself in a parallel world in which her extended family holds power. Miriam's adoptive mother Iris gives her a shoebox filled with items that belonged to Miriam's birth mother, a Jane Doe who died mysteriously when Miriam was only a baby. Among other items, Miriam finds a locket.
Inside is a design not unlike a Celtic knot, when she focuses on it, she is transported to a parallel world of a feudal
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Dominion (Sansom novel)
Dominion is a 2012 alternate history novel by British author C. J. Sansom, it is a political thriller set in the early 1950s against the backdrop of a Britain that has become a satellite state of Nazi Germany. The point of divergence from actual history is that Lord Halifax, rather than Winston Churchill, succeeded Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister in May 1940. Dominion won the 2013 Sidewise Award for Long Form. Sansom's fictionalised portrayal of some historical figures as members of a Quisling puppet government caused some controversy. Powell's depiction in particular was problematic: Journalist Peter Hitchens called it a "babyish illiterate slur" and called on Sansom to apologise to Powell's family. Allan Massie for The Daily Telegraph, defended the portrayal, arguing that "in the make-believe world of counter-factual history, a novelist is entitled to take a different line" and that having a younger version of Powell be as such was "not inherently improbable." Hypothetical Axis victory in World War II