Pontiac's War was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes from the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country, Ohio Country who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War. Warriors from numerous tribes joined the uprising in an effort to drive British soldiers and settlers out of the region; the war is named after the Odawa leader Pontiac, the most prominent of many native leaders in the conflict. The war began in May 1763 when Native Americans, offended by the policies of British General Jeffrey Amherst, attacked a number of British forts and settlements. Eight forts were destroyed, hundreds of colonists were killed or captured, with many more fleeing the region. Hostilities came to an end after British Army expeditions in 1764 led to peace negotiations over the next two years. Native Americans were unable to drive away the British, but the uprising prompted the British government to modify the policies that had provoked the conflict.
Warfare on the North American frontier was brutal, the killing of prisoners, the targeting of civilians, other atrocities were widespread. The ruthlessness and treachery of the conflict was a reflection of a growing divide between the separate populations of the British colonists and Native Americans. Contrary to popular belief, the British government did not issue the Royal Proclamation of 1763 in reaction to Pontiac's War, though the conflict did provide an impetus for the application of the Proclamation's Indian clauses; this proved unpopular with British colonists, may have been one of the early contributing factors to the American Revolution. The conflict is named after the Ottawa leader Pontiac. An early name for the war was the "Kiyasuta and Pontiac War", "Kiyasuta" being an alternate spelling for Guyasuta, an influential Seneca/Mingo leader; the war became known as "Pontiac's Conspiracy" after the publication in 1851 of Francis Parkman's The Conspiracy of Pontiac. Parkman's influential book, the definitive account of the war for nearly a century, is still in print.
In the 20th century, some historians argued that Parkman exaggerated the extent of Pontiac's influence in the conflict and that it was misleading to name the war after Pontiac. For example, in 1988 Francis Jennings wrote: "In Francis Parkman's murky mind the backwoods plots emanated from one savage genius, the Ottawa chief Pontiac, thus they became'The Conspiracy of Pontiac,' but Pontiac was only a local Ottawa war chief in a'resistance' involving many tribes." Alternate titles for the war have been proposed, but historians continue to refer to the war by the familiar names, with "Pontiac's War" the most used. "Pontiac's Conspiracy" is now infrequently used by scholars. In the decades before Pontiac's Rebellion and Great Britain participated in a series of wars in Europe that involved the French and Indian Wars in North America; the largest of these wars was the worldwide Seven Years' War, in which France lost New France in North America to Great Britain. Peace with the Shawnee and Lenape, combatants came in 1758 with the Treaty of Easton, where the British promised not to settle further beyond the ridge of the Alleghenies – a demarcation to be confirmed by the Royal Proclamation of 1763, though it was little respected.
Most fighting in the North American theater of the war referred to as the French and Indian War in the United States, came to an end after British General Jeffrey Amherst captured Montreal, the last important French settlement, in 1760. British troops proceeded to occupy the various forts in the Ohio Country and Great Lakes region garrisoned by the French. Before the war ended with the Treaty of Paris, the British Crown began to implement changes in order to administer its vastly expanded North American territory. While the French had long cultivated alliances among certain of the Native Americans, the British post-war approach was to treat the Native Americans as a conquered people. Before long, Native Americans, allies of the defeated French found themselves dissatisfied with the British occupation and the new policies imposed by the victors. Native Americans involved in Pontiac's Rebellion lived in a vaguely defined region of New France known as the pays d'en haut, claimed by France until the Paris peace treaty of 1763.
Native Americans of the pays d'en haut were from many different tribes. At this time and place, a "tribe" was a familial group rather than a political unit. No chief spoke for an entire tribe, no tribe acted in unison. For example, Ottawas did not go to war as a tribe: some Ottawa leaders chose to do so, while other Ottawa leaders denounced the war and stayed clear of the conflict; the tribes of the pays d'en haut consisted of three basic groups. The first group was composed of tribes of the Great Lakes region: Ojibwe and Potawatomi, who spoke Algonquian languages, they had long been allied with French habitants, with whom they lived and intermarried. Great Lakes Native Americans were alarmed to learn that they were under British sovereignty after the French loss of North America; when a British garrison took possession of Fort Detroit from the French in 1760, local Native Americans cautioned them that "this country was given by God to the Indians." The second group was made up of the tribes from eastern Illinois Country, which included the Miami, Kicka
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies; the outnumbered French depended on the Indians. The European nations declared a wider war upon one another overseas in 1756, two years into the French and Indian war, some view the French and Indian War as being the American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63; the name French and Indian War is used in the United States, referring to the two enemies of the British colonists, while European historians use the term Seven Years' War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it the Fourth Intercolonial War; the British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois and Cherokee tribes, the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy member tribes Abenaki and Mi'kmaq, the Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Wyandot tribes.
Fighting took place along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from the Province of Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol. In 1755, six colonial governors met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster. British operations failed in the frontier areas of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, Indian warrior allies.
In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by Commander-in-Chief William Shirley without direction from Great Britain; the Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to the King. Indians were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England; the British colonial government fell in the region of Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry. William Pitt came to power and increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies who were now engaged in the Seven Years' War in Europe. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture French Canada.
They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and the city of Quebec. The British lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec, but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, as well as French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Spanish Florida. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in America. In British America, wars were named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. There had been a King George's War in the 1740s during the reign of King George II, so British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, it became known as the French and Indian War; this continues as the standard name for the war in the United States, although Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.
It led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies. Less used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name. "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756—two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. Canadians conflate both the American conflicts into the Seven Years' War. French Canadi
Siege of Detroit
The Siege of Detroit known as the Surrender of Detroit or the Battle of Fort Detroit, was an early engagement in the British-U. S. War of 1812. A British force under Major General Isaac Brock with American Indian allies under Shawnee leader Tecumseh used bluff and deception to intimidate U. S. Brigadier General William Hull into surrendering the fort and town of Detroit and his dispirited army, which outnumbered the victorious British and Indians; the British victory reinvigorated the militia and civil authorities of Upper Canada, pessimistic and affected by pro-U. S. Agitators. Many Indians in the Northwest Territory were inspired to take arms against U. S. settlers. The British held Detroit for more than a year before their small fleet was defeated on Lake Erie, which forced them to abandon the western frontier of Upper Canada. Tension was increasing between the United Kingdom and the United States in the early months of 1812, Michigan Territory Governor William Hull urged President James Madison and Secretary of War William Eustis to form an army which would secure the Northwest Territory against Indians who were being incited by British agents and fur trading companies to take up arms against the United States.
It was urgently necessary to reinforce the outpost of Detroit, which had a population of 800 and a garrison of 120 soldiers. It was suggested that this army might invade the western districts of Upper Canada, where support might be expected from the many recent immigrants from the United States, attracted by generous land grants. Madison and Eustis concurred with this plan and offered command of the army to Hull, an aging veteran of the American Revolutionary War, he was reluctant to take the appointment, but no other officer was available with his prestige and experience. He accepted, after repeated pleas from Madison, was commissioned as a Brigadier General in the United States Army, his army consisted of three regiments of Ohio militia under Colonels Lewis Cass, Duncan McArthur, James Findlay. Hull took command of them at Dayton, Ohio on 25 May but found that they were badly equipped and ill-disciplined, no arrangements had been made to supply them on the march, he made hasty efforts to remedy the deficiencies in equipment.
The army marched north from Urbana, Ohio on 10 June, joined by the 4th U. S. Infantry under Lieutenant Colonel James Miller. Hull ignored an earlier route established by Anthony Wayne and created a new route to Detroit across the Great Black Swamp area of northwest Ohio, he received a letter from Eustis on 26 June, dated 18 June, warning him that war was imminent and urging that he should make for Detroit "with all possible expedition", so he hastened his march. His draft horses were worn out by the arduous march, so he put his entrenching tools, medical supplies, officers' baggage, some sick men and the army's band aboard the packet vessel Cayahoga at the foot of the Maumee River, to be transported across Lake Erie. Eustis had sent his first letter of 18 June by special messenger. Congress had passed the declaration of war that day, but Eustis sent a letter with this vital information only by ordinary mail. On 28 June, the postmaster at Cleveland, Ohio hired an express rider to rush the letter to Hull but this arrived only on 2 July.
The British ambassador in Washington had sent the news urgently to Britain and Canada, the military commanders in Canada had in turn hastened to inform all their outposts of the state of war. On 2 July, the unsuspecting Cayahoga was captured by General Hunter, a Canadian-manned armed brig of the Provincial Marine near the British post at Amherstburg, Ontario at the foot of the Detroit River. Hull reached Detroit on 5 July where he was reinforced by detachments of Michigan militia, including the 140 men of the Michigan Legionary Corps which Hull had established in 1805; the American army was short of supplies food, as Detroit provided only soap and whiskey. Eustis urged Hull to attack Amherstburg; the fort there was defended by 300 British regulars from the 41st Regiment of Foot, 400 Indians, some militia. The post's commander was Colonel St. George, superseded by Colonel Henry Procter of the 41st. Hull was not enthusiastic and wrote to Eustis that "the British command the water and the savages."
His army crossed into Canada on 12 July. He issued several proclamations which were intended to induce Canadians to join or support his army while some of his mounted troops raided up the Thames River as far as Moraviantown; these moves discouraged many of the militia from opposing his invasion, but few of the inhabitants of the region aided him those who had moved from the United States. There were several indecisive skirmishes with British outposts along the Canard River, Hull decided that he could not attack the British fort without artillery, which could not be brought forward because the carriages had decayed and needed repair. Several of his officers disagreed with this retreat and secretly discussed removing him from command. Hull had been quarreling with his militia Colonels since taking over the army, he felt that he did not have their support in the field or in their councils of war. On 17 July, a mixed force of British regulars, Canadian fur traders, Indians captured the important trading post of Mackinac Island on Lake Huron from its small American garrison who were not aware that war had been declared.
Many of the Indians who had taken part in the attack either remained at Mackinac or returned to their homes, but 100 or more Sioux and Winnebago warriors began moving south from Mackinac to join those at Amherstburg, while the news induced th
Major-General Henry Gladwin was a British army officer in colonial America and the British commander at the Siege of Fort Detroit during Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763. He served in the disastrous campaign of Edward Braddock and in other actions in the French and Indian War but is best remembered for his defense of Detroit in Pontiac's Rebellion. Henry was born in 1729 or 1730 near Wingerworth, Chesterfield, in Derbyshire, he was the eldest son of Henry Gladwin by his second wife Mary daughter of John Digby Dakeyne of Stubbing Edge Hall. They were married on 28 Oct 1728 in Wingerworth, his father's first wife Marina Holland, heiress of Stubbing Court died in childbirth May 1727 Mary Dakeyne was the sister and heiress of John Dakeyne. He was a great-grandson of Thomas II Gladwin of Tupton Hall, now Tupton Hall school, in the parish of Wingerworth near Chesterfield, Sheriff of Derbyshire in 1668. Thomas II was the second son and principal heir of Thomas I Gladwin of Boythorpe and Tupton, Derbyshire, an eminent lead merchant who raised an estate of £800 or £900 per annum.
One of Gen. Henry's brothers was John Gladwin of Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, a lawyer and steward of the royal Sherwood Forest and attorney and steward of the manor of Mansfield to William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Prime Minister of Great Britain, of Welbeck Abbey and Burlington House, London. John's 4th daughter Dorothy Gladwin "Lady Dolly" married in 1787 Francis Eyre, self styled 6th Earl of Newburgh, of Hassop Hall, Derbyshire. All her 10 children died without issue and the last two earls, both her sons had settled their vast estates, producing £50,000 per annum, on their mother's family, the Gladwins. In 1885 the estate was claimed without success, by Mr Gladwin Cloves Cave of Rossbrin Manor, Ireland, a great-grandson of Mrs Elizabeth Cloves, "Lady Dolly's" eldest sister. Henry's sister, Dorothy Gladwin, married Henry's half-brother-in-law Rev. Basil Berridge, rector of Alderchurch, Lincolnshire, her portrait painted by Joseph Wright of Derby survives. Henry's uncle was Thomas Gladwin, a silversmith of London,MARK TG AND CREST,c,1715–1725 who "did not prosper in the world".
Thomas's wife is depicted as one of the daughters in the portrait c. 1754 of the Gravenor family by Thomas Gainsborough "John and Ann Gravenor, with their daughters" now in the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, Paul Mellon collection. Thomas Gladwin's portrait was painted by Johann Zoffany in London in 1777; this portrait exists within the family today. Chief Pontiac of the Ottawas planned to take Fort Detroit. One romantic theory suggests; when Pontiac arrived at Fort Detroit, the British were ready. This made Pontiac set up a siege instead of taking over the fort. In Michigan, Gladwin County is named after Major Henry Gladwin; the county was named in 1831 and organized in 1875. In 1762 he married Frances Beridge, a daughter of Rev. John Beridge of Barkston, Lincolnshire, by his 2nd wife Susan Rutter. By Frances he had children, ten of whom survived, including: Charles Dakeyne Gladwin, eldest son and heir, Lt-Col. of the Derbyshire Militia, who let Stubbing Court to James Abercromby, 1st Baron Dunfermline, Speaker of the House of Commons and moved to Belmont in the parish of Brampton, Derbyshire.
Charles married Mary Anne Stringer and left one daughter, Frances Gladwin, his sole heiress, who married Stephen Melland. The Gladwin estates descended to Charles's great-nephew Captain Richard Henry Goodwin-Gladwin of Hinchley Wood House, who on 24 April 1881 assumed the surname and arms of Gladwin by royal licence. Richard's own heir was his nephew Gilbert Launcelot Gladwin-Errington, of Hinchley Wood House. Henry Gladwin Frances Gladwin, eldest daughter, who in 1801 married Francis Goodwin of Hinchley Wood House, Derbyshire, their son was Rev. Henry John Goodwin, who married Frances Turbutt and heiress of Rev. Richard Burrow Turbutt. Henry's son was Capt. Richard Henry Goodwin-Gladwin, the eventual heir of his great-uncle Charles Dakeyne Gladwin. Dorothy Gladwin, 2nd daughter, in 1792 married Joshua Jebb of Chesterfield, their eldest son was Major-General Sir Joshua Jebb, KCB, Inspector general of military prisons Mary I Gladwin Mary II Gladwin, 3rd daughter, who in 1800 married Baldwin Duppa Duppa, JP, DL, of Hollingbourne House, Kent.
Their daughter Ellen Duppa married her 1st cousin Gladwyn Turbutt, whose descendants in 1888 on inheriting Hollingbourne assumed the name Duppa de Uphaugh. Ann Gladwin, 4th daughter, who in 1814 married William Turbutt of Ogston Hall, Alfreton and Arnold Grove, Nottinghamshire, their son was Gladwin Turbutt, High Sheriff of Derbyshire in 1858, who married his 1st cousin Ellen Duppa. Charlotte Gladwin, 5th daughter, who married in 1805 Rev George Hutton, Fellow of Magdalen College and rector of Sutterton and Algarkirk, he was the 5th son of Thomas Hutton, who built Gate Burton Hall, Lincolnshire, in 1768. Martha Gladwin, died unmarried. Harriet Gladwin, her 56 page Commonplace book written between 1808 and
Frederic Sackrider Remington was an American painter, illustrator and writer who specialized in depictions of the American Old West concentrating on scenes from the last quarter of the 19th century in the Western United States and featuring images of cowboys, American Indians, the U. S. Cavalry, among other figures from Western culture. Remington was born in Canton, New York in 1861 to Seth Pierrepont Remington] and Clarissa "Clara" Bascom Sackrider, his paternal family owned hardware stores and emigrated from Alsace-Lorraine in the early 18th century. His maternal family of the Bascom line was of French Basque ancestry, coming to America in the early 1600s and founding Windsor, Connecticut. Remington's father was a Union army officer, a colonel, in the American Civil War whose family had arrived in America from England in 1637, he was a newspaper editor and postmaster, the family was active in local politics and staunchly Republican. One of Remington's great-grandfathers, Samuel Bascom, was a saddle maker by trade, the Remingtons were fine horsemen.
Frederic Remington was related by family bloodlines to Indian portrait artist George Catlin and cowboy sculptor Earl W. Bascom. Another noted western artist related to Remington through the Bascom family is Frank Tenney Johnson, the "father of western moonlight painting."Frederic Remington was a cousin to Eliphalet Remington, founder of the Remington Arms Company, considered America's oldest gunmaker. He was related to three famous mountain men—Jedediah Smith, Jonathan T. Warner and Robert "Doc" Newell. Through the Warner side of his family, Remington was related to General George Washington, America's first president. Remington's ancestors fought in the French and Indian War, the American Revolution, the War of 1812 and the American Civil War. Colonel Remington was away at war during most of the first four years of his son's life. After the war, he moved his family to Bloomington, Illinois for a brief time and was appointed editor of the Bloomington Republican, but the family returned to Canton in 1867.
Remington was the only child of the marriage, received constant attention and approval. He was an active child and strong for his age, who loved to hunt, ride, go camping, he was a poor student though in math, which did not bode well for his father's ambitions for his son to attend West Point. He began to make sketches of soldiers and cowboys at an early age; the family moved to Ogdensburg, New York when Remington was eleven and he attended Vermont Episcopal Institute, a church-run military school, where his father hoped discipline would rein in his son's lack of focus and lead to a military career. Remington took his first drawing lessons at the Institute, he transferred to another military school where his classmates found the young Remington to be a pleasant fellow, a bit careless and lazy, good-humored, generous of spirit, but not soldier material. He enjoyed making silhouettes of his classmates. At sixteen, he wrote to his uncle of his modest ambitions, "I never intend to do any great amount of labor.
I have but one short life and do not aspire to wealth or fame in a degree which could only be obtained by an extraordinary effort on my part". He imagined a career for himself with art as a sideline. Remington attended the art school at Yale University. Remington was the only male student in his freshman year, he found that football and boxing were more interesting than the formal art training drawing from casts and still life objects. He preferred action drawing and his first published illustration was a cartoon of a "bandaged football player" for the student newspaper Yale Courant. Though he was not a star player, his participation on the strong Yale football team was a great source of pride for Remington and his family, he left Yale in 1879 to tend to his ailing father. His father died a year at age fifty, receiving respectful recognition from the citizens of Ogdensburg. Remington's Uncle Mart secured a good paying clerical job for his nephew in Albany, New York and Remington would return home on weekends to see his girlfriend Eva Caten.
After the rejection of his engagement proposal to Eva by her father, Remington became a reporter for his Uncle Mart's newspaper went on to other short-lived jobs. Living off his inheritance and modest work income, Remington refused to go back to art school and instead spent time camping and enjoying himself. At nineteen, he made his first trip west, going to Montana, at first to buy a cattle operation a mining interest but realized he did not have sufficient capital for either. In the American West of 1881, he saw the vast prairies, the shrinking buffalo herds, the still unfenced cattle, the last major confrontations of U. S. Cavalry and Native American tribes, scenes he had imagined since his childhood, he hunted grizzly bears with Montague Stevens in New Mexico in 1895. Though the trip was undertaken as a lark, it gave Remington a more authentic view of the West than some of the artists and writers who followed in his footsteps, such as N. C. Wyeth and Zane Grey, who arrived twenty-five years when much of the mythic West had slipped into history.
From that first trip, Harper's Weekly printed Remington's first published commercial effort, a re-drawing of a quick sketch on wrapping paper that he had mailed back East. In 1883, Remington went to rural Kansas, south of the city of Peabody near the tiny community of Plum Grove, to try his hand at the booming sheep ranching and wool trade, as one of the "holiday stockmen", rich young Easterners out to make a quick