Siege of Belgrade (1456)

The Siege of Belgrade, Battle of Belgrade or Siege of Nándorfehérvár was a military blockade of Belgrade that occurred from July 4–22, 1456. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror rallied his resources in order to subjugate the Kingdom of Hungary, his immediate objective was the border fort of the town of Belgrade. John Hunyadi, the Count of Temes and captain-general of Hungary, who had fought many battles against the Turks in the previous two decades, prepared the defenses of the fortress; the siege escalated into a major battle, during which Hunyadi led a sudden counterattack that overran the Ottoman camp compelling the wounded Mehmed II to lift the siege and retreat. The battle had significant consequences, as it stabilized the southern frontiers of the Kingdom of Hungary for more than half a century and thus delayed the Ottoman advance in Europe; the Pope celebrated the victory as well, as he had ordered all Catholic kingdoms to pray for the victory of the defenders of Belgrade.

This led to the noon bell ritual, still undertaken in Catholic and old Protestant churches. The day of the victory, 22 July, has been a memorial day in Hungary since. At the end of 1455, John Hunyadi began preparations for the defence of Belgrade. At his own expense, he provisioned and armed the fortress with a strong garrison under the command of his brother-in-law Mihály Szilágyi and his own eldest son László. Hunyadi proceeded to form a relief army and an additional fleet of two hundred corvettes; the barons feared Hunyadi's growing power more than the Ottoman threat and left him to his own devices. An Italian Franciscan friar allied to Hunyadi, Giovanni da Capistrano, preached a crusade to attract peasants and local countryside landlords to Hunyadi's cause; the recruits were ill-armed, many with only slings and scythes, but they were motivated. The recruits came under Hunyadi's banner, the core of which consisted of smaller bands of seasoned mercenaries and a few groups of minor knights. All in all, Hunyadi managed to build a force of 25–30,000 men.

Before Hunyadi could assemble his forces, the army of Mehmed II arrived at Belgrade. The siege began on July 4, 1456. Szilágyi could rely on a force of only 5,000-7,000 men in the castle. Mehmed set up his siege on the neck of the headland and started bombarding the city's walls on June 29, he arrayed his men in three sections: The Rumelian corps had the majority of his 300 cannons, while his fleet of 200 river war vessels had the rest of them. The Rumelians were arrayed on the right wing and the Anatolian corps were arrayed on the left. In the middle were the personal guards of the Sultan, the Janissaries, his command post; the Anatolian corps and the Janissaries were both heavy infantry troops. Mehmed posted his river vessels to the northwest of the city to patrol the marshes and ensure that the fortress was not reinforced, they kept an eye on the Sava river to the southwest to avoid the infantry from being outflanked by Hunyadi's army. The zone from the Danube eastwards was guarded by the Sipahi, the Sultan's feudal heavy cavalry corps, to avoid being outflanked on the right.

When Hunyadi was informed of this, he was in the south of Hungary recruiting additional light cavalry troops for the army, with which he would intend to lift the siege. Although few, his fellow nobles were willing to provide manpower, the peasants were more than willing to do so. Friar John of Capistrano had been sent to Hungary by the Vatican both to preach against heretics and to preach a crusade against the Ottomans. Capistrano managed to raise a large, albeit poorly trained and equipped, peasant army, with which he advanced towards Belgrade. Capistrano and Hunyadi traveled together though commanding the army separately. Both of them had gathered around 40,000-50,000 troops altogether; the outnumbered defenders relied on the strength of the formidable castle of Belgrade, at the time one of the best engineered in the Balkans. Belgrade had been designated as the capital of the Serbian Despotate by Stefan Lazarević 53 years prior; the fortress was designed in an elaborate form with three lines of defense: the inner castle with the palace, a huge upper town with the main military camps, four gates and a double wall, as well as the lower town with the cathedral in the urban center and a port at the Danube.

This building endeavor was one of the most elaborate military architecture achievements of the Middle Ages. After the Siege, the Hungarians reinforced the north and eastern side with an additional gate and several towers, one of which, the Nebojša Tower, was designed for artillery purposes. On July 14, 1456, Hunyadi arrived to the encircled city with his flotilla on the Danube, while the Ottoman navy lay astride the Danube River, he broke the naval blockade on July 14, sinking three large Ottoman galleys and capturing four large vessels and 20 smaller ones. By destroying the Sultan's fleet, Hunyadi was able to transport his troops and much-needed food into the city; the fort's defense was reinforced. But Mehmed II was not willing to end the siege and after a week of heavy bombardment, the walls of the fortress were breached in several places. On July 21 Mehmed ordered an all-out assault that continued all night; the besieging army flooded the city and started its assault on the fort. As this was the most crucial moment of the siege, Hunyadi ordered the defenders to throw tarred wood and other flammable material, set it afire.

Soon a wall of flames separated the Janissaries fighting in the city from their fellow soldiers trying to breach through the gaps into the upper to

George W. Guthrie

George Wilkins Guthrie, served as Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1906 to 1909 and was United States Ambassador to Japan from 1913 to 1917. George Wilkins Guthrie was born in Pittsburgh on September 5, 1848 to John B. Guthrie and Catherine Murray Guthrie. Guthrie attended public school in Pittsburgh the Western University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1866. Next, he studied law at the Columbian College for three years, at which point he was admitted to the bar, he became an attorney and started an involvement in reform issues during an era of increasing government corruption and largess. On December 2, 1886, he married Florence Julia Howe Guthrie, daughter of General Thomas Marshall Howe of Pittsburgh. Guthrie, a Democrat, was defeated narrowly by Henry P. Ford. Guthrie was elected mayor in 1906 and started instituting city policies to stem local corruption, while working locally he pushed for statewide reforms. Guthrie is best remembered for two accomplishments. First, for the success of the legislation he and D.

T. Watson, the famous corporate lawyer, created which led to the merger between Pittsburgh and Allegheny City in 1906; this consolidation controversial and unpopular among Allegheny residents withstood challenges in the Pennsylvania and United States Supreme Courts, made the new Greater Pittsburgh the sixth largest city in the United States. Second, the implementation of a water filtration system during Guthrie's term reduced the incidence of typhoid in Pittsburgh; the first filtered water, cleaned in a slow sand filter, was delivered on December 18, 1907, by October 3, 1908, the entire water supply of Pittsburgh was being filtered. Guthrie's term was noted for a significant decline in the city's death rate due to improvement in public health; the rate had been among the highest in America's northern cities, around 20 per 1,000 inhabitants, a level at which it had been stuck for 20 years. By the end of his term, the rate had fallen to 16 per 1,000, the lowest in Pittsburgh's history to that point.

Notable declines were seen in incidences of typhoid fever. After leaving office, Guthrie was appointed United States Ambassador to Japan on May 20, 1913, he was accredited as special Ambassador and represented the President and the people of the United States at the funeral of Empress Shōken, the Dowager Empress of Japan, on April 7, 1914, was the personal representative of President Wilson at the coronation of Emperor Taishō of Japan on September 30, 1915. He died while at that post in Tokyo in 1917, after collapsing while playing golf with an American reporter; the Japanese government sent the armored cruiser Azuma to return his body to San Francisco as a mark of respect. He was Vice President and Trustee of the Dollar Savings Bank of Pittsburgh, a Trustee of the University of Pittsburgh, a member of the Board of Managers of St. Margaret's Memorial Hospital and the Kingsley House Association, a member of the Greater Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce, the Pittsburgh and Duquesne Golf Clubs, he was internationally known for his activities in Masonic bodies and served as Past Grand Master of Pennsylvania Masons.

He is buried in Allegheny Cemetery in Lawrenceville, PA. Guthrie Street in the Pittsburgh neighborhood of Regent Square was constructed in 1910 and named in the Mayor's honor

General Electric CF700

The General Electric CF700 is an aft-fan turbofan development of the CJ610 turbojet. The fan blades are an extension of the low-pressure turbine blades. CF700-2B Baseline aft-fan CJ610 variant rated at 4,200 lbf for take-off CF700-2V The 2B modified for continuous vertical operation on the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle and Lunar Landing Training Vehicle TF37-GE-1 Military version of the CF700-2V Dassault Falcon 20 North American Sabreliner Series 75A and 80 Lunar Landing Research Vehicle/Lunar Landing Training Vehicle Data from Type: Two-spool aft-fan turbofan Length: 75.5 in Diameter: 33 in Dry weight: 735 lb with optional thrust reverser Compressor: 8 stage high pressure compressor + 1 stage fan directly driven by the free LP turbine Turbine: 2 stage high pressure turbine, 1 stage low pressure turbine Fuel type: Aviation kerosene Maximum thrust: 4,200 lbf Bypass ratio: 2.0:1 Air mass flow: 84 lb /s through the fan Specific fuel consumption: 0.67 lb/lbf·hr at maximum cruising speed Thrust-to-weight ratio: 6.6 Related development General Electric CJ610 General Electric J85 Comparable engines General Electric CJ805-23Related lists List of aircraft engines Taylor, John W.

R. FRHistS. ARAeS. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1962-63. London: Sampson, Marston & Co Ltd. Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines, 5th Edition. Phoenix Mill, England, UK: Sutton Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-7509-4479-X. GE CF700 web page Cutaway CF700 Turbofan Engine Model AE-06-700 Aft-fan CF700 cutaway