Siege of Donegal
The Siege of Donegal took place in 1601 during Tyrone's Rebellion when a force led by Hugh Roe O'Donnell laid siege to the settlement of Donegal. The garrison of the town were a mixture of Irish Army troops and Gaelic forces loyal to the Crown led by Niall Garve O'Donnell. Heavy fighting took place during the month-long siege in which Donegal Abbey was wrecked by an accidental gunpowder explosion. Having suffered several repulses Hugh Roe O'Donnell abandoned the siege and moved his army southwards to Munster to take part in the Battle of Kinsale. In his absence Crown forces were able to use Donegal as a base to capture the strategic town of Ballyshannon. Conn O'Donnell was killed during the siege. McGurk, John. Sir Henry Docwra, 1564-1631: Derry's Second Founder. Four Courts Press, 2006
Juan del Águila
Juan Del Águila y Arellano was a Spanish general. He commanded the Spanish expeditionary Tercio troops in Sicily in Brittany, before serving as general of the Spanish armies in the invasion of Ireland; as a soldier, subsequently Field Master of the Tercios, he was posted to Sicily, Malta, Milan, the Netherlands, Portugal and Ireland, where he participated in major military events of his time, such as the Siege of Malta, the Looting of Antwerp, the Siege of Antwerp, the Miracle of Empel, the Expedition in support of French Catholics, the Battle of Cornwall and the Expedition to support the Irish. Juan Del Águila was born in Ávila in 1545 within a family of provincial nobility, he was the fourth son of Miguel del Aguila y Velasco and Sancha de Arellano, grandson of Lord Villaviciosa. His childhood was spent in Berraco. In 1563, at eighteen years old, Juan Del Águila followed the Gonzalo de Bracamonte company which started to unite with the Sicily Tercio, he served there for 24 years. The following year he participated in the conquest of Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera a haven for pirates.
In 1565 he was part of the contingent, sent to the aid of Malta, besieged by the Ottomans. A year he was sent to Corsica in support of the Genoese, who tried to quell the rebellion led by Sampiero Corso. In 1567 the Sicilian Tercio departed for Flanders. In 1569 Captain Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza promoted Águila to lieutenant of his company. In 1568 started the so-called Eighty Years' War called Nederlands revolt against the Spanish Monarchy; this war will end in 1648 with the Westphalia Treaty. In 1574 Juan del Águila participated in the battle of Mook, a severe blow to the Protestant rebels. In 1576 Juan del Águila was sent to relieve the Ghent castle; that same year, the Tercio made fortifications in Alost. Taking advantage of the situation and the power vacuum after the death of governor general Luis de Requesens, William of Orange held a general revolt, declared all Spanish and those who collaborated with them, "rebels". So, German and Walloon troops of Antwerp switched sides and allowed Dutch rebels to enter the city, who besieged the citadel, commanded by Sancho d'Avila.
In this situation, Juan del Aguila convinced the mutineers from Alost to help his countrymen. Thus the troops took the city. Following this, the unfortunate Sack of Antwerp occurred; that same year Juan del Águila was named captain. In May 1577 Juan del Águila's Tercio left Maastricht destined for Lombardy after signing the Perpetual Edict, but in August of that same year, Governor Juan de Austria once again claimed his presence to pacify Flanders. The death of his field master, Julian Romero, delayed his departure until the fall. In December the Tercio reached the Netherlands. For three years they waged war without receiving a single salary. In February 1580, the governor Alexander Farnese was forced to repatriate the Tercios because of the negotiations for submission by the Walloons. In 1582 the Tercio was again called to Flanders, which arrived in late July after a journey of forty days by the Spanish Road. After the conquest of the Tornhout castle in April 1583, Farnese appointed Juan del Águila as its governor, but not for long.
Three months on July 23, the major city Nieuwpoort surrendered to the Spanish and del Águila became the new governor, his company became the garrison. On August 16, 1583 the Field Master of the Tercio in which Juan de Águila served, died in Dendermonde. Ten days Farnese named him Field Master, at only 38 years old. At the end of 1584 Siege of Antwerp began, in which Juan de Águila and his Tercio distinguished themselves by defeating the Dutch who tried to rescue the city from the Covenstein dyke. After the capture of the city in the summer of that year, the Tercios received their back pay: 37 overdue salaries from July 1582. After taking Antwerp, Farnese graduated a part of the army and sent the rest to the north to help reimpose Catholicism and Spanish rule in the northern Netherlands; the army commanded by Ernesto de Mansfeld consisted of three Tercios, including that of Juan del Águila. On reaching the river Meuse, in late November, Mansfeld divided the army, some camped on the shore and another on the island of Bommel, formed by the rivers Meuse and Waal.
In this second group were the masters Juan del Águila and Francisco Arias de Bobadilla. The Dutch rebels broke the levees protecting the area, the water level rose and flooded the island; the Spanish were thus unprotected in the Empel dam. On December 2, a Dutch fleet entered the flooded land with the intention of annihilating the tercios. With the artillery that they had managed to salvage, the troops of Juan del Águila occupied an islet that had formed after the flood and staved off the rebel boats to prevent them from approaching. Meanwhile, the Dutch seized other islets and began construction of fortifications, which ended in record time despite the Spanish cannon shots. Mansfeld got a few barges from the inhabitants of Den Bosch to attack the enemy fleet, but they were destroyed in a surprise attack; the situation was desperate. On the night of December 7 a soldier found, buried near the church of Empel, a table with the image of the Immaculada and, as December 8 was its feastday, the discovery was considered a good omen: This rich treasure that they discovered under the earth was a divine proclamation of good fortunes, through the intercession of the Virgin Mary, they were waiting the blessed day That same night, Bobadilla ordered an assault on the forts with the few boats available.
Raleigh's El Dorado Expedition
Raleigh's El Dorado expedition known as Raleigh's first voyage to Guiana, was an English military and exploratory expedition led by Sir Walter Raleigh that took place during the Anglo–Spanish War in 1595. The expedition set out in February 1595 to explore the Orinoco River on the northeast tip of South America in an attempt to find the fabled city of El Dorado. Raleigh first captured the Spanish settlement of San José de Oruña on the colony of Trinidad, along with the Governor Antonio de Berrío, looking for the city. After questioning De Berrío, Raleigh and the English held the place and used it as a base for their exploration. Despite the presence of a Spanish force shadowing him, Raleigh navigated the river and inlets, penetrating some 400 miles into the Guiana highlands. No gold or lost city was found and thus Raleigh returned to England and subsequently exaggerated his account. Still, the expedition resulted in an important alliance with the natives of the region, which would have a lasting impact on future colonization of the area.
With England at war with Spain in 1585, English privateers had set out to raid Spanish and Portuguese possessions and shipping, conduct illicit trading. Sir Walter Raleigh had enjoyed several years of high esteem from Queen Elizabeth I, which stemmed in part from his previous exploits at sea which included the famous Capture of the Madre de Deus. Soon after, Raleigh suffered a short imprisonment for secretly marrying one of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting, Elizabeth Throckmorton, bearing her a child. In a bid to restore his influence with the Queen, having promised a "gold-rich empire more lucrative than Peru", had set up an expedition under John Whiddon to find the fabled city of gold known as El Dorado, following one of the many old maps which indicated the putative existence of the city. Raleigh aimed to reach Lake Parime in the highlands of Guyana. Raleigh's fascination began when he captured Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, the Spanish governor of Patagonia, in a raid in 1586, despite Spain's official policy of keeping all navigational information secret, shared his maps with English cartographers.
The biggest discovery was Gamboa's account of Juan Martinez de Albujar, who had taken part in Pedro de Silva's expedition to the area in 1570, only to fall into the hands of the Caribs of the Lower Orinoco. Martinez claimed that he was taken to the golden city blindfolded and was entertained by the natives left the city but could not remember how to return, only remembering a large lake, nearby. Raleigh wanted to find the mythical city, which he suspected was an actual native Indian city named Manoa near a large lake called Parime. In addition, he hoped to establish an English presence in the Southern Hemisphere that could compete with that of the Spanish and to try to reduce commerce between the natives and Spaniards by forming alliances. Whiddon sailed to the island of Trinidad in 1594 and was greeted by Antonio de Berrío, the Spanish governor of the island, María de Oruña; when questions were raised about El Dorado, De Berrío got angry and ordered the execution of the small English party, but Whiddon was allowed to leave to tell the tale to Raleigh.
Raleigh organised an expedition in late 1594, of which the first goal was to try and capture de Berrío, using the island for the purpose of the exploration of the Orinoco River. The expedition consisted of four ships: the Lion's Whelp under Captain George Giffard, a small Spanish prize named Gallego captained by Lawrence Kemys, Raleigh's own flagship under Captain Jacob Whiddon and Master John Douglas, a small bark under Captain Cross. On board were 150 officers, soldiers as well as gentleman volunteers. Another two expeditions were hoping to join in; the first expedition, under Robert Dudley and George Popham, had left earlier and the second, led by George Somers and Amyas Preston, left a month later. Raleigh left Plymouth on 6 February 1595, sailed towards the Azores to take on fresh supplies before the crossing of the Atlantic. Having done so Raleigh was sailing near the Canary Islands where off Tenerife a Spanish ship was captured. A day a Flemish ship was captured its cargo too being emptied - twenty hogsheads of Spanish wine.
Raleigh arrived in the Caribbean in late March but had lost contact with two other consorts during the transatlantic crossing and failed to rendezvous with either. The first expedition under Dudley and Popham, who had waited and only departed from the area around 9 February. Between them they had captured many Spanish ships giving them an excuse to head back to England with their prizes. At the same time the Preston Somers Expedition headed further West in a way to distract the Spanish from Raleigh's expedition, they too were supposed to meet up but had missed the rendezvous. Instead they continued with their expedition and headed towards La Guaira and Coro where they raided, their greatest prize was when they took Caracas in a daring assault having crossed a pass through the mountains. Raleigh had planned to descend on the Spanish colony of Trinidad - in particular the principal settlement of San José de Oruña, founded by Berrio in 1592. First of all he landed and explored the south of the island Raleigh found that the Indians were cultivating good quality tobacco and sugar cane.
While sailing across the Gulf of Paria he reputedly smelled tar, put into shore at Terra de Brea. The Caribs led Raleigh to a pitch lake and he realized that the substance was ideal for caulking
Charles Blount, 8th Baron Mountjoy
Charles Blount, 1st Earl of Devonshire, KG was an English nobleman and soldier who served as Lord Deputy of Ireland under Queen Elizabeth I as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland under King James I. He succeeded to the family title as 8th Baron Mountjoy in 1594, before commanding the Crown's forces during the final years of Tyrone's Rebellion, he was able to defeat Tyrone at the Battle of Kinsale, captured his headquarters at Dungannon before peace was agreed at the Treaty of Mellifont in 1603. The second son of James, 6th Baron Mountjoy and Catherine, only daughter of Sir Thomas Leigh, Charles Blount was among the most distinguished of the family, succeeding as 8th Baron Mountjoy on the death of his unmarried elder brother William, 7th Baron Mountjoy; the good fortune of his youthful and handsome looks found favour with Queen Elizabeth I which aroused the jealousy of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, leading to a duel between the two courtiers, who became close friends. Charles Blount was returned to the Commons as MP for St Ives, Cornwall in 1584 and for Bere Alston in 1586 and 1593, before entering the House of Lords in 1594.
Between 1586 and 1598 Charles spent most of his time on the Continent, serving in the Netherlands and Brittany. He joined Lord Essex and Sir Walter Raleigh in their expedition to the Azores in 1597, along with his distant cousin, Sir Christopher Blount. In 1600 Mountjoy went to Ireland as Lord Deputy following Lord Essex and, with the able assistance of Sir George Carew, brought the Nine Years' War to an end with ruthless scorched-earth tactics in the Ulster stronghold of the rebel Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone. In July 1601 he had ordered an amphibious landing at Lough Foyle, near Derry, which penetrated the north of the province and undermined the rebels. In the following December he defeated the rebels at the Battle of Kinsale, drove their Spanish allies out of the country; the downfall of Lord Essex did no damage to Lord Mountjoy's career. After the failure of his rebellion, Essex shocked many by denouncing his sister Penelope, Mountjoy's mistress, as a traitor, which raised the question of his own possible involvement.
Following Kinsale and his forces made successful incursions into Tyrone's Ulster heartlands. In 1602 Tyrone ordered the burning of his capital at Dungannon and retreated into the woods where he continued to evade capture. Mountjoy occupied the ruins of Dungannon, symbolically destroyed the Ó Néill Mór's traditional inauguration site at Tullyhogue. On 30 March 1603, six days after the death of Elizabeth and the accession of James I, O'Neill made peace with Mountjoy, signing the Treaty of Mellifont. Mountjoy continued in office with the more distinguished title of Lord-Lieutenant, he declared an amnesty for the rebels and granted them honourable terms, which caused some severe criticism from England. He showed similar moderation in putting down the abortive risings in Cork and Wexford, where the aldermen with some vague idea of gaining greater toleration for Roman Catholics, refused to proclaim the new King: in Cork three insurgents were hanged after a summary trial, but the rest were acquitted or pardoned.
On his return to England, Lord Mountjoy served as one of Sir Walter Raleigh's judges in 1603, in the same year King James I appointed him Master of the Ordnance as well as creating him Earl of Devonshire, granting him extensive estates. He was one of the founder members of the Spanish Company re-founded by royal charter in 1605. Mountjoy's long-term successor in Ireland was Sir Arthur Chichester. Ireland remained in a state of some tension, with a number of disgruntled Gaelic Irish allies of the Crown angered by Mountjoy's generous terms to the Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell which meant land, promised to them had now been restored to the earls. In 1607, a year after Mountjoy's death, the flight of the Earls took place; the following year a former government ally Sir Cahir O'Doherty attacked and burned Derry, launching O'Doherty's Rebellion. The flight and the rebellion led to the Plantation of Ulster, something that had not been envisaged by Mountjoy when he had made peace in 1603. Towards the end of his life, on 26 December 1605 at Wanstead House near London, in a ceremony conducted by his chaplain William Laud, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, he married his long-time mistress Lady Penelope wife of Robert, 3rd Baron Rich and sister of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex.
After the execution of her brother in 1601, Lord Rich divorced her in the ecclesiastical courts. The marriage was carried out in defiance of canon law, resulted in the disgrace of both parties, who were banished from King James I's court circles; the Earl and Countess of Devonshire continued to live together as husband and wife with their illegitimate children until his death a few months in the following year. His illegitimate children by his mistress Lady Rich, of whom he acknowledged the paternity, included: Mountjoy Blount, 1st Earl of Newport Elizabeth Blount St John Blount Ruth Blount Lord Devonshire left no legitimate children, so his hereditary titles became extinct at his death on 3 April 1606 at Savoy House, London. Baron Mountjoy Blount baronets This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mountj
Siege of Dunboy
The Siege of Dunboy took place at Dunboy Castle between 5 June and 18 June 1602, during the Nine Years' War in Ireland. It was a victory for the English Army. Dunboy Castle is situated near the town of Castletownbere, on the Beara Peninsula, Co. Cork, in south-western Ireland, it was a stone tower house, built to control and defend the harbour of Bearhaven, a stronghold of Donal Cam O'Sullivan Beare, a Gaelic clan leader and the'Chief of Dunboy'. O'Sullivan was part of a confederation of Gaelic leaders who had gone into rebellion against Elizabeth I of England, he was aided by King Philip III of Spain, who sent an invasion force to Kinsale under the command of Don Juan del Águila. After Águila had surrendered to the queen's Lord Deputy, Lord Mountjoy, in January 1602, O'Sullivan resolved to continue the fight and rallied his forces at Dunboy. O'Sullivan first had to recover possession of his castle, garrisoned by a small force of Spanish troops under the command of a Captain Saavedra. In February, as part of the terms of Águila's surrender to Mountjoy, Saavedra was preparing to hand the castle over to English forces when he and his men were overpowered and disarmed by O'Sullivan.
O'Sullivan kept all of their arms and munitions, strengthened the castle in readiness for the inevitable assault. He left a force of 143 of his best men to defend the castle in his absence under the charge of Captain Richard MacGeoghegan and care of Friar Dominic Collins; the English crown sent an army of between 4000 and 5000, under the command of Sir George Carew Lord President of Munster, to suppress the resistance. Carew had the support of the English navy, but before the siege got under way, O'Sullivan himself and most of his forces had marched to another of his fortresses, Ardea Castle, on the northern coast of the Beara promontory in order to secure money and supplies that had just arrived by ship from Spain. Carew began the siege with an artillery bombardment by sea. One of O'Sullivan's cousins, who had allied himself with Carew, Owen O'Sullivan of Carrignass, informed the English commander of a weak point in the castle walls at a stairwell; the guns were directed to that point, the walls were breached.
By the 10th day the castle had been reduced to ruins. Richard Mac Geoghegan, whose son Bryan had been killed, sent a messenger to Carew requesting terms. Under the rules of war, unconditional surrender was required once the battle commenced. Carew responded by hanging the messenger in sight of the defenders. Certain of their fate should they remain, some of the defenders swam to nearby Bere Island, where they were killed or captured in the water; the remainder repelled another assault and sealed themselves in the cellar of the castle as the siege continued. Meanwhile, crown forces raided nearby Dursey Island. On the 11th day, the castle cellar was overrun amid vicious hand-to-hand fighting. MacGeoghegan was hacked by Captain Power as he attempted to ignite the powder stores and blow up the cellar. All but three of those captured during the final assault were hanged in the market square in nearby Castletown Berehaven: of the remaining captives two were hanged on failing to give information, while Friar Dominic Collins was interrogated by Carew, who demanded he take the oath of supremacy prior to execution.
Collins was taken to his home town of Youghal - and hanged. After Dunboy fell, O'Sullivan went on a campaign of guerrilla warfare around West Cork, taking at least six castles. Faced with overwhelming odds and starvation, he set out on a tough march to join his allies in the north of Ireland, with 1000 men and children in his train. O'Sullivan's people were besieged by the elements throughout the long journey. On their arrival at the refuge of O'Rourke's castle in Leitrim, only 35 remained, many having died in battles or from exposure and hunger. Others had settled along the route, where their descendants are known to this date as'the Beres'. In Leitrim, O'Sullivan sought to join with other northern chiefs to fight the English and organised a force to this end, but resistance ended when the Earl of Tyrone sued for peace and swore an oath of loyalty to the English crown. O'Sullivan declined this option and sought exile in Spain, where he was murdered
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Battle of Moyry Pass
The Battle of Moyry Pass was fought during September and October 1600 in counties Armagh and Louth, in the north of Ireland, during the Nine Years' War. It was the first significant engagement of forces following the cessation of arms agreed in the previous year between the Irish leader Hugh O'Neill and the English Crown commander, the Earl of Essex; the battle was fought by the armies of O'Neill and Lord Mountjoy, a follower of the late Earl of Essex. Mountjoy was determined to pierce O'Neill's heartland in central and western Ulster by the Moyry Pass. In the course of a two-week assault the English troops established a garrison near Armagh, taking heavy casualties, Mountjoy retired with difficulty to Dundalk. Mountjoy's strategy for putting down O'Neill's rebellion was to constrict his territory in Ulster with a ring of fortified garrisons on the borders. To this end, he had landed seaborne forces at Derry in the north of the province and at Carrickfergus in the east of Ulster. In September 1600, Mountjoy moved north from Dublin and concentrated at Dundalk, in order to mount an expedition further into Ulster and re-establish a garrison at Armagh, which position had been evacuated by the English Crown forces after O'Neill's victory at the Battle of the Yellow Ford in 1598.
On 17 September 1600, Mountjoy set out from Dundalk, intending to march to Newry and on to Armagh. The Moyry Pass was the sole point of entry to Ulster, it had been well fortified by O'Neill with trenches and barricades. There were three lines of trenches, barricaded with earth and stone, on the flanks the Irish had made further earth and stone works and'plashed' the branches of low-growing trees in order to provide cover for themselves and prevent the English occupying the heights on either side of the Pass; the English reached the pass on 20 September and set up camp just outside, to the south on Faughart Hill. Taking advantage of a misty day on the 25th, an officer named Thomas Williams made a sortie into the pass. After heavy fighting he identified the Irish defence works and returned to the English camp with 12 dead and 30 wounded. For six days heavy rain held up the fighting; the weather was important. On 2 October, Sir Samuel Bagnall led his regiment of infantry into the Pass at the head of four other regiments.
The English breached the first barricade, Thomas Bourke's regiment led the way to the second and third lines of defence. The English took the second line only to find themselves in a trap, with gunfire concentrated from three sides, they tried to dislodge the Irish from their remaining positions for three more hours before retreating, with the Irish in close pursuit. The English admitted 46 killed and 120 wounded, but it is thought that they understated their losses throughout the campaign. On 5 October Mountjoy sent two regiments on a flanking march over the hill to the west, with one further regiment supported by horsemen advancing up the centre of the Pass. No significant gains were made and the regiments turned back, reporting casualties of 50 dead and 200 wounded. By 9 October the privy councillor Geoffrey Fenton complained, "we are now but where we were in the beginning". Mountjoy retired to Dundalk - on either 8 or 9 October - but on the 14th word reached the English camp that O'Neill had abandoned the Pass and retreated to a crannog stronghold at Lough Lurcan.
The most explanation for O'Neill's withdrawal from his position of strength is that he was short of ammunition and food and feared a flanking attack on his rear from Newry. Moreover, most of his forces were composed of temporary, clan-based levies, who could not be kept together for long. Mountjoy dismantled O'Neill's earthworks, he marched on to Carrickban, just outside Newry, by Sunday 2 November set up camp at Mountnorris. There he built an earthwork fort and left a garrison of 400 men under the command of Captain Edward Blaney, he marched back to Dundalk via Carlingford, but was attacked on 13 November by O'Neill, close to the Fathom Pass. Mountjoys men forced their way through and the Lord Deputy claimed the army lost 15–20 killed and 60–80 wounded, but a report suggested the losses were much heavier, with 80 killed The battle of Moyry Pass was a stalemate: Mountjoy could not take the Pass, O'Neill could not keep it. Mountjoy did establish a garrison at Mountnorris, but had to retire to Dundalk after taking substantial casualties.
Mountjoy claimed his force lost only 200 men killed and 400 wounded in the fighting from 20 September to 13 November, though this may be a considerable underestimate. More, died of disease; the Irish casualties were given by the English as an incredible 900–1200 killed and wounded, but this is questionable given that the Irish were in a strong defensive position of their own choosing, behind the protection of fieldworks and had lured the English into an ambush. These figures say more about what Mountjoy wanted the Queen to hear than about the actual casualty figures; the following year Mountjoy built Moyry Castle to secure the pass. G. A. HAyes McCoy, Irish Battles, Appletree Press, Belfast 1990. James O'Neill,'Breaking the heart of Tyrone's rebellion? A reassessment of Mountjoy's first campaigns un Ulster, May-November 1600', in Duiche Neill: The Journal of the O'Neill Country Historical Society, vol. 24, pp 18-37. James O'Neill, The Nine Years War, 1593-1603: O'Neill and the military revolution, Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2017.
John McCavitt, The Flight of the Earls, Gi